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PENELITIAN KUASI EKSPERIMEN EBOOK

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Buku ini membuat garis besar mengenai pendekatan eksperimental terhadap penelitian kausal yang dilakukan dalam seting lapangan. Buku ini ditujukan bagi . I'd like to recommend the place where everyone could probably find penelitian quasi eksperimen ebook download, but probably, you would. PDF | Problem-solving Teaching Strategy, Kolb Learning Styles, and Learning Achievement. This quasi Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuasi eksperimen.


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PDF | The Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) approach is an This research is quasi experiment with a primary school in the city of Kuningan. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimen kuasi (quasi. tujuan penelitian ini, desain quasi-eksperimental digunakan dengan melibatkan perlakuan (metode TPR untuk kelompok eksperimental, metode pdf. Edisonyusman. Teaching English for Young Learner. Retrieved April 9,. Improving Students' Listening Skill (A Quasi-experimental Study at The . ketrampilan mendengar siswa (Penelitian Kuasi-Eksperimen.

Therefore, I conduct the research namely a classroom action research to cope with the problem occurring in his classroom. Writing is one of English skills that must be mastered. Writing which was one considered the domain of elite and well educated has become an essential tool for people of walks of life in today global community Weigle, Having done the pre-research, it was obtained the students writing problems both in grammar and lexical resource. The data shows that grammar is 27, lexical resource is 30, coherence and cohesion is 37 and task achievement is 37 which means both grammar and lexical resource are still far from the criteria of success to achieve, Regarding to grammar, there are some errors which are made by the students especially in sentences and verb for example in present tense he very respect and in present perfect tense the darkness has hold the power.

The other one is part of speech, for example after become a champion and Ainun is beautiful girl. While another one lexical resource, the students errors in this indicator is mostly in spelling for example beautifull which should have been beautiful and the other one is diction for example he very loves his mother.

Subsequently, I am trying to look for and apply an appropriate technique that can overcome the problem. The technique is peer editing or peer correction.

This technique is part of collaborative method. The technique tends to focus on the process of learning writing.

Meanwhile the characteristics of this technique is: By the technique, the students are able to help each other to correct or edit their work. Cara Atasi Susah Makan Also, there is no time for them to play and chat. They are not be busy chatting anymore, but they can concentrate on their work and be busy correcting and editing their friends work as well.

The research instrument used test and observation. Test is used to know the scores of the students before the technique applied, during teaching and learning process and post test is used after the technique was applied. Obat Asam Urat Tradisional Paling Ampuh Meanwhile, observation is used to know the strength and the weaknesses of the technique and to know the class condition during implementation of the technique.

Method of the research is a classroom action research that is conducted in three cycles and each cycle consists of four meetings that includes planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

Here is the elaboration of the method used. McNiff and Whitehead He describes the steps in two cycles. The figure portrays planning, acting, observing, and reflecting then the cycle continues, showing a change in thinking as well as a change in action.

The change in thinking can also be called learning; openness to learning is a necessary condition for action research. Preparing the material, syllabus, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in conducting the action c.

Preparing list of students name and scoring d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation e. Preparing test 2. Acting The teacher implemented the action of the teaching writing by using peer editing technique.

Cara Atasi Susah Makan

In this step, the researcher implements the activities written in the lesson plan. Observing In this step, the collaborator observed the students activities Mei ISSN while teaching and learning process occurred. The result of the observation was recorded on observation sheets as the data. The collaborator also supported the researcher by suggesting and advising some ways in teaching process. Reflecting After carrying out the teaching process, the researcher recites the occurrence in classroom as the reflection of the action.

She evaluates the process and the result of the implementation of peer editing technique in writing class. The data of this research are two categories, such as quantitative and qualitative data.

In getting the quantitative data, the researcher carried out some activities. A test was conducted several times due to the action research that was done in some cycles. The test was done for a pre-test and post-test in every cycle.

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The test was scored based on the writing assessment enclosed in each lesson plan. However, another was collected by some techniques of qualitative data collection including: The data which were collected in the study consisting of the information gained in pre-research, the process and the result of action research implementation. The whole application of the data collection used in this study was summarized as follows: Observation The act of observing recognizes that live action provides powerful insights for researchers.

By doing observation, researcher can get document and reflect systematically upon classroom interaction, and events, as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. Document analysis Documents are really accessible source of data in action research.

In some cases the data collection would include studying documentary evidence such as policies, minutes of meetings, teachers planning records and students work Koshy, There is a wide range of documents that could be related to the research focus, including list of student s English score, lesson plans, classroom materials, forms of reflection, and result of questionnaires.

There are two kinds of data that were analysed, qualitative and quantitative data. According to Koshy Data reduction Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data that appear in the written up field notes or transcriptions.

The action researcher is continually engaged in data reduction throughout the enquiry until the conclusions are presented.

Jurnal Siliwangi Vol. 1. No.1. Nov ISSN Seri Pendidikan

Data display Data displays can include different types of graphs, charts and networks. The purpose is to make organised information into an immediately available, accessible, compact form so that the analyst can see what is Mei ISSN happening and either draw conclusions or move on to the next step of analysis which the display suggests to be useful. Conclusion drawing and verification In gathering the quantitative data, I used test.

Both pre-test and post-test are aimed to know whether students writing ability reached the progress or not. Then, the researcher analyzed it using descriptive statistics. The data from writing test was individual data, and the formulas are: Research Findings Based on my observation, the writing process of the students in English Department Siliwangi University where the writer teaches is still disorganized.

The writer s statement emerges after visiting one of the writing classes. The researcher found some situations in writing process which influence the learning process.

It can be seen in the table below: Grammar Lexical Resource Coherence and Cohesion Task Achievement To achieve successful learning, in writing class, it concerns on two aspects: The students statements about their attitude toward the implementation of peer editing in writing class 2.

The students involvement in class activities 3. The students responses during the implementation of peer editing in writing class The score of the students writing test Questionnaire Observation sheet including field note Writing Test Mei ISSN The Criteria of success Data source Instrument The average of all students is equal or above the minimum passing criterion, which is Implementation of Research In this part, findings of action research are explained consisting of three cycles having four stages: It is also clearly described each point of the cycle which was conducted by the researcher, and the result of test in each cycle resulted differently.

Cycle 1 1 Planning the Action Some preparations were initially done by the researcher and his partner, observer, before implementing the action, as follows: In the lesson plan, the technique used is peer editing. It has a topics implemented in this cycle, descriptive text which is explained in detail in the lesson plan.

The first meeting was about the explanation of peer editing and how to edit peer s work. These are expected not only to make them thorough in checking each other works, but also to motivate students to be critical.

And the purpose of the lesson is that the students are able to write well. However, the teacher focused on both in grammar and lexical resource as stated in the formulation of problem. The numerical data were obtained from the students writing score and some parts of observation sheet that consist numerical data.

The information showing the students attitude and the whole part of teaching learning activity during the implementation of peerediting represented in the verbal data. The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and Lexical competence 30, and compared to the result of post test in cycle I, there is an enhancement as it is described on the table below.

The result of post test shows that there are only five students reaching the criteria of success, It means that these students have successfully passed the test. However, they need to keep having this score until the next cycle which the researcher will conduct. The data on the students final products were obtained from the writing test after giving the students treatment four meetings. It was described in part of observation that there were 26 students having score under the criteria of success.

In other words, this problem has to be enhanced in order that those who reached low score can be better in the next test they face. Cycle 2 1 Planning the Action The instruments are also prepared consisting of some exercises and ended by writing test after this cycle has finished to be conducted. There are two major activities in the class. For one, the students are instructed to edit their friends works which had already been done at home.

Having done it, some of them were invited to present their editing guided by the teacher to avoid miss editing.

The observation sheets are also prepared in order to obtain a qualitative data from his collaborator, and it is given to collaborator every meeting. There are two kinds of data obtained from this sheet, as follows, numerical and verbal data. The purpose of the lesson is that the students are able to write well. The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and lexical competence 30 and compared to the result of post test in cycle I, there is an enhancement in it; moreover, in this cycle the result has enhanced too.

However, individually, there no students who had not reached its criteria, and it improves significantly compared to the previous cycle result. The result of post test shows that there are 30 students, reaching the criteria of success, 70 which means that these students have successfully passed the test. Compared to the previous result of test, it has a better result in which there were 26 students passing the test at that time.

Cycle 3 1 Planning the Action The instruments are also prepared consisting of some exercises and ended by writing test after this cycle has finished to be conducted. There are two major actitivities in the class similar to the previous cycle. The students are initially instructed to edit their friends works which had already been done at home.

After they had finished doing this activity, some of them were invited to present their editing guided by the teacher to avoid miss editing.

Jurnal Siliwangi Vol. The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and lexical competence 30, and compared to the result of test in cycle 1 and 2, this last cycle has the most satisfying result; in other words, none of the students reached under the criteria of success described at the beginning of this chapter.

The result of post test shows that there are all students, reaching the criteria of success, 70 which means that these students have successfully passed the post test. Mei ISSN The students improvement on each skill was gained through peer editing technique in writing process.

Besides, the technique has changed and created a new atmosphere in teaching and learning in writing class that can be seen from the students perspective on it. However, there are still a challenge in it that the teacher had better choose students peer appropriately, there are some students who are reluctant to correct, because they are afraid of breaking their friendship. According to Asifa Sultana In cycle I, the average score of post-test was grammar 36 and lexical competence 36, in cycle II each became grammar 40 and lexical competence 39, and in the cycle III each became the highest, grammar 41 and lexical competence Based on its enhancements score from first cycle to the last cycle, it can be concluded that peer editing in writing class can enhance students writing ablity, specifically their grammar and lexical resource.

The students are able to write grammatically. In teaching English, teachers should be creative in making the activity done in the classroom. Special thanks to the 81 11 assessor who has given his valuable constructive correction and input. May Allah pay for their kindness. The researcher expects that the paper would give beneficent for the readers and the writer himself.

Jakarta:Balai Pustaka, P. Oxford: Pergammon Press, P. Yogyakarta:Kanisius, P. London: Longman. Volume 24 No. The method used in this research was classroom action research and was conducted in three cycles from April 5 th until June 1 st The procedures included identifying problem and planning, implementing action, observing, and reflecting. Data of the research was analysed through two kinds of analysing data.

Quantitave data was analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative one was analysed through the following steps, data reduction, data display, drawing conclusion and verification. The results of all cycles conducted as follows; In cycle I, the average score of grammar was 36, lexical competence was In cycle II it became 40 for grammar, 39 for lexical competence.

In the cycle III it became 41 for grammar, 41 for lexical competence. Other findings show that the strenghts of peer editing when it is implemented in writing class, was the students gain independence and it is less threatening than teacher feedback. Keywords: Peer Editing, Writing, Grammar and Lexical Competence Abstrak; Penelitian ini bertujuan apakah peer editing bisa meningkatkan: 1 tata bahasa dan kosa kata pada mata kuliah menulis di semester IV Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Siliwangi, mengingat masih banyak siswa yang mendapatkan nilai di bawah KKM disebabkan lemahnya penguasaan siswa dalam dua indikator tersebut; dan 2 mengetahui kelebihan dan kekurangan dari teknik peer editing di dalam kelas menulis.

Ada dua jenis data yang dikumpulkan yaitu kuantitatif dan kualitatif data. Kuantitatif data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistics deskripsi sedangkan data kualitatif dianalisis dengan menggunakan data reduksi, data display, pengambilan kesimpulan dan verifikasi.

Mei ISSN Hasilnya adalah sebagai berikut; putaran pertama indikator tata bahasa mencapai nilai 36 dan kosakata juga mendapatkan Pada putaran kedua nilai tata bahasa meningkat menjadi 40 dan kosakata Pada putaran terakhir tata bahasa mencapai nilai 41 dan kosakata mencapai nilai Di sini terlihat bahwa ada peningkatan di setiap putaran. Penemuan lainnya adalah peer editing ternyata membuat siswa lebih mandiri dan menumbuhkan persaingan yang sehat diantara mereka.

Adapun kekurangannya, ada beberapa siswa yang merasa ragu-ragu dan takut menyakiti perasaan temannya ketika dia harus membetulkan hasil tulisan temannya.

Perbedaan pengetahuan juga menimbulkan adanya kesalahan-kesalahan dalam menyunting. Dealing with teaching and learning writing, there are still many problems and handicaps to face by both the learners and teachers though many models, methods, and techniques have been applied by the teacher to improve the quality of teaching and learning and solve the problem in it. Therefore, I conduct the research namely a classroom action research to cope with the problem occurring in his classroom. Writing is one of English skills that must be mastered.

Writing which was one considered the domain of elite and well educated has become an essential tool for people of walks of life in today global community Weigle, x. Having done the pre-research, it was obtained the students writing problems both in grammar and lexical resource. The data shows that grammar is 27, lexical resource is 30, coherence and cohesion is 37 and task achievement is 37 which means both grammar and lexical resource are still far from the criteria of success to achieve, Regarding to grammar, there are some errors which are made by the students especially in sentences and verb for example in present tense he very respect and in present perfect tense the darkness has hold the power.

The other one is part of speech, for example after become a champion and Ainun is beautiful girl. While another one lexical resource, the students errors in this indicator is mostly in spelling for example beautifull which should have been beautiful and the other one is diction for example he very loves his mother.

Subsequently, I am trying to look for and apply an appropriate technique that can overcome the problem. The technique is peer editing or peer correction. This technique is part of collaborative method. The technique tends to focus on the process of learning writing. Meanwhile the characteristics of this technique is: 1 identifying the features of good and poor writing in the work of others; 2 developing critical evaluation skills that the students can apply to their own writing; 3 building 84 14 Jurnal Siliwangi Vol.

By the technique, the students are able to help each other to correct or edit their work. Also, there is no time for them to play and chat. They are not be busy chatting anymore, but they can concentrate on their work and be busy correcting and editing their friends work as well. The research instrument used test and observation.

Test is used to know the scores of the students before the technique applied, during teaching and learning process and post test is used after the technique was applied. Meanwhile, observation is used to know the strength and the weaknesses of the technique and to know the class condition during implementation of the technique.

Method of the research is a classroom action research that is conducted in three cycles and each cycle consists of four meetings that includes planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

Here is the elaboration of the method used. McNiff and Whitehead draws a modelas figure 1. He describes the steps in two cycles. The figure portrays planning, acting, observing, and reflecting then the cycle continues, showing a change in thinking as well as a change in action. The change in thinking can also be called learning; openness to learning is a necessary condition for action research.

Adapted from McNiff and Whitehead , the procedure of each step can be explained as follows: 1. Planning The activities are: a. Pre-observation toward the teaching writing class at first semester in English department FKIP Siliwangi university b. Preparing the material, syllabus, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in conducting the action c. Preparing list of students name and scoring d.

Preparing sheets for classroom observation e. Preparing test 2. Acting The teacher implemented the action of the teaching writing by using peer editing technique.

In this step, the researcher implements the activities written in the lesson plan. Observing In this step, the collaborator observed the students activities 85 15 Jurnal Siliwangi Vol. Mei ISSN while teaching and learning process occurred. The result of the observation was recorded on observation sheets as the data. The collaborator also supported the researcher by suggesting and advising some ways in teaching process.

Reflecting After carrying out the teaching process, the researcher recites the occurrence in classroom as the reflection of the action. She evaluates the process and the result of the implementation of peer editing technique in writing class. The data of this research are two categories, such as quantitative and qualitative data.

In getting the quantitative data, the researcher carried out some activities. A test was conducted several times due to the action research that was done in some cycles.

The test was done for a pre-test and post-test in every cycle. The test was scored based on the writing assessment enclosed in each lesson plan. However, another was collected by some techniques of qualitative data collection including: observation, document analysis, questionnaire, and interview. The data which were collected in the study consisting of the information gained in pre-research, the process and the result of action research implementation.

The whole application of the data collection used in this study was summarized as follows: 1. Observation The act of observing recognizes that live action provides powerful insights for researchers. By doing observation, researcher can get document and reflect systematically upon classroom interaction, and events, as they actually occur rather than as we think they occur. Document analysis Documents are really accessible source of data in action research. In some cases the data collection would include studying documentary evidence such as policies, minutes of meetings, teachers planning records and students work Koshy, There is a wide range of documents that could be related to the research focus, including list of student s English score, lesson plans, classroom materials, forms of reflection, and result of questionnaires.

There are two kinds of data that were analysed, qualitative and quantitative data. According to Koshy , there are some steps in analyzing qualitative data: 1. Data reduction Data reduction refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data that appear in the written up field notes or transcriptions. The action researcher is continually engaged in data reduction throughout the enquiry until the conclusions are presented.

Data display Data displays can include different types of graphs, charts and networks.

The Effectiveness of Using English Teens Magazine towards Students Reading Interest

The purpose is to make organised information into an immediately available, accessible, compact form so that the analyst can see what is 86 16 Jurnal Siliwangi Vol.

Mei ISSN happening and either draw conclusions or move on to the next step of analysis which the display suggests to be useful. Conclusion drawing and verification In gathering the quantitative data, I used test. Both pre-test and post-test are aimed to know whether students writing ability reached the progress or not.

Then, the researcher analyzed it using descriptive statistics. Research Findings Based on my observation, the writing process of the students in English Department Siliwangi University where the writer teaches is still disorganized. The writer s statement emerges after visiting one of the writing classes.

The researcher found some situations in writing process which influence the learning process. It can be seen in the table below: Grammar Lexical Resource Coherence and Cohesion Task Achievement To achieve successful learning, in writing class, it concerns on two aspects: the teaching learning writing process and the students performance and it is described in the table in the following table.

The students statements about their attitude toward the implementation of peer editing in writing class 2. The students involvement in class activities 3. The students responses during the implementation of peer editing in writing class The score of the students writing test Questionnaire Observation sheet including field note Writing Test 87 17 Jurnal Siliwangi Vol.

Mei ISSN The Criteria of success Data source Instrument The average of all students is equal or above the minimum passing criterion, which is Implementation of Research In this part, findings of action research are explained consisting of three cycles having four stages: planning, implementing the action, observing, and reflecting. It is also clearly described each point of the cycle which was conducted by the researcher, and the result of test in each cycle resulted differently.

Cycle 1 1 Planning the Action Some preparations were initially done by the researcher and his partner, observer, before implementing the action, as follows: lesson plans, instruments, observation sheets, and writing exercises for the students. In the lesson plan, the technique used is peer editing. It has a topics implemented in this cycle, descriptive text which is explained in detail in the lesson plan.

The first meeting was about the explanation of peer editing and how to edit peer s work.

Jurnal Siliwangi Vol. 1. No.1. Nov ISSN Seri Pendidikan

These are expected not only to make them thorough in checking each other works, but also to motivate students to be critical. And the purpose of the lesson is that the students are able to write well.

However, the teacher focused on both in grammar and lexical resource as stated in the formulation of problem. The numerical data were obtained from the students writing score and some parts of observation sheet that consist numerical data. The information showing the students attitude and the whole part of teaching learning activity during the implementation of peerediting represented in the verbal data.

The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and Lexical competence 30, and compared to the result of post test in cycle I, there is an enhancement as it is described on the table below. Mei ISSN Reflecting The criteria of success deals with two points: students writing achievements and teaching writing process. The result of post test shows that there are only five students reaching the criteria of success, It means that these students have successfully passed the test.

However, they need to keep having this score until the next cycle which the researcher will conduct. The data on the students final products were obtained from the writing test after giving the students treatment four meetings.

It was described in part of observation that there were 26 students having score under the criteria of success. In other words, this problem has to be enhanced in order that those who reached low score can be better in the next test they face.

Cycle 2 1 Planning the Action The instruments are also prepared consisting of some exercises and ended by writing test after this cycle has finished to be conducted. There are two major activities in the class. For one, the students are instructed to edit their friends works which had already been done at home. Having done it, some of them were invited to present their editing guided by the teacher to avoid miss editing.

The observation sheets are also prepared in order to obtain a qualitative data from his collaborator, and it is given to collaborator every meeting.

There are two kinds of data obtained from this sheet, as follows, numerical and verbal data. The purpose of the lesson is that the students are able to write well. The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and lexical competence 30 and compared to the result of post test in cycle I, there is an enhancement in it; moreover, in this cycle the result has enhanced too.

However, individually, there no students who had not reached its criteria, and it improves significantly compared to the previous cycle result.

Mei ISSN 4 Reflecting The criteria of success deals with two points: students writing achievements and teaching writing process. The result of post test shows that there are 30 students, reaching the criteria of success, 70 which means that these students have successfully passed the test. Compared to the previous result of test, it has a better result in which there were 26 students passing the test at that time.

Cycle 3 1 Planning the Action The instruments are also prepared consisting of some exercises and ended by writing test after this cycle has finished to be conducted. There are two major actitivities in the class similar to the previous cycle. The students are initially instructed to edit their friends works which had already been done at home.

After they had finished doing this activity, some of them were invited to present their editing guided by the teacher to avoid miss editing. However, the teacher focused either in grammar or lexical resource as stated in the formulation of problem.

The average of writing in the pre-test which has been obtained is grammar 27 and lexical competence 30, and compared to the result of test in cycle 1 and 2, this last cycle has the most satisfying result; in other words, none of the students reached under the criteria of success described at the beginning of this chapter. The clear and more detail results will be drawn into the following paragraphs Grammar Table 5 Post Test Summary Lexical Resource Aspects Coherence and Cohesion Task Achievement Reflecting The criteria of success deals with two points: students writing achievements and teaching writing process.

The result of post test shows that there are all students, reaching the criteria of success, 70 which means that these students have successfully passed the post test. Mei ISSN The students improvement on each skill was gained through peer editing technique in writing process.

Besides, the technique has changed and created a new atmosphere in teaching and learning in writing class that can be seen from the students perspective on it. However, there are still a challenge in it that the teacher had better choose students peer appropriately, there are some students who are reluctant to correct, because they are afraid of breaking their friendship. According to Asifa Sultana 13 , Some students might feel reluctant to correct their friends errors because correcting friends errors might harm their relationship.

In cycle I, the average score of post-test was grammar 36 and lexical competence 36, in cycle II each became grammar 40 and lexical competence 39, and in the cycle III each became the highest, grammar 41 and lexical competence Based on its enhancements score from first cycle to the last cycle, it can be concluded that peer editing in writing class can enhance students writing ablity, specifically their grammar and lexical resource. The students are able to write grammatically.

In teaching English, teachers should be creative in making the activity done in the classroom. They can vary their teaching methods.

One of them is peer editing because it can position the students at the center stage. They become more independent in joining the class.

It is appropritate for all levels, but the point they need to highlight here is that the students skill have to be balance. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint, p. Paul Chapman Publishing, p.The result of post test shows that there are 30 students, reaching the criteria of success, 70 which means that these students have successfully passed the test.

Salim Sulaeman and Mrs. The collaborator also supported the researcher by suggesting and advising some ways in teaching process. The objective of this study is to find out the usage of English teen magazine as the alternative learning media for reading will be effective towards students reading interest.

Contrastive analysis is the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identify their structural differences and similarities. They become more independent in joining the class.

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