PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT PDF
PDF | Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is an integrated, information-driven strategy that speeds the innovation and launch of successful. Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Product Lifecycle . management (PLM), starting from its history to its constituent elements. Product Life Cycle Management. 2. URENIO - Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit myavr.info CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION. 3. PART 1.
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What is Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) In industry, product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from. Clifford D. "Managing the Product Life Cycle", European Business Journal, July On-line: myavr.info Product lifecycle management (PLM) today can benefit companies of all sizes and needs. Autodesk PLM , a cloud-based offering, is especially beneficial for.
When these bottom—up solutions have real-world value, bottom—up design can be much more efficient than top—down design. The risk of bottom—up design is that it very efficiently provides solutions to low-value problems. The focus of bottom—up design is "what can we most efficiently do with this technology? A top level spec is repeatedly decomposed into lower level structures and specifications, until the physical implementation layer is reached.
The risk of a top—down design is that it may not take advantage of more efficient applications of current physical technology, due to excessive layers of lower-level abstraction due to following an abstraction path which does not efficiently fit available components e. The positive value of top—down design is that it preserves a focus on the optimum solution requirements.
A part-centric top—down design may eliminate some of the risks of top—down design. This starts with a layout model, often a simple 2D sketch defining basic sizes and some major defining parameters, which may include some Industrial design elements. Geometry from this is associatively copied down to the next level, which represents different subsystems of the product. The geometry in the sub-systems is then used to define more detail in levels below.
Depending on the complexity of the product, a number of levels of this assembly are created until the basic definition of components can be identified, such as position and principal dimensions. This information is then associatively copied to component files. In these files the components are detailed; this is where the classic bottom—up assembly starts. The top—down assembly is sometime known as a "control structure".
If a single file is used to define the layout and parameters for the review structure it is often known as a skeleton file. Defense engineering traditionally develops the product structure from the top down. The system engineering process  prescribes a functional decomposition of requirements and then physical allocation of product structure to the functions. This top down approach would normally have lower levels of the product structure developed from CAD data as a bottom—up structure or design.
Both-ends-against-the-middle design[ edit ] Both-ends-against-the-middle BEATM design is a design process that endeavors to combine the best features of top—down design, and bottom—up design into one process. A BEATM design process flow may begin with an emergent technology which suggests solutions which may have value, or it may begin with a top—down view of an important problem which needs a solution.
In either case the key attribute of BEATM design methodology is to immediately focus at both ends of the design process flow: a top—down view of the solution requirements, and a bottom—up view of the available technology which may offer promise of an efficient solution. The BEATM design process proceeds from both ends in search of an optimum merging somewhere between the top—down requirements, and bottom—up efficient implementation.
Indeed, some of the best success stories from either top—down or bottom—up have been successful because of an intuitive, yet unconscious use of the BEATM methodology. Front loading design and workflow[ edit ] Front loading is taking top—down design to the next stage. The complete control structure and review structure, as well as downstream data such as drawings, tooling development and CAM models, are constructed before the product has been defined or a project kick-off has been authorized.
These assemblies of files constitute a template from which a family of products can be constructed. When the decision has been made to go with a new product, the parameters of the product are entered into the template model and all the associated data is updated. Obviously predefined associative models will not be able to predict all possibilities and will require additional work.
A lot of knowledge is built into these templates to be reused on new products. This does require additional resources "up front" but can drastically reduce the time between project kick-off and launch. Such methods do however require organizational changes, as considerable engineering efforts are moved into "offline" development departments. It can be seen as an analogy to creating a concept car to test new technology for future products, but in this case the work is directly used for the next product generation.
But because fashion is so powerful, recently some companies in what often seem the least fashion influenced of industries machine tools, for example have shortened the market development stage by introducing elements of design and packaging fashion to their products.
What factors tend to prolong the market development stage and therefore raise the risk of failure? Success Chances But problems also create opportunities to control the forces arrayed against new product success.
For example, the newer the product, the more important it becomes for the customers to have a favorable first experience with it. Newness creates a certain special visibility for the product, with a certain number of people standing on the sidelines to see how the first customers get on with it. But a favorable first experience or application will, for the same reason, get a lot of disproportionately favorable publicity.
The possibility of exaggerated disillusionment with a poor first experience can raise vital questions regarding the appropriate channels of distribution for a new product. On the other hand, channels that provide this kind of help such as small neighborhood appliance stores in the case of washing machines during the market development stage may not be the ones best able to merchandise the product most successfully later when help in creating and personally reassuring customers is less important than wide product distribution.
In entering the market development stage, pricing decisions are often particularly hard for the producer to make. Should he set an initially high price to recoup his investment quickly—i. The decision that is finally made may affect not just the rate at which the product catches on at the beginning, but even the duration of its total life.
Thus some products that are priced too low at the outset particularly fashion goods, such as the chemise, or sack, a few years ago may catch on so quickly that they become short-lived fads. A slower rate of consumer acceptance might often extend their life cycles and raise the total profits they yield.
The actual slope, or rate of the growth stage, depends on some of the same things as does success or failure in Stage I. But the extent to which patent exclusiveness can play a critical role is sometimes inexplicably forgotten. Generally speaking, the more producers there are of a new product, the more effort goes into developing a market for it. The net result is very likely to be more rapid and steeper growth of the total market. Moreover, the life cycle of a given product may be different for different companies in the same industry at the same point in time, and it certainly affects different companies in the same industry differently.
This company generally bears most of the costs, the tribulations, and certainly the risks of developing both the product and the market. Competitive Pressure Once the innovator demonstrates during the market development stage that a solid demand exists, armies of imitators rush in to capitalize on and help create the boom that becomes the market growth, or takeoff, stage.
It has to share the boom with new competitors. This occurs not only because there are so many competitors, but, as we noted earlier, also because competitors often come in with product improvements and lower prices.
All this can be illustrated by comparing the curve in Exhibit II with that in Exhibit I, which shows the life cycle for a product.
Exploit the Product Life Cycle
During Stage I in Exhibit I there is generally only one company—the originator—even though the whole exhibit represents the entire industry. In Stage I the originator is the entire industry. But by Stage 2 he shares the industry with many competitors.
He is now sharing the boom with a great many competitors, some of whom are much better positioned now than he is. Profit Squeeze In the process the originator may begin to encounter a serious squeeze on his profit margins. During the market development stage his per-unit profits are negative.
Sales volume is too low at existing prices. However, during the market growth stage unit profits boom as output rises and unit production costs fall. Total profits rise enormously. It is the presence of such lush profits that both attracts and ultimately destroys competitors.
Indeed, they will often have done so long before the sales curve flattened. At this point more competitors are in the industry, the rate of industry demand growth has slowed somewhat, and competitors are cutting prices.
Some of them do this in order to get business, and others do it because their costs are lower owing to the fact that their equipment is more modern and productive. Maturity can last for a long time, or it can actually never be attained. Fashion goods and fad items sometimes surge to sudden heights, hesitate momentarily at an uneasy peak, and then quickly drop off into total obscurity.
Stage Recognition The various characteristics of the stages described above will help one to recognize the stage a particular product occupies at any given time. But hindsight will always be more accurate than current sight. This approach has several virtues: It forces one to look ahead, constantly to try to reforesee his future and competitive environment.
This will have its own rewards. As Charles F. Looking ahead gives more perspective to the present than looking at the present alone. Most people know more about the present than is good for them. It is neither healthy nor helpful to know the present too well, for our perception of the present is too often too heavily distorted by the urgent pressures of day-to-day events.
To know where the present is in the continuum of competitive time and events, it often makes more sense to try to know what the future will bring, and when it will bring it, than to try to know what the present itself actually contains. Finally, the value of knowing what stage a product occupies at any given time resides only in the way that fact is used. But its use is always in the future. Hence a prediction of the future environment in which the information will be used is often more functional for the effective capitalization on knowledge about the present than knowledge about the present itself.
Sequential Actions The life cycle concept can be effectively employed in the strategy of both existing and new products. For purposes of continuity and clarity, the remainder of this article will describe some of the uses of the concept from the early stages of new product planning through the later stages of keeping the product profitably alive.
In other words, advance planning should be directed at extending, or stretching out, the life of the product. It is this idea of planning in advance of the actual launching of a new product to take specific actions later in its life cycle—actions designed to sustain its growth and profitability—which appears to have great potential as an instrument of long-term product strategy. What has happened in nylon may not have been purposely planned that way at the outset, but the results are quite as if they had been planned.
The first nylon end-uses were primarily military—parachutes, thread, rope.
International Journal of Product Lifecycle Management
Here it developed the kind of steadily rising growth and profit curves that every executive dreams about. After some years these curves began to flatten out. But before they flattened very noticeably, Du Pont had already developed measures designed to revitalize sales and profits.
It did several things, each of which is demonstrated graphically in Exhibit IV. This exhibit and the explanation which follows take some liberties with the actual facts of the nylon situation in order to highlight the points I wish to make. But they take no liberties with the essential requisites of product strategy.
If nothing further had been done, the sales curve would have continued along the flattened pace indicated by the dotted line at Point A.
At Point A action 1 pushed an otherwise flat curve upward. What were these actions? Or, more usefully, what was their strategic content? What did they try to do? They involved strategies that tried to expand sales via four different routes: 1. Promoting more frequent usage of the product among current users.
Product Life Cycle Stages
Developing more varied usage of the product among current users. Creating new users for the product by expanding the market. Finding new uses for the basic material.
Frequent Usage. In the light of those findings, one approach to propping up the flattening sales curves might have been to reiterate the social necessity of wearing stockings at all times.
That would have been a sales-building action, though obviously difficult and exceedingly costly. Varied Usage. Beyond that, the use of color and pattern to focus attention on the leg would help arrest the decline of the leg as an element of sex appeal—a trend which some researchers had discerned and which, they claimed, damaged hosiery sales.
Creating new users for nylon hosiery might conceivably have taken the form of attempting to legitimize the necessity of wearing hosiery among early teenagers and subteenagers. Advertising, public relations, and merchandising of youthful social and style leaders would have been called for. New Uses. For nylon, this tactic has had many triumphs—from varied types of hosiery, such as stretch stockings and stretch socks, to new uses, such as rugs, tires, bearings, and so forth. Indeed, if there had been no further product innovations designed to create new uses for nylon after the original military, miscellaneous, and circular knit uses, nylon consumption in would have reached a saturation level at approximately 50 million pounds annually.
Instead, in consumption exceeded million pounds. Exhibit V demonstrates how the continuous development of new uses for the basic material constantly produced new waves of sales. Even so, the sales of broadwoven, circular knit, and military and miscellaneous groupings peaked in Yale Had it not been for the addition of new uses for the same basic material—such as warp knits in , tire cord in , textured yarns in , carpet yarns in , and so forth—nylon would not have had the spectacularly rising consumption curve it has so clearly had.
At various stages it would have exhausted its existing markets or been forced into decline by competing materials. Other Examples Few companies seem to employ in any systematic or planned way the four product lifestretching steps described above. The soundness of the product concept and the excellence of its early marketing activities gave it beautifully ascending sales and profit curves almost from the start. But after some years these curves predictably began to flatten out.
Scotch tape was also a pioneer product in its field. Once perfected, the product gained rapid market acceptance because of a sound product concept and an aggressive sales organization.
But, again, in time the sales and profit curves began to flatten out.
Before they flattened out very much, however, 3M, like General Foods, had already developed measures to sustain the early pace of sales and profits. On the other hand, 3M helped raise sales among its current users by developing a variety of handy Scotch tape dispensers which made the product easier to use. Similarly, 3M developed a line of colored, patterned, waterproof, invisible, and write-on Scotch tapes which have enjoyed considerable success as sealing and decorating items for holiday and gift wrapping.
Hence during the Metrecal boom Jell-O employed an advertising theme that successfully affixed to the product a fashion-oriented weight control appeal. These actions broadened product use in commercial and industrial markets.
It is known, for example, that women consumers use powdered gelatin dissolved in liquids as a means of strengthening their fingernails. Both men and women use it in the same way as a bone-building agent. Extension Strategies The existence of the kinds of product life cycles illustrated in Exhibits I and II and the unit profit cycle in Exhibit III suggests that there may be considerable value for people involved in new product work to begin planning for the extension of the lives of their products even before these products are formally launched.
To plan for new life-extending infusions of effort as in Exhibit IV at this pre-introduction stage can be extremely useful in three profoundly important ways. It generates an active rather than a reactive product policy. The life-extension view of product policy enforces thinking and planning ahead—thinking in some systematic way about the moves likely to be made by potential competitors, about possible changes in consumer reactions to the product, and the required selling activities which best take advantage of these conditional events.
It lays out a long-term plan designed to infuse new life into the product at the right time, with the right degree of care, and with the right amount of effort. Many activities designed to raise the sales and profits of existing products or materials are often undertaken without regard to their relationship to each other or to timing—the optimum point of consumer readiness for such activities or the point of optimum competitive effectiveness.
Careful advance planning, long before the need for such activity arises, can help assure that the timing, the care, and the efforts are appropriate to the situation. The latter helped create a powerful consumer consciousness of hair fashions because they made it relatively easy to create and wear fashionable hair styles.
Once it became easy for women to have fashionable hair styles, the resulting fashion consciousness helped open the door for hair colors and tints. It could not have happened the other way around, with colors and tints first creating fashion consciousness and thus raising the sales of sprays and fixers. Because understanding the reason for this precise order of events is essential for appreciating the importance of early pre-introduction life-extension planning, it is useful to go into a bit of detail.
Consider: For women, setting their hair has been a perennial problem for centuries. First, the length and treatment of their hair is one of the most obvious ways in which they distinguish themselves from men.
Hence to be attractive in that distinction becomes crucial. Second, hair frames and highlights the face, much like an attractive wooden border frames and highlights a beautiful painting. Third, since the hair is long and soft, it is hard to hold in an attractive arrangement. It gets mussed in sleep, wind, damp weather, sporting activities, and so forth. An unkempt brunette would gain nothing from making herself into a blond. Indeed, in a country where blonds are in the minority, the switch from being an unkempt brunette to being an unkempt blond would simply draw attention to her sloppiness.
The same order of priorities applies in industrial products. For example, it seems quite inconceivable that many manufacturing plants would easily have accepted the replacement of the old single-spindle, constantly man-tended screw machine by a computerized tape-tended, multiple-spindle machine. The mechanical tending of the multiple-spindle machine was a necessary intermediate step, if for no other reason than that it required a lesser work-flow change, and certainly a lesser conceptual leap for the companies and the machine-tending workers involved.As such, PPLM seeks to manage information around the development of the process in a similar fashion that baseline PLM talks about managing information around development of the product.
Ready made solutions exist, based on cross-reference tables, which will tell you, for example, what name or code is used in Company B for item 1 in Company A. All this in time inescapably moves the industry to the threshold of a new stage of competition. For example: starting tool design as soon as the detailed design has started, and before the detailed designs of the product are finished; or starting on detail design solid models before the concept design surfaces models are complete.
Figure 2 illustrates the core processes of an industrial enterprise.
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