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Industrial Stoichiometry (Lewis, Warren K.; Radasch, Arthur H.) H. L. Olin. J. Chem. View: PDF | PDF w/ Links. Related Hi-Res PDF · Industrial stoichiometry. Industrial Stoichiometry (Lewis, Warren K.; Radasch, Arthur H.) H. L. Olin View: PDF | PDF w/ Links. Related Content. Related Content: Industrial stoichiometry. will. satisfy. the. average. reader. R.L.. SMITH. INDUSTRIAL. STOICHIOMETRY,. by. Warren. K. Lewis,. Arthur. H. Radasch,. and. H. Clay. Lewis. Second. edition.

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Industrial stoichiometry. By WArren K. lewis and Arthur H. Radasch. Chemical Engineering Series. Pp. xi+ London: McGraw‐Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., Industrial Stoichiometry. Chemical Warren K. Lewis, Arthur H. Radasch, and H. Clay Lewis. The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. Science. , English, Book, Illustrated edition: Industrial stoichiometry: chemical calculations of manufacturing processes / Warren K. Lewis, Arthur H. Radasch, H. Clay.

The Indian Institute of Science founded in started offering courses in chemical engineering from the Department of General Chemistry. In , the chemical engineering section got a separate status as the Department of Chemical Technology and Chemical Engineering. Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur set up in though offered training in oil and paints, leather and sugar technology with chemical engineering input, a formal course in chemical engineering was started only in In the fifties, Indian Institutes of Technology IITs were established in different parts of the country all offering degree courses in chemical engineering.

The Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers came into being in The unit operations involve the addition or removal of some form of energy in the contacting, transport, and the conditioning of materials by physical means with or without any chemical changes taking place.

The unit processes on the other hand, result in chemical changesin composition, character, and propertiesof materials and are most often affected or controlled by temperature and pressure changes, catalysis, intimacy of mixing, and other physical phenomena.

Chemical reactions that have common chemical characteristics underlying their industrial applications are grouped together for study as a unit process. This grouping of similar reactions into a unit process simplifies their study, since all the reactions in a group have similar requirements of raw materials, reaction conditions of concentration, temperature and pressure, and processing equipment. The process engineer applies the same basic principles to all the reactions.

Also, the reactions require similar equipment, utilities, and technology. The principal unit processes are: combustion, oxidation, nitration, halogenation, sulphonation, ammonolysis, reduction, hydrogenation, esterification, hydrolysis, alkylation, polymerization, fermentation, etc. This classification of chemical conversions into unit processes is not as strong as the concept of unit operations for dealing with physical operations.

Many exceptions and disparities exist among processes falling within a particular classification. Practising chemical engineers come across a large number of chemical and physical operations for transforming matter from inexpensive raw materials to highly desired products.

Many similarities exist in the manner in which the feed materials are converted to end products in different process industries. When we break the diverse processes employed by different industries into a series of separate and distinct steps called unit operations, we can find that many similarities exist between these operations employed by different industries for entirely different purposes.

These seemingly different operations are common to all types of process industries. Identifying the operations such as filtration, drying, distillation, crystallization, grinding, sedimentation, heat exchange, evaporation, extraction, extrusion, etc. The knowledge gained concerning a unit operation governing one set of materials can easily be applied to others. Whether one is using distillation for the manufacture of alcohol or for production of gasoline from petroleum, the underlying principle remains the same.

The unit operations concept became the basic theme in the chemical engineering profession ever since George Daviss lectures on the topic. However, it was Arthur D. Little in first recognized the potential of using this concept for distinguishing chemical engineering from other professions.

While mechanical engineers focused on machinery, industrial chemists concerned themselves with products, and applied chemists studied individual reactions, no one before chemical engineers had concentrated upon the underlying process common to all chemical products, reactions and machinery. The uniqueness and worth of chemical engineers is now evident to all concerned with large-scale chemical manufacture. The important unit operations are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Since transportation, storage and handling of fluids are more convenient than those of solids, the fluid flow operations play a very significant role in process industries. A chemical engineer has to deal with movement of fluid through pipes, pumps and all kinds of process vessels. Sometimes reactant streams have to be passed through a bed of solid catalyst, sometimes a bed of solid will be fluidized to effect better conversion.

The quantitative relationship between the rate of flow and pressure difference, the power requirement of the flow system, measurements of rate of flow, etc. Also all chemical reactions are accompanied by characteristic and unavoidable heat effects. Heat transfer during boiling of liquids and condensation of vapours are frequently encountered by a chemical engineer.

The transfer of heat at the desired rate is thus a major operation for carrying out all operations and reactions efficiently as is clear from the daily requirements of two important plant utilitiesthe cooling water and steamby any process industry. Above all heat recovery will be a major concern from the point of view of conservation of energy and the environment. The major heat transfer equipment the chemical engineer has to work with includes a wide variety of tubular heat exchangers, plate heat exchangers, boilers and condensers.

The transfer and control of heat in process plants, design and operation of heat transfer equipment employed by chemical process industries are therefore important areas of chemical engineering activity.

Typical industrial applications of evaporation include concentration of cane-sugar juice in a sugar factory, concentration of ammonium sulphate in a fertilizer unit, and concentration of spent soap lye to produce glycerine in a soap industry.

Depending upon the properties of materials being handled, there are a number of different types of evaporators and different modes of feeding a multiple effect system consisting of a number of evaporators arranged in series.

Shorttube vertical evaporators, long-tube evaporators, climbing film and falling film evaporators, etc. Evaporators and evaporator accessories like steam-jet ejectors, condensers, steam trap, etc. There is no chemical process industry that does not require a preliminary purification of raw materials or final separation of products from by-products or other undesired contaminants.

Mass transfer operations are thus very important in process industries. When a chemical reaction is implemented on a commercial scale, the investment on mass transfer equipment generally exceeds the capital investment associated with the reactions as such.

The important mass transfer operations are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

Industrial stoichiometry

Distillation: Distillation is used to separate liquid mixtures into component parts by boiling. The difference in the volatilities of the constituents is the property that is exploited to effect separation. The industrially important distillation method known as fractionation or fractional distillation has got very wide application in chemical and petroleum industries.

The products obtained on distillation are commonly referred to as distillate or top product which is rich in more volatile components and residue or bottom product which is rich in less volatile components.

Absorption: In absorption, the soluble constituents of a gas mixture are separated by absorbing in a suitable liquid solvent. The reverse processthe removal of certain constituents of a liquid mixture by contacting with a gas phaseis known as desorption or stripping.

Ammonia is absorbed from a mixture of ammonia and air by contacting the gas with water in equipment known as absorption columns. Benzene vapours present in coke-oven gases can be absorbed in hydrocarbon oils and hydrogen sulphide can be absorbed from gas mixtures using ethanolamine solutions. Liquidliquid extraction: The process of separation of the components of a liquid mixture by treating with an immiscible liquid solvent in which the constituents are differently soluble is known as liquidliquid extraction.

Stoichiometry and Process Calculations (1)

Aqueous acetic acid solution is mixed with isopropyl ether solvent in order to extract the acid into the ether phase. Extraction results in two immiscible phases, the solvent rich phase called the extract and the original solution from which the solute is extracted known as the raffinate. The mutually insoluble extract and raffinate phases are then separated from one another by settling and gravity separation. Leaching: Leaching is the separation of the components of a solid mixture by selectively dissolving the soluble components in the solid mixture in a liquid solvent.

The recovery of minerals from naturally occurring ores, oils from cakes, tannin from wood barks, sugar from sugar beets, etc. Adsorption: Components of a gas or liquid mixture can be adsorbed on the surface of a solid adsorbent.

The adsorption of organic vapours on activated charcoal, decolourization of cane-sugar solution by adsorbing the colouring matter on activated carbon, drying of gases by adsorbing water on silica gel, etc. The adsorbed constituent can be removed from the solid and thereby separation can be completed and the adsorbent regenerated for further use. Humidification: Humidification and dehumidification operations are used by process industries for preparing air of desired temperature and humidity, water cooling, gas drying and other such purposes.

A gas phase usually air is contacted with pure liquid usually water. The transfer of vapour from liquid to gas occurs in humidification operations and the reverse process occurs in dehumidification.

Cooling towers, spray chambers, humidifiers, etc. Drying: Drying is usually one of the last operations in a process industry. Drying is an integral part of the process in industries such as paper industries, where as drying is done in other processes for reducing the cost of transportation of the product, to give some useful properties to the product like the free-flowing nature of salt, to prepare the product in a form that is suitable for handling and use.

In drying a wet solid or a slurry is contacted with dry gas usually air or flue gas so that water is vaporized from the solid and is carried away by the gas. Depending upon the characteristics of the solid being dried, several types of dryers are in common use.

Tray drier for pasty materials and lumpy solids , rotary drier for granular and free flowing solids , freeze driers for foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals and spray driers for slurries and pastes are typical driers in use. The process is important since a variety of materials is marketed in crystalline form and also as a method of purification. Tank crystallizers, agitated batch crystallizers, SwensonWalker crystallizer, vacuum crystallizers and Krystal crystallisers are typical industrial equipment used for crystallization.

Ion exchange: In ion exchange operations, the solute from a solution is retained on the solid by reaction with the solid ion-exchange resins. Ions in solution can be removed by this process as in purification of water.

In addition to the above separation methods in which the phases are in direct contact, separation can be achieved by transferring materials through membranes separating the two phases. Dialysis, electrodialysis, ultrafiltration, etc. Mechanical separations are based on physical differences among the particles such as size, shape or density.

Important operations falling under this category are screening, filtration, sedimentation, centrifugation, etc. Screening: Screening is a method of separating solid particles from a mixture of solids based on their size difference alone.


Screens are available in variety of mesh sizes and depending upon the size of the feed handled by the screens, screening devices are classified as grizzlies, trommels, shaking screens and vibrating screens. Filtration: In filtration, suspended solid particles in a fluid, either a gas or a liquid, is removed by passing through a filtering medium such as canvas cloth that retains the particles as a separate phase or cake and allows the passage of clear filtrate.

Filter presses, leaf filters, rotary drum filters, etc. Centrifugal filters are another class of filters in which the filtering medium is attached to a rotating basket and the centrifugal action forces the liquid through it.

Sedimentation: In settling and sedimentation, the particles are separated from the fluid by gravitational force acting on the particles. The particles can be solid particles or liquid drops. The separation of a dilute slurry or suspension by gravity settling into a clear fluid and a slurry of higher solids content is called sedimentation. Removal of solids from liquid sewage wastes, settling of crystals from mother liquor, separation of solid food particles from a liquid food, etc.

Gravity settling tanks, Spitzkasten classifier and continuous thickener are pieces of equipment coming under this group. Settling of solid particles aided by centrifugal forces can be used to separate particles that will not settle easily in gravity settlers. Centrifugal separation is employed in many food industries such as breweries, vegetable oil processing, fruit juice processing, etc.

The reduction in size is achieved by means of crushing and grinding. Grinding operations are very prominent in ore processing and cement industries. Food processing industries also employ size reduction operations extensively as in grinding wheat, corn and rye to flour, in rolling, pressing and grinding of soybeans to produce oil and flour.

Jaw crushers, gyratory crushers, roll crushers, hammer mills and ball mills are typical size reduction equipment used by processing industries. Purpose of these operations are to produce product of uniform properties. Kneaders, mixing rolls, pugmills, ribbon blenders, screw mixers and tumbler mixers etc. These can be broadly categorized into four groups. They are the material and energy balances and the laws of equilibrium and the rate processes.

As pointed out earlier, the unit operations deal mainly with the transfer and change of energy and the transfer and change of materials by physical or in some instances by physiochemical means. The study of material and energy balances in these operations is very vital for better assimilation of the course materials that constitute the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum.

The main thrust in the course offered under different names such as Process Calculations, Stoichiometry, or Chemical Process Principles is the study of material and energy balances involved in unit operations and unit processes.

These include the behaviour of gases and gas mixtures, both real and ideal, estimation of their properties, phase behaviour of pure liquids and solutions, vapour pressure and how it is influenced by changes in temperature and pressure, humidity and saturation, application of psychrometric charts, steam tables, enthalpy-composition diagrams, etc.

A course in Process Calculations or Stoichiometry covers all the above topics. It is clear that we use the word stoichiometry with a wider meaning: stoichiometry for a chemical engineer is not just the application of the laws of combining proportions of elements or compounds involved in chemical reactions.

Through these calculations the student gets equipped with fundamental information and skills that are repeatedly employed in subsequent courses as well as in professional life.

Associated Data

Although the theory underlying the solution of these problems is well defined and unquestioned, the solution cannot be achieved by application of just some theoretical formulae or some semiempirical equations. Rather, using these principles for the solution of stoichiometric problems is an art, and like every art, its mastering requires practice. For example, the length of an object may be given in metres or in feet.

The mass of an object may be given in kilograms or in pounds. In engineering calculations, it becomes frequently necessary to convert quantities measured in one system of units into another. In addition, many equations that a chemical engineer uses in practical calculations are of empirical nature and when such equations are used for calculations, the quantities must be in the specified units.

Familiarity with various systems of units and conversion of quantities from one system to another is therefore of prime importance in process calculations. The numbers by themselves have no meaning in the language of measurements unless they are accompanied by units.

For example, if you say the mass of an object is 50, the object may weigh 50 kg or 50 lb or even 50 g. To avoid confusion and to eliminate errors in calculations, the unit should be explicitly stated.

Unit is any measure or amount used as a standard for measurement. By dimension we mean the measurable extent of a physical quantity. In the above example mass represented by the symbol M is a dimension and kilogram kg or pound lb is a unit. Units provide standards to measure the quantities called dimensions. Each unit is associated with a dimension which is unique.

Or, a unit refers to one and only one dimension. The kilogram is a unit used to measure the dimension mass. It cannot be used to measure the dimension time or temperature. Thus the dimension of the unit metre is length L. Primary quantities such as length, mass, time and temperature are commonly used as the basis of measurement.

These are called primary dimensions and are represented by the symbols L, M, T and K respectively. The set of primary dimensions should satisfy the requirement that all quantities that need to be measured can be assigned one or a combination of primary dimensions. The derived unit is a combination of primary units and the derived 13 quantity is a combination of two or more primary dimensions and their units are a combination of primary units.

Quantities like heat capacity, viscosity, specific volume, thermal conductivity, etc. Though each unit is associated with a unique dimension, the unit used to describe a given dimension need not be unique.

This difference is due to the different system of units used for measurements. A system of units adopts a set of primary units each of which corresponds to a primary dimension.

All other units and dimensions allowed within a particular system are derived units and derived dimensions. The FPS system developed in England uses the unit foot ft for the dimension of length, pound lb for the dimension of mass, second s for the dimension of time, and degree Fahrenheit F for the dimension of temperature.

In the MKS system the metric system developed in France in , the unit for length is metre m , the unit for mass is kilogram kg , the unit for time is second s and the unit for temperature is degree Celsius C. India adopted the MKS system in The CGS system employs centimetre cm , gram g and second s for the units of length, mass and time respectively and uses the same standards for the base units as the MKS system.

In practice, it is difficult to work with MKS or CGS system alone, and so both were used in engineering practice depending upon the convenience. The different systems of units not only have different sets of base units, they use different standards to physically represent these base units.

Similarly, a standard alloy block of platinum and iridium maintained at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres in Paris is taken as the base unit of mass, the kilogram. Table 2. The SI system is a modification of the original metric system and it uses the metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time, and degree kelvin K for temperature.

The primary quantity mass is long felt to be unsuitable for use in chemistry, where the number of molecules constituting the system is much more important than the mass. Taking this into consideration, the Fourteenth Conference Gnrale des Poids et Measures in expanded the list of primary dimensions by including the amount of substance as a primary quantity with unit mole.

A The ampere is that constant current which would I produce between two straight parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, a force equal to 2 10 7 newton per metre of length. The mole is the amount of substance of a system n which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.

When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

For example, velocity can be defined as the time rate of change of distance. The dimension of velocity v can be written as length divided by time LT 1. The quantity acceleration a can be defined as the time rate of change of velocity. They allow very large or very small numerical values to be avoided.

A prefix attaches directly to the name of a unit, and a prefix symbol attaches directly to the symbol for a unit. For example, one kilometre, symbol 1 km, is equal to one thousand meters, symbol m or m.

When prefixes are attached to SI units, the units so formed are called multiples and submultiples of SI units in order to distinguish them from the coherent system of SI units.

Exception: The symbol or the first letter of the symbol is an upper-case letter when the name of the unit is derived from the name of a person. Also, the recommended symbol for the litre is L.

Unit symbols are unaltered in the plural. Unit symbols are not followed by a period. Unit symbols will be followed by a period at the end of a sentence.

Symbols for units formed from other units by multiplication are indicated by means of either a centred dot or a space.

Some of these changes are reflected in the second edition. Comparison with the first edition shows that the new volume contains three new chapters and that the old chapters were thoroughly revised in keeping with new developments. The theoretical aspects of stoichiometry are dealt with in two chapters: Introduction, Energy Balances and Equilibrium.

The two elements that brought about great transformations in the whole chemical industry are treated extensively in separate chapters: Sulfur Compounds and Nitrogen Compounds.

The volume intends to provide the student of inorganic industrial stoichiometry with a variety of techniques applicable to process analyses.

This aim is accomplished by a careful analysis of seventy-two "Illustrations. The illustrative examples are replete with flow charts, block diagrams, and a wealth of analytical data in tabular or graphical form. The chapters end with a large number of graded problems some of which will tax even the ingenuity of professional industrial designers.

Both illustrations and problems show that the authors are intimately familiar with the analysis of processes important to the inorganic chemical industry. Computational methods employed are mostly simple and straightforward; they require only a knowledge of arithmetic and simple algebra.

Emphasis is on the process balance while check computations assure the student that his results are free of error. Besides conversions from one basis to another, it is frequently necessary to solve simultaneous linear equations.One of the earliest attempts to organize the principles of chemical processing and to clarify the professional area of chemical engineering was made in England by George E.

Learn how we and our ad partner Google, collect and use data. Ideal Gases and Gas Mixtures 76 4. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online. Exception: The symbol or the first letter of the symbol is an upper-case letter when the name of the unit is derived from the name of a person.

But as the student learns to meet that challenge to his intelligence and imagination, he acquires unsuspected powers and confidence. One of the greatest contributions of chemical engineering is in the area of petroleum processing and petrochemicals, which is now regarded as an enabling technology without which modern life would cease to function.

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