LEAN PRODUCTION SIMPLIFIED PDF
Lean Production Simplified - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online for free. Book details Author: Pascal Dennis Pages: pages Publisher: Routledge Language: English ISBN ISBN [DOWNLOAD] PDF The Innovator s DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive [PDF] DOWNLOAD How to Become a Rainmaker: The. Editorial Reviews. From the Publisher. IN STOCK! About the Author. Pascal Dennis, myavr.info, myavr.info, is a professional engineer, author, and president of Lean .
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Lean Production Simplified, 2nd Edition is a plain language guide to the lean production system written for the practitioner by a practitioner. 4 days ago Powerful Production System - [Free] Lean Production Simplified Third Guide To The Worlds Most Powerful Production System [PDF] [EPUB]?. Following in the tradition of its Shingo Prize-winning predecessors, Lean Production Simplified, Third DownloadPDF MB Read online.
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You can check your reasoning as you tackle a problem using our interactive solutions viewer. Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available. But as Neil Young has observed, things tend to fall apart. This is the second law of thermodynamics or Murphy's Law. How are we going to maintain our good condition?
We must develop and apply standards for Sl to S3. Once we have done that, we have to develop standards for how we do our work. This is standardized work, our playbook, so to speak. Remember that the best standards are clear, simple, and visual. Effective standards make the out-of-standard condition obvious. For example, a tool shadow board is a standard that tells us: A production. It also tells us whether our production is ahead or behind. If the production kanbans start to pile up, we are behind and everyone will know that there is a problem in our process.
Red-tag targets, frequency, and responsibilities. Disposal procedures. What signboards should look like and where they should be posted. What different colors mean. Where people can walk. Dangerous areas. What protective clothing is required. What equipment signage and footprints should look like. S3 shine and inspect standards should tell us: What to clean and inspect. How to clean and inspect. Who cleans and when. Who is responsible for making sure that a given area is cleaned and inspected.
We should also have a standardized approach to measuring our 5S condition. This usually means a 5S scorecard tailored to our workplace and a standard checking schedule. Measurement never fails. Finally, we should make 55 part of our standardized work.
For example, we could implement five-minute, end-of-shift Thus, employees would hand over their work area in a good condition to the next shift. Involvement is the key. Promotion, communication, and training are the means. Set up a central report board that shows 55 targets, current status, 55 "catch of the month," and before and after photographs. Recognize excellent 5S work.
Have the president present the team member with a token of appreciation e. Post it on 5S report boards and the company intranet. Involve team members in giving their activity a unique identity. At one company, team members came up with the term WOw, for War on Waste, and a corresponding graphic.
This team is responsible for sustaining 5S. Ask for a volunteer from each plant operating area. Provide any required support such as copying, word-processing, computer access, and a promotional budget.
Determine who gets what level of training, then provide it. Here is a basic training plan: It introduces team mernbers to the language of lean production and lays the foundation for all future activity.
Total Productive Maintenance The performance standard is zero breakdowns. Seiidti 1taMjima. TPM assigns basic maintenance work such as inspection, cleaning, lubricating, and tightening to production team members. This frees up m. Accurate data is essential, But some managers feel that time spent by workers measuring machine performance is time wasted. Some companies do not even record equipment failure downtime unless it exceeds thirty minutes.
A minority measures speed losses. At Toyota I learned that focus is everything in maintenance. Thus, we need accurate equipment operation records, and not just of downtime. Fortunately, technological advances have made this data much more accessible. For a relatively small investment, most companies can readily generate mean time to repair MTTR , mean time between failure MTBF , and other useful data for their critical equipment.
Once we have identified our hot spots we can back them up with manual processes or additional buffers. This in turn gives LlS the time we need to. Only thus can we escape the endless firefighting that afflicts most maintenance efforts. The Six Big Losses TPM entails involving all team members to eliminate the six big losses that downgrade machine effectiveness.
They are: Equipment breakdowns. Setup and adjustment delays e. Idling and minor stoppages-the machine is being run but no product is processed. Reduced speed-the actual machine speed is less than the design speed. Process defects e.
Reduced yield e. Many companies do not track OEE. They would be shocked if they did. The average company has an OEE of less than 50 percent. In other words, equipment is being used at less than half Its effectiveness. How can this be? Well, most companies have a reasonable idea of their machine availability. Breakdowns are dramatic events that get everyone's attention, but minor stoppages are rarely tracked.
Lean Production Simplified: A Plain-Language Guide to the World's Most Powerful Production System
And the minor or hidden failures that cause no immediate function loss are almost never tracked. Speed or Hidden Losses These are the most difficult to track. For example, a machine's motor is running, but no product is being processed because: A machine downstream is down "blocked".
We are out of parts "starved" , The machine is out of adjustment and must be readjusted. A sensor is misaligned and must be reset.
Accordingly, we should organize our maintenance activities around the life cycle of the equipment, which typically follows the so-called bathtub curve shown in Figure 3. Start-up Failures Design and manufacturing errors Trial runs; equipment commissioning process.
Operational errors; minor and hidden failures Check and track minor and hidden failures; make countermeasures. The Machine Loss Pyramid To understand machine losses better, let us borrow a concept from safety management.
Herbert Heinrich, in his landmark text, Industrial Accident Prevention, proposed that for every serious injury, there were 10 minor injuries, 30 property damage incidents but no personal injury , and near misses. A similar concept applies to machine losses Figure 3. The absolute numbers are less important than the concept. Let us define our terms: What does the figure tell us? Breakdown function loss incidents are merely the tip of the iceberg.
Minor stoppages function deterioration may be more important than breakdowns. There are probably hundreds of minor and hidden failures for every machine breakdown. To prevent breakdowns, we must track and prevent these hundreds of minor and hidden failures.
The early signs that may foreshadow an accident, which I have ca1led hidden and minor failures, are called warusa-kagen in Japanese. These are anomalies that do not cause any function loss but whose detection helps prevent breakdowns and improves our understanding of our equipment.
Minor anomalies often fail to attract our attention. When driving a car, for example, we might ignore a strange noise in the car's motor, as long as the car is running well. We might wait for the breakdown before responding.
TPM means listening and watching for anomalies and taking action before the breakdown. Masaaki Imai describes a production unit at the Tokai Rika plant in Japan where machinists are encouraged to report all warusa-ieagen or "quasi-problems. Its overwhelming success helped propel the plant to industry leadership in safety and machine effectiveness. We typically received thousands of Take Actions every year.
How do we use these insights to support our TPM activities? Small-Group Activity We need to involve production team members in checking, reporting, and, where possible, correcting hidden failures and minor stoppages.
We need to develop checksheets for each major piece of equipment and a system to track and make visible our condition. Figure 3. Ideally, production and maintenance team members develop these jointly. Once we have identified our hot spots we can strengthen them by involving our team members in kaizen circles, practical kaizen training, and other small group activity.
Thus, we: Our long-term implementation strategy should incorporate this image. Summary 5S and TPM are two keys to achieving production stability. Visual management means managing by exceptions. In a visual workplace out-of-standard conditions are immediately obvious and can be quickly corrected.
TPM targets the six big losses that afflict equipment. The Machine Loss Pyramid concept highlights the importance of the identifying hidden and minor losses early on. By involving our production team members in checking and improving equipment performance we harvest substantial benefits.
Lean companies confirm parts and raw materials using the well-developed techniques of quality management. Who can possibly keep track of, let alone understand, such standards? Phillip Howard has argued that when the law i. Warner Books, ]. More in Chapter 5. Say it isn't seiso,joe. PHP Institute, TPM Press, AtToyota I came to understand that: Even our best processes are rife with muda. Therefore, standardized work constantly changes.
Sadly, in many organizations standardization becomes a straitjacket-sanother instrument of command and control management. We need to deepen our understanding of standardization. Methods Engineering versus lean Thinking Fred Taylor introduced the "single best way" concept a century ago.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth refined the concept and developed the tools of methods engineering that industrial engineers still use.
Industrial engineering practice is based on the following unwritten assumptions: There is a single best way and the engineers will find it.
Workers are not involved in designing the work or making improvements. Standards rarely change and only the experts can change theml.? These ideas were important breakthroughs a century ago but have outlived their usefulness.
What Do We Have to Manage? Let us take a systems view Figure 4. Our goal is to provide a required level of output goods or services that meets our expectations and those of our customer for PQCDSM: Our tools are the 4 Ms: Standardized work is a tool for developing, confirming, and improving our method processes. A process is simply a set of steps or actions with a clearly defined goal. Maximize Utilization of Machines or People? Many of us have been taught that to improve efficiency we must improve machine utilization.
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We must reconsider. To maximize machine utilization we must: In other words, we must engage in wasteful activities. By contrast, Toyota seeks to maximize the utilization of people. For example, an operator can: The corollary is that small simple machines are generally preferable to big complex ones "monuments" because they are: If demand is halved, we can idle the machine half the time at low cost. Labor Density Thus, in the lean system standardized work is focused on human movement.
We seek to develop people-centered processes that flow smoothly and safely. Our measure of efficiency is labor density defined as follows.
Customer demand determines the numerator. Toyota's approach is to continually reduce the denominator. Process stability. Stability means repeatability. We need to meet our productivity, quality, cost, lead time, safety, and environmental every time. Clear stop and start points for each process. These and knowledge of our takt, that is, our pace of production rationalised with our rate of sales and cycle times allow us to see our production condition at a glance.
Are we ahead or behind? Is there a problem?
Organizational learning. Standardized work preserves know-how and expertise. If a veteran employee leaves, we won't lose his or her expenence. Audit and problem solving.
Standardized work allows us to assess our current condition and identify problems. Checkpoints and vital process steps are easy to track. We are able to ask important questions: Employee involvement and poka-yolee. In the lean system team members develop standardized work, supported by supervisors and engineers. Moreover, team members identify opportunities for sim.
Kaizen, Our processes are mainly muda. Once we have achieved process stability, we are ready to improve. Standardized work provides the baseline against which we measure improvement 7.
Standardized work provides a basis for employee training. Once operators are familiar with standardized work formats, it becomes second nature for them to do the job according to standards.
Vital steps and checkpoints serve as constant reminders. Because process training is easier, we can more easily respond to changes in demand and the corresponding changes in takt time and process steps.
We cannot work to standards when there are continuous and slowdowns. Here are common sources of instability: Quality problems with incoming parts. Problems with machinery, jigs, or tools. Parts shortages. A less than full condition which means that the team member may have to wait for a part to work on. Lean activities support stability. Machine stability requires 5S and TPM. Quality is strengthened with jidoka. Just-in-time techniques attack parts shortage problems.
The Elements of Standardized Work Standardized work comprises three elements: Takt Time Takt time tells us our demand frequency, or how frequently we must produce a product, and can be calculated as follows: For example, if our daily order is units and we operate two minute shifts, our takt time would be: Takt Time and Cycle Time Takt time differs from cycle time, which is the actual time it takes to do the process. Our goal is to synchronize takt time and cycle time, to the greatest extent possible.
This allows us to integrate processes into cells in support of our goal of one-at-a-time production. A cell is an arrangement of people, machines, materials, and methods such that processing steps are adjacent in sequential order so that parts can be processed one at a time or in some cases in a consistent small batch that is maintained through the process sequence. The purpose of a cell is to achieve and maintain efficient continuous flow which is discussed in Chapter 5. Takt time also allows us to grasp our production condition at a glance.
For example, if takt time is 1 minute, we should see a product moving past us every minute. This shared understanding motivates quick countermeasures, to get the line moving again, and a kaizen, to eliminate the root cause of the problem. Work Sequence The work sequence defines the order in which the work is done in a given process.
For example, the team member might have to:. Pick up the part. Walk to the machine. Place the part in the machine and process the part. Take the part to the next machine.
We have to clearly define the best way to do each job action and the proper sequence. At Toyota, where possible, we used pictures and drawings to show: How the hands and feet should move.
How to hold the tools. Accumulated know-how or the nicks and knacks of the job. Critical quality or safety items. I found that our team members had confidence in standardized work developed in this way. In-Process Stock In-process stock is the rrurumum required for the operator to complete of a machine. The determining factor a certain number of pieces on hand. Quality checks require additional work pieces. Temperatures must fall before the next operation can commence. Machinery cycles automatically.
Machine operation is in reverse order of the processes. WIP standards per. Defining in-process stock establishes work-in-process process, and again, makes abnormalities obvious. Charts Used to Define Standardized Work Our team members develop standardized work supported and other experts as required. Three charts are used: Each is a tool for analyzing improvement points.
Production Capacity Chart This chart determines the capacity of the machines in a process. It documents machine and manual times and allows us to identify bottlenecks at a glance. Production capacity for a given machine is calculated using the following formula:. Setup for a punch press might include changing the die, adjusting the machine settings and loading a new coil of steeL The interval refers to the frequency of setup in terms of number of parts.
Figure 4. The production capacity of the drilling machine used in process 2 may be calculated as follows: Standardized Work Combination Table This chart shows: Time per work element. Operator and machine time. The interaction between operators and machines or between different operators. The chart makes kaizen easier by breaking down the movements of the operator and relating them to machine time.
Standardized Work Analysis Chart This chart helps to rationalize layout and to train workers. It comprises:. The work layout. Process steps and times. Critical quality and safety items. Standardized WIP stock. Picking up a bolt and installing it on a work piece is a group of actions, which advances the process. Pictures and photos highlighting key points. Revision record. I have found the JES to be invaluable for recording the nicks and knacks of the job-the learning points gathered over years by team members.
The JES is a useful intermediate step on the journey to standardized work. Time Measurement Time measurement entails breaking a process into its elements and measuring the instant each element starts and stops. Here are the required steps: Become familiar with the process area and its surroundings. Draw the process area layout. Show the work sequence. Write the work elements. Measure total cycle time at least ten times. Measure the time for each work element at least ten times. Identity and measure irregular work e.
Write the standardized work analysis chart and standardized combination table. At Toyota I learned that simple time measurement can reveal much about the current condition of a workplace.
Are we ahead? Are we behind? How repeatable is our process? Do we have too many machines? How much value-added work is in our process?
Manpower Reduction The tools of standardized work help us improve efficiency by identifying value and waste in a process. Efficiency may be defined as follows: At Toyota I learned that because output is fixed by the customer, the only way for us to improve efficiency was to reduce manpower. Workers released thereby were reassigned.
Lean Production Simplified: A Plain-Language Guide to the World's Most Powerful Production System
Process problems that cause instability Changeover: Product-related; changing from one product or part to another Periodic Work: Process-related e. Value-added work, muda, incidental work changeable and not changeable. Improvements are based on a deep understanding of what is actually happening in each process. The kaizen activity for this process has reduced its cycle time from to 82 seconds.
Figures 4. As you can see, we have eliminated process 6. Note that processes 1 to 5 are "full" in the sense that cycle times equal takt time.
Process 5, by contrast, constitutes about 50 percent of our takt time. We will seek further kaizen to eliminate this process. In the interim, by rebalancing in this manner we make visible the muda of waiting and motivate kaizen. Manpower Reduction at Toyota At Toyota I found that workers whose processes disappeared due to rebalancing were often reassigned to kaizen teams. These assignments were prized because they were a welcome change from production, a good way to get promoted, and fun.
Thus, manpower reduction came to be viewed positively. Overall Efficiency versus Individual Efficiency Standardized work can help us develop an efficient process. But our goal is overall efficiency.
In fact, a process that outstrips neighboring processes creates inventory muda because WIP builds in front of slower processes. Do not add extra operator yet. After two weeks of operation and kaizen, reevaluate whether enough waste and incidental work can be removed.
Add an extra operator if necessary and keep reducing waste and incidental work to eventually elminate the need for that operator. Nonetheless, some processes are invariably easier to do than others.
How do we promote cooperation between processes within a production area? The answer is to design standardized work for a production area such that: Organizing work in this manner improves throughput.
A typical manufacturing plant compri es dependent processes in series, each subject to statistical fluctuations. In Tile Goal Eli Goldratt vividly illustrates the challenges such a system faces: Taiichi Ohno emphasized that machines must not be placed around team members like cages in a zoo. It should be easy for team members to communicate and help each other. Ohno likened this sort of teamwork to a relay race on land, where the faster runner can support the slower runner in the baton zone.
Such cooperation enhances efficiency and esprit de corps. Hence, Goldratt argues, we must: Identify our bottlenecks. Decide how to exploit the bottlenecks. Elevate the bottlenecks. Arranging processes such that team members can help each other automatically elevates our bottlenecks. Standardized Work and Kaizen Standardized work is a process whose goal is kaizen.
If standardized work doesn't change, we are regressing. The leader's responsibility is to maintain a good condition and to improve. Sometimes kaizen opportunities are obvious. These include obvious muda such as recurring defects, machine breakdowns, or excessive WIP Hard-to-do work murr or unevenness mura are other obvious targets. The following sections describe design guidelines that can help us find kaizen opportunities.
Maintain appropriate body posture. Avoid vertical part movement. Common Layouts We typically encounter four layouts: Connected islands. Connected islands with full-work control. Islands Island processes are isolated from one another. Forklifts move piles of inventory between islands. Often workers in each island build as fast as they can regardless of actual demand.
Connected Islands Conveyors or chutes connect islands. There is no mechanism to control the amount of inventory on conveyors. Workers typically build as fast as they can. A visual device controls the amount of inventory between processes. The upstream process stops producing when the downstream process is full. Cells Machines are side by side.
There is minimal inventory between machines. Ideally, one piece is made at a time. As soon as a piece is processed, it moves to the next process. Summary Standardized work is a process whose goal is to identify muda so that we can continually improve through team member involvement.
Lean production and methods engineering differ substantially in their approach to standardized work. I have described the elements of standardized work and the various associated charts. Through standardized work we can improve labor. Still difficult to adjust to demand changes. Somewhat less WIP as much as conveyor can hold.
The Benefit of Cells Great advantages can be realized when a team works in a cell. Mass production also proved a fertile environment for a successful union movement.
The division of labor resulted in meaningless, mind-numbing work. Workers, like machines, were considered to be interchangeable. Moreover, workers were considered a variable cost and could be jettisoned with any downturn of sales. After almost a decade of labor unrest, the United Auto Workers signed agreements with what had become the Big Three in the late s.
These agreements recognized the respective roles of management and the union as well as the nature of mass production work. The main issues were job seniority and job rights. As sales went through their periodic downturns, workers were laid off in terms of seniority, not competence.
Lean Production Simplified
Seniority also governed job assignments, the senior workers getting the easier jobs. This resulted in a never-ending battle over job rights and highly restrictive work rules that reduced the overall efficiency of the system.
The polarization between management and the shop floor was complete. This is traditional mass production. The system marched to victory after victory for decades.
But there were signs of trouble. Growing Dysfunction Traditional mass production had its problems. Workers hated it: nobody wanted to be at the plant. Unions continually fought to reduce working hours. There was little sense of partnership between the company and its workers.
Quality Quality took a backseat to production, and defect rates were very high by current standards. Workers were not involved in the organization of the work. They routinely withheld information that might improve the process. End- of-line inspection became the norm. Quality specialists checked the finished products and an army of repair technicians fixed the substandard products. Machinery Machinery became larger and larger in pursuit of scale economies.
Stamping machines, for example, often specialized in stamping a single part. To justify the massive expense of the machinery, the accounting pro- fession developed cost accounting principles that emphasized unit, rather than overall, efficiency.
This encouraged batch production, and the buildup of huge work-in- progress and finished goods inventories even if there were no customers to buy them. These appeared as assets on company balance sheets, despite the enormous amounts of cash they absorbed. The emphasis became to keep the machine running at all costs. Batch production also created qual- ity problems: a defect would be replicated throughout the batch before it was caught. Mass production also sowed the seeds of dysfunction in the engineering profession.
Just as shop floor labor was minutely divided, so too was the work of engineers. As products became more and more complex, engineer- ing branched into myriad specialities. Engineers had less and less to say to other engineers outside their subspecialties.
This led to design problems: the less engineers talked to one another, the longer it took to bring a product from design to production.How many? And we seek to involve our team mem. At Toyota, by contrast, I found that our efforts proceeded organically, guided by the question: Red Tagging Define what you need to meet your production objectives and dear out everything else.
Problem: How best to move kg load with a forklift having a capacity of kg?