PROGRAMMING IN C (4TH EDITION) (DEVELOPERS LIBRARY) PDF
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Stephen G. Kochan: Programming in C (4th Edition) (Developer's Library) Download Programming in C (4th Edition) (Developer's Library) pdf. Programming In C 4th Edition Developers Library Book. Mediafile Free File Sharing c programming pdf - kciti college - c is a general-purpose, procedural. Developer's Library books are designed to provide practicing programmers with unique, high-quality Mary Sudul. Programming in C, Fourth Edition . Programming. Contributing Author, Fourth Edition C: A Reference Manual,
Contributing Author, Fourth Edition Dean Miller is a writer and editor with more than 20 years of experience in both the publishing and licensed consumer products businesses.
Acknowledgments I wish to thank the following people for their help in the preparation of various versions of this text: I also want to thank Henry Mullish of New York University for teaching me so much about writing and for getting me started in the publishing business.
Thanks also to my copy editor, Charlotte Kughen, and my technical editor, Siddhartha Singh.
We Want to Hear from You! As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We welcome your comments. Please note that we cannot help you with technical problems related to the topic of this book, and that due to the high volume of mail we receive, we might not be able to reply to every message. It was not until the late s, however, that this programming language began to gain widespread popularity and support.
This was because until that time C compilers were not readily available for commercial use outside of Bell Laboratories. As C grew in popularity across different operating systems, more and more vendors hopped on the bandwagon and started marketing their own C compil- ers.
Unfortunately, this appendix did not provide a complete and unambiguous definition of C, meaning that vendors were left to interpret some aspects of the language on their own. In the early s, a need was seen to standardize the definition of the C language. Since that time, additional changes have been made to the C language. The most recent standard was adopted in It is this version of the language upon which this book is based.
This is because, although C is a general-purpose structured programming language, it was originally designed with systems programming applications in mind and, as such, provides the user with an enor- mous amount of power and flexibility.
It assumes no previous exposure to the language and was designed to appeal to novice and experienced programmers alike. If you have previous programming experience, you will find that C has a unique way of doing things that probably differs from other languages you have used.
Every feature of the C language is treated in this text. As each new feature is presented, a small complete program example is usually provided to illustrate the feature. This reflects the overrid- ing philosophy that has been used in writing this book: Just as a picture is worth a thousand words, so is a properly chosen program example.
If you have access to a computer that supports the C programming language, you are strongly encouraged to down- load and run each program presented in this book and to compare the results obtained on your system to those shown in the text. By doing so, not only will you learn the language and its syntax, but you will also become familiar with the process of typing in, compiling, and running C programs.
You will find that program readability has been stressed throughout the book. This is because I strongly believe that programs should be written so that they can be easily read—either by the author or by somebody else.
Through experience and common sense, you will find that such programs are almost always easier to write, debug, and modify. Furthermore, developing programs that are readable is a natural result of a true adherence to a structured programming discipline. Because this book was written as a tutorial, the material covered in each chapter is based on previously presented material. It also introduces you to interactive debugging. The popular debugger gdb was chosen to illustrate this debugging technique.
Over the last decade, the programming world has been abuzz with the notion of object- oriented programming, or OOP for short. This book makes no assumptions about a particular computer system or operating system on which the C language is implemented.
The text makes brief mention of how to compile and execute programs using the popular GNU C compiler gcc. In order to truly take advantage of this power, you need to better understand the different data types you can use, as well as how to create and name variables.
C has a rich variety of math operators that you can use to manipulate your data. In this chapter you will cover: As you will recall, a variable declared to be of type int can be used to contain integral values only—that is, values that do not contain decimal places.
The C programming language provides four other basic data types: A variable declared to be of type float can be used for storing floating-point numbers values containing decimal places.
The double type is the same as type float, only with roughly twice the precision.
These one-or-the-other choices are also known as binary choices. In C, any number, single character, or character string is known as a constant. For example, the number 58 represents a constant integer value. Expressions consisting entirely of constant values are called constant expressions. The Integer Type int In C, an integer constant consists of a sequence of one or more digits.
A minus sign preceding the sequence indicates that the value is negative. No embedded spaces are permitted between the digits, and values larger than cannot be expressed using commas. So, the value 12, is not a valid integer constant and must be written as Two special formats in C enable integer constants to be expressed in a base other than decimal base If the first digit of the integer value is a 0, the integer is taken as expressed in octal notation—that is, in base 8.
In that case, the remaining digits of the value must be valid base-8 digits and, therefore, must be 0—7.
So, to express the value 50 in base 8 in C, which is equiva- lent to the value 40 in decimal, the notation is used. In such a case, the value is displayed in octal without a leading zero.
If an integer constant is preceded by a zero and the letter x either lowercase or uppercase , the value is taken as being expressed in hexadecimal base 16 notation.
Immediately following the letter x are the digits of the hexadecimal value, which can be composed of the digits 0—9 and the letters a—f or A—F. The letters represent the values 10—15, respectively. This range has to do with the amount of storage that is allocated to store a particular type of data.
In general, that amount is not defined in the language. For example, an integer might take up 32 bits on your computer, or perhaps it might be stored in You should never write programs that make any assumptions about the size of your data types. You are, however, guaranteed that a minimum amount of storage will be set aside for each basic data type.
The Floating Number Type float A variable declared to be of type float can be used for storing values containing decimal places. A floating-point constant is distinguished by the presence of a decimal point.
The values 3. Floating-point constants can also be expressed in scientific notation. The value 1. The value before the letter e is known as the mantissa, whereas the value that follows is called the expo- nent. This exponent, which can be preceded by an optional plus or minus sign, represents the power of 10 by which the mantissa is to be multiplied.
So, in the constant 2. This constant represents the value 2.
Incidentally, the letter e, which separates the mantissa from the exponent, can be written in either lowercase or uppercase.
This decision is based on the value of the exponent: A hexadecimal floating constant consists of a leading 0x or 0X, followed by one or more decimal or hexadecimal digits, followed by a p or P, followed by an optionally signed binary exponent.
For example, 0x0. The Extended Precision Type double The double type is very similar to the float type, but it is used whenever the range provided by a float variable is not sufficient. Most computers represent double values using 64 bits. Unless told otherwise, all floating-point constants are taken as double values by the C compiler.
To explicitly express a float constant, append either an f or F to the end of the number, as follows: The Single Character Type char A char variable can be used to store a single character. So 'a', ';', and '0' are all valid examples of character constants. The first constant represents the letter a, the second is a semicolon, and the third is the character zero—which is not the same as the number zero.
Do not confuse a character constant, which is a single character enclosed in single quotes, with a character string, which is any number of characters enclosed in double quotes. This is because the backslash character is a special character in the C system and does not actually count as a character. There are other special characters that are initiated with the backslash char- acter.
The precise amount of memory that is used is unspecified. For example, a variable of this type might be used to indicate whether all data has been read from a file. By convention, 0 is used to indicate a false value, and 1 indicates a true value.
An example of this is shown in Program 5. Appendix A discusses methods for storing characters from extended character sets, through special escape sequences, universal characters, and wide characters.
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Program 3. In fact, the actual value displayed is dependent on the particular computer system you are using. The reason for this inaccuracy is the particular way in which numbers are internally represented inside the computer.
You have probably come across the same type of inaccuracy when dealing with numbers on your pocket calculator.
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If you divide 1 by 3 on your calculator, you get the result. Theoretically, there should be an infinite number of 3s. But the calculator can hold only so many digits, thus the inherent inaccuracy of the machine.
The same type of inac- curacy applies here: When displaying the values of float or double variables, you have the choice of three differ- ent formats. Unless told otherwise, printf always displays a float or double value to six decimal places rounded. You see later in this chapter how to select the number of decimal places that are displayed. Once again, six decimal places are automatically displayed by the system.
Remember that whereas a character string such as the first argument to printf is enclosed within a pair of double quotes, a character constant must always be enclosed within a pair of single quotes. Type Specifiers: An example of a long int declaration might be long int factorial; This declares the variable factorial to be a long integer variable.
As with floats and doubles, the particular accuracy of a long variable depends on your particular computer system. A constant value of type long int is formed by optionally appending the letter L upper- or lowercase onto the end of an integer constant. No spaces are permitted between the number and the L. To display the value of a long int using printf , the letter l is used as a modifier before the integer format characters i, o, and x.
There is also a long long integer data type, so long long int maxAllowedStorage; declares the indicated variable to be of the specified extended accuracy, which is guaranteed to be at least 64 bits wide. The long specifier is also allowed in front of a double declaration, as follows: The specifier short, when placed in front of the int declaration, tells the C compiler that the particular variable being declared is used to store fairly small integer values. The motivation for using short variables is primarily one of conserving memory space, which can be an issue in situations in which the program needs a lot of memory and the amount of available memory is limited.
On some machines, a short int takes up half the amount of storage as a regular int variable does. In any case, you are guaranteed that the amount of space allocated for a short int will not be less than 16 bits.
There is no way to explicitly write a constant of type short int in C. To display a short int variable, place the letter h in front of any of the normal integer conversion characters: Alternatively, you can also use any of the integer conversion characters to display short ints, due to the way they can be converted into integers when they are passed as argu- ments to the printf routine. The final specifier that can be placed in front of an int variable is used when an integer vari- able will be used to store only positive numbers.
The declaration unsigned int counter; declares to the compiler that the variable counter is used to contain only positive values. By restricting the use of an integer variable to the exclusive storage of positive integers, the accu- racy of the integer variable is extended. An unsigned int constant is formed by placing the letter u or U after the constant, as follows: When declaring variables to be of type long long int, long int, short int, or unsigned int, you can omit the keyword int.
Therefore, the unsigned variable counter could have been equivalently declared as follows: The signed qualifier can be used to explicitly tell the compiler that a particular variable is a signed quantity. In later sections of this book, many of these different types are illustrated with actual program exam- ples.
Chapter 13 goes into more detail about data types and conversions. Table 3. This meant that computer instruc- tions had to be hand-coded into binary numbers by the programmer before they could be entered into the machine. They enable you to assign symbolic names, known as variable names, for storing program computa- tions and results. A variable name can be chosen by you in a meaningful way to reflect the type of value that is to be stored in that variable.
For example, you used the variable sum in Program 2. The C language allows data types other than just integers to be stored in variables as well, provided the proper declaration for the variable is made before it is used in the program.
The rules for forming variable names are quite simple: The following is a list of valid variable names. This use is known as a reserved name or reserved word. In general, any name that has special significance to the C compiler cannot be used as a variable name. Appendix A provides a complete list of such reserved names. You should always remember that upper- and lowercase letters are distinct in C. Therefore, the variable names sum, Sum, and SUM each refer to a different variable.
We want to thank Google , the participating students, and especially the mentors who joined this effort. We're looking forward to participating in the next GSoC edition! Below you can find a brief description of the final outcome of each single project. The first part of the project was to make the HTTP code capable of accepting a single client; it was completed partly during the qualification period and partly during the first week of the summer.
Since libavformat did not have an API for that kind of task, it was necessary to design one. This part was mostly completed before the midterm and applied shortly afterwards. Since the ffmpeg command-line tool is not ready to serve several clients, the test ground for that new API is an example program serving hard-coded content.
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The last and most ambitious part of the project was to update ffserver to make use of the new API. By the end of the summer, a first working patch series was undergoing code review. During the program he extended the API with the possibility to remove and rename files on remote servers. At the end of the program, Mariusz provided a sketch of an implementation for HTTP directory listening. Directshow digital video capture, mentee: Mate Sebok, mentor: Roger Pack Mate was working on directshow input from digital video sources.
He got working input from ATSC input sources, with specifiable tuner. The code has not been committed, but a patch of it was sent to the ffmpeg-devel mailing list for future use. The mentor plans on cleaning it up and committing it, at least for the ATSC side of things.
Mate and the mentor are still working trying to finally figure out how to get DVB working. This is the native subtitle format for mp4 containers, and is interesting because it's usually the only subtitle format supported by the stock playback applications on iOS and Android devices. The main challenge here is that Timed Text handles formatting in a very different way from most common subtitle formats. It uses a binary encoding based on mp4 boxes, naturally and stores information separately from the text itself.
This requires additional work to track which parts of the text formatting applies to, and explicitly dealing with overlapping formatting which other formats support but Timed Text does not so it requires breaking the overlapping sections into separate non-overlapping ones with different formatting. Finally, Niklesh had to be careful about not trusting any size information in the subtitles - and that's no joke: the now infamous Android stagefright bug was in code for parsing Timed Text subtitles.
All of Niklesh's work is committed and was released in ffmpeg 2. To do this he designed and implemented a generic filter framework and moved the existing scaler code into it.
These changes now allow easily adding removing, splitting or merging processing steps. The implementation was benchmarked and several alternatives were tried to avoid speed loss.
He also added gamma corrected scaling support. Of all those extensions, only TNS was left in a less-than-usable state, but the implementation has been pushed disabled anyway since it's a good basis for further improvements. PNS replaces noisy bands with a single scalefactor representing the energy of that band, gaining in coding efficiency considerably, and the quality improvements on low bitrates are impressive for such a simple feature.
TNS still needs some polishing, but has the potential to reduce coding artifacts by applying noise shaping in the temporal domain something that is a source of annoying, notable distortion on low-entropy bands. The technique is not as effective on classic X-Y recordings though. Finally, main prediction improves coding efficiency by exploiting correlation among successive frames.
While the gains have not been huge at this point, Rostislav has remained active even after the GSoC, and is polishing both TNS and main prediction, as well as looking for further improvements to make. In the process, the MIPS port of the encoder was broken a few times, something he's also working to fix.
Later he wrote interframe compression via various blend modes. The current implementation tries all blend modes and picks one which takes the smallest amount of memory. Special care was taken to make sure that the decoder plays correctly all files found in the wild and that the encoder produces files that can be played in browsers that support APNG. During his work he was tasked to fix any encountered bug in the decoder due to the fact that it doesn't match APNG specifications.
Thanks to this work, a long standing bug in the PNG decoder has been fixed.
For latter work he plans to continue working on the encoder, making it possible to select which blend modes will be used in the encoding process. This could speed up encoding of APNG files.
September 9th, , FFmpeg 2. It contains all features and bug fixes of the git master branch from September 8th. Please see the changelog for a list of the most important changes. August 1st, , A message from the FFmpeg project Dear multimedia community, The resignation of Michael Niedermayer as leader of FFmpeg yesterday has come by surprise.
He has worked tirelessly on the FFmpeg project for many years and we must thank him for the work that he has done. We hope that in the future he will continue to contribute to the project. In the coming weeks, the FFmpeg project will be managed by the active contributors. The last four years have not been easy for our multimedia community - both contributors and users. We should now look to the future, try to find solutions to these issues, and to have reconciliation between the forks, which have split the community for so long.
Unfortunately, much of the disagreement has taken place in inappropriate venues so far, which has made finding common ground and solutions difficult. We aim to discuss this in our communities online over the coming weeks, and in person at the VideoLAN Developer Days in Paris in September: a neutral venue for the entire open source multimedia community. The FFmpeg project. After graciously hosting our projects FFmpeg , MPlayer and rtmpdump for 4 years, Arpi our hoster has informed us that we have to secure a new host somewhere else immediately.
If you want to host an open source project, please let us know, either on ffmpeg-devel mailing list or irc. March 16, , FFmpeg 2. It contains all features and bugfixes of the git master branch from the 6th March. Please see the Release Notes for a list of note-worthy changes.
If you wish to participate as a student see our project ideas page. You can already get in contact with mentors and start working on qualification tasks. Registration at Google for students will open March 16th. Good luck! The event will take place on 21st and 22nd of March. More information can be found here We demonstrate usage of FFmpeg, answer your questions and listen to your problems and wishes.
If you have media files that cannot be processed correctly with FFmpeg, be sure to have a sample with you so we can have a look! You can read the details here. The workshop is targeted at FFmpeg beginners. First the basics of multimedia will be covered. Thereafter you will learn how to use that knowledge and the FFmpeg CLI tools to analyse and process media files. The workshop is in German language only and prior registration is necessary.
The workshop will be on Saturday starting at 10 o'clock. We are looking forward to meet you again! December 5, , FFmpeg 2.
A big thank-you to Andreas Cadhalpun and all the people that made it possible. It has been anything but simple. Unfortunately that was already the easy part of this news. The bad news is the packages probably won't migrate to Debian testing to be in the upcoming release codenamed jessie.By restricting the use of an integer variable to the exclusive storage of positive integers, the accu- racy of the integer variable is extended.
I also want to thank Henry Mullish of New York University for teaching me so much about writing and for getting me started in the publishing business. A floating-point constant is distinguished by the presence of a decimal point. Appendix A discusses methods for storing characters from extended character sets, through special escape sequences, universal characters, and wide characters. Log In Sign Up.
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