RADAR BULLET PDF
As the name suggests detection is done using Radar Bullets and hence can be done further away from the mine carefully. Bullets fire from helicopter emits radar . myavr.info - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Radar Bullet - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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This presentation is related to the working of Radar Bullet. Radar Bullet is one of the applications of RADARS. It is widely Secret drink to lose belly fat naturally at home without exercise ➤➤ myavr.info Radar bullet is a special type of bullet the main use of radar bullet is to find landmines without setting foot into the myavr.info consists of firing a special bullet. As the name suggests detection is done using Radar Bullets and This is the method in which special type of radar bullet are use to find landmines without.
At frequencies below 1GHz, attenuation losses in the ground are small and considerable penetration depth can be achieved. However, landmines detection requires down-range resolution of. It was found experimentally that the 0.
This output signal from 0. The spectrum of this pulse has a maximum at frequencies where the attenuation losses in the ground start to increase. So the spectral content of the monocycle below this maximum penetrates deep into the ground and the spectral content above this maximum provides sufficient down-range resolution.
The antenna system should satisfy a number of demands. The antenna system contains transmitter and receiver. The transmit antenna should:. Radiate short ultra-wide band UWB pulse with small ringing. Radiate electro magnetic energy within a narrow cone in order to filter. Produce an optimal footprint on the ground surface and below it. The waveform of the radiated field on the surface and in the ground.
Provide sufficient sensitivity in order to receive very weak fields. Receive the field in a local point; effective aperture should not be. Be elevated at least 10cm above the ground surface. Additionally a possibility to measure simultaneously backscattered field in two orthogonal polarizations is desirable. A dielectric anomaly in the soil may cause the signal to be reflected back to a separate receiver antenna. The center frequency and band width of the transmitted pulse can be varied by changing the antenna and are chosen with respect to the required depth of penetration, soil type and size of the object to be detected.
The precision of sampling converter is sufficiently high to do accurate measurements of scattered transient field.
This provides 66 dB linear dynamic ranges. Processor filters the signal.
This signal shows presence or absence of surrogate mine in the soil. Processor allows passing the presence of mine detecting signal.
Processor selects the mine detecting signal and passes to the visual display. It displays the exact position of landmine. The advent of the magnetron also made possible the next steps in the evolution of radar, namely, airborne radar for the detection of surface vessels and then airborne aircraft interception radar.
In each of these, particularly the former, tight beams are necessary to prevent the receiver from begin swamped by ground reflections, which would happen if insufficient discrimination between adjacent targets existed. Microwave radar for antiaircraft fire control was quickly developed, of which the most successful ground - based version was the U. Army's SCR It was capable of measuring the position of enemy aircraft to within 0. Anti-surface vessel ASV radars became very common and quite accurate toward the end of the war.
So aid airborne radar for navigation, bombing or bomber protection electronic navigation systems were also developed. Radar countermeasures were instituted, consisting mainly of jamming transmission of confusing signals at enemy radar or the some what more effective dropping of aluminum foil, in strips of about a half - wavelength, to cover approaching aircraft by producing false echoes.
This "chaff" American or "window" British proved very effective, but its use in the war was considerably delayed. Each side thought that the other did not know about it and so it was kept secret; however, it eventually came to be used on a very larges scale. One of the indications of the. S Armys Radiation Laboratory.
It started with about 40 people in , and number multiplied tenfold by Such radars were eventually capable of tracking targets by locking onto them, with the aid of servomechanisms controlling the orientation of the antennas. One of the indications. Army's Radiation Laboratory.
The radar receiver is an ordinary radio receiver having the lowest possible noise figure, high sensitivity, and a bandwidth appropriate for handling the pulses involved.
The receiver video output is usually displayed on a cathode-ray tube indicator in such a manner as to show the time difference between the outgoing pulses and the returning echoes. First of all, a special bullet is fired downward into the ground from a gun mounted on a helicopter flying about m above the ground.
The bullet is designed in such a way that it gives out powerful bust of radio waves from. The bullet will produce a pulse of radio waves as it pierces the ground, and the signal reflected from any landmines within about a 15m radius will be detected by an antenna on the helicopter. Once the mines are located, they can be destroyed at once or their exact position noted so they can be destroyed at once or their exact position noted so they can be dealt with later.
And if the bullet hits it, it would explodeThe radar pulse is generated from the bullets hit by a process known as magnetic flux compression. Inside the bullet is a solid metal cylinder, surrounded by a tightly wound coil of wire. As the bullet leaves the gun, there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the cylinder. When the bullet smashes into the ground, the sudden deceleration forces the cylinder out from inside the coil.
The sudden movement of the metal cylinder through the magnetic field induces a large pulse of current in the coil. The coil then acts like an antenna, converting the pulse into a short burst of high frequency radiation.
After the laboratory tests, testes were conducted at the Arizona desert using the same experimental setup , the radar bullet was able to detect 35 antitank mines and Val Mara 69 antipersonnel mines, which are a particular problem in northern Iraq, where the mines have been laid by saddaam husseins force in their confrontation with the KURBS.
The light weight system can be fitted to any helicopter. Extremely small bullets can be used for detection. A 30 mm bullet gives out a 4 KW radar pulse - almost 10 times more power than a standard ground penetrating radar- from 20 centimeters down.
Also since the bullet is beneath the surface of the ground, it transmits more radio wave into the ground. For ordinary ground, penetrating radar little radiation penetrates the soil, most is reflected by the ground because of the sudden change in density between the air and the soil. It has accurate measurements.
It locates even small targets. It has been well founded by the defense. It operates by detecting the dielectric soils which allows it to locate even no metallic mines. Biological sensors can only operate for limited periods, but in GPR has no such limits. It has been tested in different environmental conditions. Plastic landmines cannot be detected. It is highly expensive. It is more power hungry.
It can suffer falls alarm rates as high as metal detectors. It could help geologists surveying for oil, minerals and other buried natural resources. It can be used for detecting buried pipes. For e. Such type of illegal pipeline can be found out using radar bullets. As the UN has already implemented a world wide ban on antipersonnel mines, the invention of radar bullet helps to speed up the destruction of the mines.
Ten thousands of antipersonnel mines lied buried in the hilly regions of Cambodia, n. Korea, Afghanistan etc.
Mines clearance or defining is normally broken into these stages. Detection removal and disposal. Current detection methods range from high-tech electronic ground penetrating radar , infrared, magnetic resonance imaging to biological detection schemes Dog Sniff or and insects or bacteria to simple brute force detonation methods Flails, Rollers and plows and the use of the hand held mechanical prodders.
Most of these methods are very slow and or expensive and suffer from a hi8gh false alarm rate. So with helicopters and radar bullets, the mines can be cleared easily. Mass graveyards which results from internal civil wars as in Cambodia, Kosovo and in some African nations can be detected using radar bullets.
Afghanistan, Bosnia, Eritrea, Croatia, china. Unfortunately India Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar are also in the list of less-mine affected countries b-sides other countries. The research on radar bullet were headed by the electrical engineers.
This can be used not only for detecting antipersonnel mines, but also for detecting anti- tank mines as well as for the mines used in sea for targeting the ship and submarines. Since it can also be used for exploring oil, minerals and other buried natural resources, the discovery of radar bullet is a big boost for the modern world as we are in 21St century.
Currently, very little technology is used in real-world defining activities. Active programs by the U. S Army in both land mine detection sensor development and systems integration are evaluating new technologies, incrementally improving existing.
Through iterative design, build test cycles, and blind and scored testing at Army mine lanes, steady progress is being made. Radar and radio detection- Fredrick Emmons Terman 2. Landmines and radio detecting- Andrew Deerorow 3.
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Technologies are used for landmine detection are:
Search inside document. This weapon is particularly cruel on children whose bodies being smaller and closer to the blast are more likely to sustain serious injury. The severe disabilities and psychological trauma that follow the blast mean these children will have to be looked after for many year. Metal detectors capable of finding even low-metal content mines in mineralized soils. Nuclear magnetic resonance, fast neutron activation and thermal neutron activation.
Thermal imaging and electro-optical sensors detect evidence of buried objects. Chemical sensors such as thermal fluorescence detect airborne and waterborne presence of explosive vapors. This consists of firing a special bullet into ground from a helicopter which could pinpoint buried landmines The bullet emits a radar pulse as it grinds to halt.
Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets
The resulting data is converted to the time domain In this discussion we deal with buried anti-tank AT and anti-personnel AP landmines which require close approach or contact to activate.
In most radars, though by no means in all, the antenna moves in a predetermined pattern, i. In addition, the distance to the target may transmitter output tubes, and the first stage of the receiver is often a diode mixer. The transmit antenna should: Radiate electro magnetic energy within a narrow cone in order to filter out undesirable back scattering from surrounding objects.
The waveform of the radiated field on the surface and in the ground should be the same. The waveform of the radiated field in the ground should not depend on type of the ground. Reference to these mines was made during the Battle of Williamsburg in , where they adapted shells so as to surprise the Union vanguard. When 1 Metal detector method the charge exploded, the light sides of the case 2 Biological method were blown out.
The Americans are really the first 3 Mechanical method nation to develop and use operational landmines. Then in he ordered his troops to prepare Metal detector methods: artillery shells so that they could be exploded by The following figure shows the use of metal pulling tripwires or by being stepped on see Fig detector for landmines detection.
This method 1. But problem is plastic landmines cannot be detected by this method. To combat the growing number and effectiveness of American tanks, the German Fig 2.
Initially they used large gun powder shells dug into the ground and 1 Introduction of coil imaging sensor: covered with wooden boards for the purpose to provide wide pressure plate. But these mines This sensor creates the image of an object instead proved to be unreliable and time consuming.
In of producing audio signal . Now days we able to early the produced a mine that could detect and see metal parts of less than 1cm but this effectively be used against tanks . Magnetic field of this may tend to of radar bullet is to find landmines without setting penetrate the ground and ground significally foot into the ground. Microwave band have very distributed the magnetic field; which is measured large information carrying capacity thus internal by the magnetometer.
This method is more structures of radar bullet consist of microwave sensitive to noise. Microwave emitter emits the Strengths: electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are Above method have reasonable penetration depth.
The bullet emits a Image resolution is poor. Horizanal range is limited. This pulse strikes There is risk to life of man who handles the metal the mine and its image gets available on the detector. Biological methods: 1 Use of dog and rat: Well trained dog can detect the smell of explosives in landmines which is hided under the grounds.
Dogs are able to discriminate up to ten odours without difficulties 2. Bees:- Fig. Radar bullets Entomologists trained bees that detects explosives and variety of landmines these bees can search large area in short time.
But the thing is to more needs to be understood about the fate and transport of explosives in the surface before the full potentials of trained bees. The bacteria are allows to grow for several hours. Working of Radar bullet: Then surveys team would return to search for Radar means detection of radio waves and ranging. Radar makes use of radio waves to detect and This method can also cover large area of detection locate objects.
Radar works like a sensor and its of mines. But possible have the environmental purpose is estimating certain characteristic if its limitation.
Radar operates by transmitting Mechanical method: electromagnetic energy into the surroundings and Sometime there is no time for army to find out the detecting energy reflected by objects. The direction buried mine in minefield. To clear the safe path at from which reflections comes the bearing object that time military forces employs several kind of can be detected. The distance to the reflecting mines clearing machine to clear the path.
Some of object is estimated. In radar bullet principle, the the mine clearing machines are remote controlled change of medium by the waves must be taken into which minimized the risk to the life of army. But consideration. Radar is basically a means of by this method virtual are get destroyed and mis gathering information about distant objects that we mine interested in or targets of which information is needed by sending electromagnetic waves towards object to be detected and analyzing the echoes.
The safe method of detection is use of radar bullets.
This can be used for detecting antipersonnel as well as anti- tank mines and the mines used in sea for targeting the ship and submarines. Since it can also be used for Fig. Table 9.
Zebkera,n d C. Hilland, et al. Fredrick Emmons Terman, Introduction to Radar and radio detection Salman Cheema. In this discussion.
Radar bullet tight beams are necessary to prevent the receiver from begin swamped by ground reflections. The scanning speed may be mechanically high, but it is small compared with the time taken by pulses to return from a normal range of targets. Thermal imaging and electro-optical sensors detect evidence of buried objects. Fredrick Emmons Terman 2. As can be appreciated, one of the prime requirements of a radar system is that it should have a fair degree of accuracy in its indication of target direction.
Microwave band having very large powder. The receiver antenna should: When someone lift foot and put it down on the rod broke the glass tube and detonated the Fig.