ALTERNATOR WORKING PRINCIPLE PDF
The synchronous electrical generator (also called alternator) belongs to the comprehend the physical principles governing the operation of electric rotating. Generator. ➣ Parallel Operation of Alternators Principle. A.C. generators or alternators (as they are principles of electromagnetic induction as d.c. generators. DC/AC Field Theory. Electromagnetic Induction. Different Types of Alternators. Importance of Automotive. Alternators. Parts of a Wye-Connected. Automotive.
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They are also known as synchronous generators. The working principle of an alternator or AC generator is similar to the basic working principle of a DC generator. Describe the principle of magnetic induction as it applies to ac generators. . operation. FUNCTIONS OF ALTERNATOR COMPONENTS. A typical rotating- field. An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the term Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar .. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September
Rotating generators naturally produced alternating current but, since there was little use for it, it was normally converted into direct current via the addition of a commutator in the generator. Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar — each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.
The late s saw the introduction of first large scale electrical systems with central generation stations to power Arc lamps , used to light whole streets, factory yards, or the interior of large warehouses. Some, such as Yablochkov arc lamps introduced in , ran better on alternating current, and the development of these early AC generating systems was accompanied by the first use of the word "alternator". Principle of operation[ edit ] Diagram of a simple alternator with a rotating magnetic core rotor and stationary wire stator also showing the current induced in the stator by the rotating magnetic field of the rotor.
A conductor moving relative to a magnetic field develops an electromotive force EMF in it Faraday's Law. This EMF reverses its polarity when it moves under magnetic poles of opposite polarity. Typically, a rotating magnet, called the rotor turns within a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator. The field cuts across the conductors, generating an induced EMF electromotive force , as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn.
The rotating magnetic field induces an AC voltage in the stator windings. Since the currents in the stator windings vary in step with the position of the rotor, an alternator is a synchronous generator. Automotive alternators use a rotor winding which allows control of the alternator's generated voltage by varying the current in the rotor field winding.
This output is rectified by a rotating rectifier assembly, mounted on the rotor, and the resultant DC supplies the rotating field of the main alternator and hence alternator output. The result of all this is that a small DC exciter current indirectly controls the output of the main alternator.
Another way to classify alternators is by the number of phases of their output voltage.
The output can be single phase, or polyphase. Three-phase alternators are the most common, but polyphase alternators can be two phase, six phase, or more. The revolving part of alternators can be the armature or the magnetic field.
The revolving armature type has the armature wound on the rotor, where the winding moves through a stationary magnetic field. The revolving armature type is not often used.
The advantage is that then the rotor circuit carries much less power than the armature circuit, making the slip ring connections smaller and less costly; only two contacts are needed for the direct-current rotor, whereas often a rotor winding has three phases and multiple sections which would each require a slip-ring connection.
The stationary armature can be wound for any convenient medium voltage level, up to tens of thousands of volts; manufacture of slip ring connections for more than a few thousand volts is costly and inconvenient. Many alternators are cooled by ambient air, forced through the enclosure by an attached fan on the same shaft that drives the alternator.
In vehicles such as transit buses, a heavy demand on the electrical system may require a large alternator to be oil-cooled. Expensive automobiles may use water-cooled alternators to meet high electrical system demands. Most power generation stations use synchronous machines as their generators. Connection of these generators to the utility grid requires synchronization conditions to be met. Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running.
Until the s, automobiles used DC dynamo generators with commutators. With the availability of affordable silicon diode rectifiers, alternators were used instead. In later diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units , the prime mover turns an alternator which provides electricity for the traction motors AC or DC. The traction alternator usually incorporates integral silicon diode rectifiers to provide the traction motors with up to volts DC DC traction, which is used directly or the common inverter bus AC traction, which is first inverted from dc to three-phase ac.
The first diesel electric locomotives, and many of those still in service, use DC generators as, before silicon power electronics, it was easier to control the speed of DC traction motors. Most of these had two generators: Optionally, the generator also supplies head end power HEP or power for electric train heating. Marine alternators used in yachts are similar to automotive alternators, with appropriate adaptations to the salt-water environment.
Marine alternators are designed to be explosion proof so that brush sparking will not ignite explosive gas mixtures in an engine room environment. They may be 12 or 24 volt depending on the type of system installed. Larger marine diesels may have two or more alternators to cope with the heavy electrical demand of a modern yacht. On single alternator circuits, the power may be split between the engine starting battery and the domestic or house battery or batteries by use of a split-charge diode battery isolator or a voltage-sensitive relay.
AC generator (alternator) - construction and working
High frequency alternators of the variable-reluctance type were applied commercially to radio transmission in the low-frequency radio bands. These were used for transmission of Morse code and, experimentally, for transmission of voice and music.
In the Alexanderson alternator , both the field winding and armature winding are stationary, and current is induced in the armature by virtue of the changing magnetic reluctance of the rotor which has no windings or current carrying parts. Such machines were made to produce radio frequency current for radio transmissions, although the efficiency was low.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main articles: Single-phase generator and Polyphase coil. Further information: Electric generator. Alternator automotive. Bottle dynamo Dynamo Electric generator Engine-generator Folsom Powerhouse State Historic Park Hub dynamo Induction generator , using regular induction asynchronous motor Jedlik's dynamo Linear alternator Magneto Polyphase coil Revolving armature alternator Single-phase generator Flux switching alternator.
Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 30 September Electrical railroading; or, Electricity as applied to railroad transportation. Frederick J. World Standards. Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant, ".
Retrieved 29 July Proceedings, Part 2. Libbey CRC Press.
Alternating Current Electrification, ". Retrieved 22 September Federal Aviation Administration. Archived from the original PDF on 6 September Retrieved 6 September Electric motors. AC motor DC motor.
Repulsion Universal. AC asynchronous induction IM.
Doubly-fed Linear Servomotor Stepper Traction. Electrostatic Piezoelectric Ultrasonic. Hermetic TEFC. Timeline of the electric motor Ball bearing motor Barlow's wheel Lynch motor Mendocino motor Mouse mill motor. Coilgun Railgun Superconducting machine.This output is rectified by a rotating rectifier assembly, mounted on the rotor, and the resultant DC supplies the rotating field of the main alternator and hence alternator output.
The revolving armature type is not often used.
The first diesel electric locomotives, and many of those still in service, use DC generators as, before silicon power electronics, it was easier to control the speed of DC traction motors. Hermetic TEFC. High frequency alternators of the variable-reluctance type were applied commercially to radio transmission in the low-frequency radio bands. In other alternators, wound field coils form an electromagnet to produce the rotating magnetic field.
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