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101 AMERICAN SUPERSTITIONS PDF

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Language Series) By Harry Collis PDF EBOOK EPUB KINDLE Get Instant Access to American Superstitions: Understanding Language And Culture. Superstitions Language Series - [Free] American Superstitions Understanding Wed, 03 Apr GMT Culture of India - Wikipedia ( PDF). if you looking for where to download american superstitions or read online american superstitions. We offer free access AMERICAN.

Superstitions have a big influence on my life, especially in my study. For example when a black cat crosses my road, my day goes badly and I get bad marks. In my family my mother always says, Dont use broken dishes or mirror.

Top American Superstitions and Beliefs

And my father says not to sleep at twilight. My grandmother says me that long nails bring bad luck. An owl is a bad bird too. If it flies into a room it will cause a bad luck. Jumayeva Gulrux. There are different superstitions in different nationalities. People believe in them because superstitions affect their life. For example, when the black cat crosses your way, there can be an accident. This superstition is popular in many countries. Uzbek people believe that if they see a white snake or camel in their dreams they will be rich.

And I think the superstitions appeared at the time when peoples knowledge wasnt wide. Kasimov Davronbek I dont believe in superstitions.

It is in the peoples mind. They believe in it. Superstitions came into existence when it was the Stone Age. I think it was in African continent. Many millions of years ago when a person died other people put his weapon into his grave.

They thought that dead people could use their weapons in another life. For example, Uzbek people believe that if a man loses his knife it means a bad luck for him. If a traveler sees a baobab tree it means good luck for him. We asked him to share Uzbek superstitions which he had gathered while living in Uzbekistan. Uzbek Superstitions Dont turn bread upside down. Dont throw bread ever. Dont throw bread in the trash.

Dont cut your nails at night. Kiss or brush bread off if you drop it. Bread is used for healing. Dont eat with your left hand. Use the right foot to step into and out of a room.

Dont say omin with the knife on the table. Last cup of tea poured marries well and your mother in law will love you. Dont shake hands or talk through a doorway. Align your shoes for good luck.

Whistling at night and indoors is bad luck. Dont point at holy places, for example dont point at Mecca. Dont greet a person until they have washed up in the morning. Dont stand a broom straight up.

Dont put something spicy or salty in someones hand. The tea cup is placed into someones hand when passing out cups of tea to people.

When your palm itches you are going to get or spend money. If your ears get red someone is praising or talking badly about you. Dont lay the knife so the edge is upright. We asked 58 boys and girls two questions. This is the result of our survey: 1. Do you have any belief in superstitions? Do you think that a superstitious person is a logical one? Superstitions have a big influence on my life, especially in my study. For example when a black cat crosses my road, my day goes badly and I get bad marks.

In my family my mother always says, Dont use broken dishes or mirror. And my father says not to sleep at twilight. My grandmother says me that long nails bring bad luck. An owl is a bad bird too.

If it flies into a room it will cause a bad luck. Jumayeva Gulrux. There are different superstitions in different nationalities. People believe in them because superstitions affect their life. For example, when the black cat crosses your way, there can be an accident. This superstition is popular in many countries.

Uzbek people believe that if they see a white snake or camel in their dreams they will be rich. And I think the superstitions appeared at the time when peoples knowledge wasnt wide. Kasimov Davronbek I dont believe in superstitions. It is in the peoples mind. They believe in it. Superstitions came into existence when it was the Stone Age.

I think it was in African continent. Many millions of years ago when a person died other people put his weapon into his grave.

They thought that dead people could use their weapons in another life. For example, Uzbek people believe that if a man loses his knife it means a bad luck for him. If a traveler sees a baobab tree it means good luck for him. We asked him to share Uzbek superstitions which he had gathered while living in Uzbekistan.

Uzbek Superstitions Dont turn bread upside down. Dont throw bread ever. Dont throw bread in the trash. Dont cut your nails at night. Kiss or brush bread off if you drop it. Bread is used for healing. Dont eat with your left hand.

Use the right foot to step into and out of a room. Dont say omin with the knife on the table.

Last cup of tea poured marries well and your mother in law will love you. Dont shake hands or talk through a doorway. Align your shoes for good luck.

Whistling at night and indoors is bad luck. Dont point at holy places, for example dont point at Mecca. Dont greet a person until they have washed up in the morning.

Dont stand a broom straight up.

Dont put something spicy or salty in someones hand. Or still, you always look at football games according to the same ritual in hope it would bring luck to your team? If you answered positively one of these questions, you are probably a superstitious person … So are the sailors Alex Thomson and Mike Golding who voluntary threw the race and decided not to cross the finish line when about to win the prologue of a sailing race around the world.

Superstitious behaviours are frequent in sports, but can also influence consumer behaviour in other contexts for example lotteries, air travelling or life insurances. Of course, using superstition in order to influence consumer decisions and behaviours would not be ethical and even not allowed by law in certain countries.

Still, it is necessary for marketers to be familiar with superstitious beliefs in order to conceive commercial offers which would not violate local norms. What is superstition? In the literature, there are several definitions of superstition.

Most authors agree on the fact that superstitions are beliefs or behaviours that are contrary to rational norms within a specific society. It implies that superstitious behaviours cannot be interpreted or explained according to religious beliefs which are usually not considered as irrational by members of a given society Campbell, Superstitions are culturally anchored and differ according to countries.

For example Simmons and Schindler demonstrate that, in China, prices ending with the digit 8 are very common because there is a local belief that number 8 brings luck, prosperity, and happiness.

On the contrary, prices ending with the digit 4 are under-represented because this number brings bad luck. Definitions of superstition found in most dictionaries reflect the confusion that exists around this concept, and its multiple meanings.

In most of these definitions, the frontiers between superstition, the paranormal, witchcraft or even religion are vague. The purpose of the current research is to clarify the definition and the dimensions of superstition and to propose the adequate measurement scale.

Indian superstitions and the theories behind them: Not to be missed

We also discuss the usefulness of superstition in order to better understand how consumer decision making can sometimes be irrational. In a conditioning experiment with pigeons, Skinner shows that superstition results from a misleading interpretation of accidental contingencies. In his experiment, hungry pigeons were fed at regular intervals.

Skinner observed that the birds developed superstitious behaviours believing that by acting in a particular way, food would arrive. A pigeon might have been incidentally standing on one leg when receiving food, and even if this posture had nothing to do with food reward, the pigeon reinforced his behaviour hoping to get more food.

The pigeons seem to have thought that there was a causal link between their behaviour and the presentation of food. This is what Skinner and others authors Staddon and Simmelhag, ; Devenport and Holloway, call superstitious rituals which usually take place in contexts of uncertainty. This vision of superstition helps understand the mechanisms of superstition among Human Beings.

Superstition beliefs rely on a mistaken causal link between two phenomena that from a rational standpoint have nothing to do with one another.

For example, the superstition that black crows announce future misfortune is probably due to misinterpretations which come back to Middle Age of the presence of crows near dead bodies. There is a rational explanation for that. Crows have a keen sense of smell and are hence attracted by the smell of death.

That explanation was not known at that period of time and this is why the presence of crows near houses where someone had just died was interpreted as a subnormal phenomenon. We even noticed in our qualitative interviews that, when faced with rational criticisms, a superstitious person never answers back with rational arguments. We already mentioned it: superstition relies on a mistaken causal link between two independent facts. For example, the football player who always touches the grass with his left hand before the game starts links this behaviour to a highest probability of winning the game.

We cannot say that modern superstitious people really believe in the existence of those mistaken causal links. To call something superstition, some sort of fuzzy belief must exist.

This paradox between belief and non-belief is, according to Campbell, the main difference between modern and primitive superstition. When asked, superstitious people are unable to explain why they behave according to such or such ritual: they recognize that their behaviours cannot be justified. Half-belief is characterized by the fact that we intellectually reject a superstition but still, it continues to influence our thoughts and actions.

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As Campbell mentions, some people who would never define themselves as superstitious would avoid walking under a ladder when on the way to their wedding ceremony. This concept of half-belief will help us differentiate superstition and related but distinct concepts. Superstition and religion are distinct concepts because religion is precisely based on faith and on true belief in the existence of one or several gods.

The same applies for superstition and astrology since astrology relies on what is meant to be a science, according to which the position and the movements of celestial bodies influence life on Earth. It is interesting to note that both astrology and religion can be practiced in a superstitious way.

Finally, superstition must be distinguished from insanity. A psychotic patient who develops mystical or magical beliefs is not superstitious because those beliefs have a rational meaning for him and really exist in his world. At this stage of his development, the child feels his mind is very powerful. In adulthood, superstition might reappear in periods of distress through regression as a defence mechanism Piaget, The unconscious benefit of this regression is the illusion of an overpowered mind that can control the world.

According to Malinowski , superstitions are used to fight anxiety and distress by filling the psychological gap caused by uncertainty. Superstitious thoughts or behaviours are used as a substitution to instrumental acts that people would have liked to achieve in order to influence the situation. In highly uncertain and uncontrollable situations, such instrumental acts do not exist and the best thing to do is precisely do nothing, because nothing can be done to control the situation. Modern societies are characterised by their orientation toward action.

Our culture enhances the value of actions more than the value of inactions and we have a tendency to think that every problem has a solution as long as we dedicate enough efforts in that situation. Thus, it is very difficult for modern men to remain passive in the face of a stressful situation, because passivity goes against the core values of the society in which we live.

Superstitious rituals bring emotional reassurance because they allow us to feel active rather than passive, and because they protect this fundamental need in modern culture: orientation toward action.

According to Campbell , the practice of superstition is paradoxical. Our modern society enhances the value of actions, but also strongly believes in science and rational thinking. The modern man is faced with one contradiction: he can either act in a way that respects his values but not his beliefs, or act in a way that violates his values but respects his beliefs.

To solve that contradiction, individuals execute actions that have the characteristics of instrumentality, while refusing to admit that these actions can actually produce the desired effects.

Superstitious acts have a symbolic value: they help reaffirm the power of Human hand in the world in general. Superstition is a way of reassuring oneself in an uncontrollable situation by restating the belief in the capacity of Human Beings to control their environment.

Illusion of control is the common point among those three theories. Case and al.

Vocabulary

The more undermined or threatened is an event, the more people behave and think in a superstitious way. Development of a measure of superstition For several reasons, we think that there is a need for a reliable and valid measurement scale of superstition. Firstly, because when asked, most people answer that they are not superstitious. Even if superstition and astrology are to be distinguished, those results are interesting because they demonstrate that people are reluctant to admit their irrational beliefs, even if a great proportion of them do have such irrational thoughts or practices.

A multidimensional scale would help specify the variety of superstitious behaviours and contexts and would, as a result, be more reliable than existing measures. The second reason that justifies the need for a new scale is the lack of such an instrument in the literature. As can be noticed, this scale only measures negative popular superstitious beliefs.A black cat crosses our path and like a dead statue, we stop and wait for someone else to pass first.

Stricklend Tashkent Academic Lycee under UWED Uzbekistan Superstition is when people believe that something wrong or good may happen to them because of the special signs given by God, e. The pigeons seem to have thought that there was a causal link between their behaviour and the presentation of food. For example, some Americans believe if they carry a rabbits foot, they will have good luck.

Mark this lesson as a favorite and create a handy shortcut in your Favorite Lesson list! The Premium Lesson Checklist will help you stay organized and committed to your English language goals! In the literature, there are several definitions of superstition.

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