ORGANIC NAME REACTION PDF
Cf. Claisen-Schmidt Condensation; Henry Reaction; Ivanov. Reaction . ( ); B. Eistert in Newer Methods in Preparative Organic Chemistry vol. Organic Chemistry – Specific Name Reactions. Class XII. Sandmeyer Reaction. The Cl, Br and CN nucleophiles can easily be introduced in the benzene ring of . Named Organic Reactions in Alphabetical Order. Reaction categories – Categorization of named reactions in tabular format Affected.
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Name Reactions: A Collection of Detailed Reaction Mechanisms (Li, Jie Jack) View: PDF | PDF w/ Links Name Reactions and Reagents in Organic Synthesis , 2nd Edition (Mundy, Bradford P.; Ellerd, Michael G.; Favaloro, Frank G.). transformation shows only the substrate and product, whereas a reaction includes all Consequently, many organic reactions are known by the name of the. 1 was converted to (+) malic acid 2 by action of Ag. 2. O in water with retention of. 4 configuration, in the next step the OH was replaced by Cl to 3 by reaction with.
R is called alkyl group, it contains only single bond; alkenyl group if contains double bond and alkynyl group if contains triple bond. Homologous Series The series in which the molecular formula of adjacent members differ by a — CH2 unit, is called homologous series and the individual members are called homologous.
CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Notes : General Organic Chemistry
All the homologues contain same functional group. All the members of a series have same general formula, e. All the members can be prepared by almost similar methods. With increase in the molecular weight of a series, the physical properties varies gradually. Representation of Different Formulae An organic compounds can be represented by the following ways : 1.
Complete formula In it, all the bonds present between any two atoms are shown clearly. Condensed Formula In it, all the bonds are not shown clearly. Bond Line Formula In it, every fold and free terminal represents a carbon and lines represent the bonds. These are mainly derived from Latin or Greek names e. IUPAC amends these rules from time to time. Rule I Longest chain rule The chain containing the principal functional group, secondary functional group and multiple bonds as many as possible is the longest possible chain.
In the absence of functional group, secondary group and multiple bonds, the chain containing the maximum number of C-atoms will be the longest possible chain e.
Select the principal functional group from the preference series : Functional group other than the principal functional group are called substituents. Rule 3.
Naming the prefixes and suffixes Prefix represents the substituent and suffix is used for principal functional group. Primary prefixes are cycle, bicycle, di, tri, tetra, tries. Secondary prefixes are tabulated below : Primary suffix are ene, ane, or yne used for double, single and triple bonds respectively.
Secondary suffixes are tabulated below : Hence. Homolytic Fission In this, one of the electrons of the shared pair in a covalent bond goes with each of the bonded atoms. The neutral chemical species thus formed, is called free radical. Generally, homolytic fission takes place in non-polar, covalent molecules in the presence of sunlight or high temperature.
Free radicals are highly reactive. Heterolytic Fission In this, the bond breaks in such a fashion that the shared pair of electrons goes with one of the fragments.
Carbon bearing a positive charge is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge is called carbanion. Heterolytic fission generally takes place in polar covalent molecules but in non-polar molecules, it takes place in the presence of catalyst like AiCI3 anhy.
Attacking Reagent These are of two types : 1. Electrophiles or Electrophilic Reagents These are electron deficient species i. The following species behave as electrophiles : i All non-metal cations and metal cations which have vacant d- orbitals. Nucleophiles or Nucleophilic Reagents These are electron rich species i. These attack at electron deficient area.
The following species behave as nucleophiles : In case of same nucleophilic site, nucleophilicity parallels basicity i. Amphiphiles These species behave like both electrophiles as well as nucleophiles. Organic compounds containing a multiple bond between carbon and a more electronegative atom can act as amphiphiles, e. These are short lived and highly reactive. Free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes are important reactions intermediates. Free Radicals These are the product of homolysis and contain an odd electron.
These are highly reactive planar species with Sp2 hybridisation. Their order of stability is 2. Carbocations These are the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing positive charge. These are electron deficient species. Carbocations contain six electrons in the valence shell. These are also planar chemical species i.
Carbanions These are also the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing negative charge and 8 electrons in its valence shell These have pyramidal shape with Sp3 hybridised carbon having one lone pair The order of stability of carbanions is 4.
Carbenes These are divalent carbon species having two non-bonding electrons along WIth two bond pairs. These are obtained by photolysis or pyrolysis. These are of two types: i Singlet carbene In it, the C-atom is Sp2 hybridised. Then Hybridised orbitals contain no electrons and a hybridised orbital contains two electrons : Singlet carbene has bent structure and is less stable than triplet carbene.
The order of stability of singlet carbenes is ii Triplet carbene In it, the central C-atom is sp-hybridised. The sp — hybridised orbitals contain 1 electron each. Triplet carbene has linear geometry. Nitrene These are neutral monovalent nitrogen species in which N atom has two unshared pair of electrons with a monovalent atom or group attached.
These are obtained by thermolysis of azides and as reactive as carbenes. Arynes It contains a formal carbon-carbon triple bond in aromatic molecule. The additional bond is formed between two neighbouring C-atoms by sideways overlapping of two Sp2 orbitals.
The new bond lies along with side of the ring and has little interaction with the 1t electron cloud lying above and below the ring. The sideways overlapping is weak and thus, makes the benzene more reactive.
Inductive Effect It is just like shifting of shared pair of electrons in polar covalent molecules. If shared pair is more shifted towards the more electronegative atom, the less electronegative atom acquires slight positive charge and more electronegative atom acquires partial negative charge, e. Atoms or groups having greater electron affinity than hydrogen.
Reactivity of carbonyl compound is increased by — I showing groups. Electromeric Effect It is defined as the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as a reagent approaches it. This effect is temporary.
This effect is also called no bond formation or Baker Nathan effect. Applications of Hyperconjugation i Stability of alkenes More the number of a-hydrogen atoms, more stable is the alkene.
Resonance Effect When all the properties of a molecule cannot be shown by a single structure and two or more structures are required to show all the properties of that molecule, then the structures are called resonating structures or canonical forms and the molecule is referred as resonance hybrid. This phenomenon is called resonance. In resonance, 1.
The arrangement of atoms must be identical in all the formulae. The energy content of all the canonical forms must be nearly same. Each canonical form must have the same number of unpaired electrons.
It involves delocalisation of 1t electrons. Halogens slightly deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. More the E. Negative Resonance Effect -R Electron withdrawing groups with respect to conjugate system show — R effect. Aromatic groups are planar flat ring structures, and are widespread in nature.
We will learn more about the structure and reactions of aromatic groups in chapters 2 and Aromatics When the carbon of an alkane is bonded to one or more halogens, the group is referred to as a alkyl halide or haloalkane.
Chloroform is a useful solvent in the laboratory, and was one of the earlier anesthetic drugs used in surgery. Chlorodifluoromethane was used as a refrigerant and in aerosol sprays until the late twentieth century, but its use was discontinued after it was found to have harmful effects on the ozone layer. Bromoethane is a simple alkyl halide often used in organic synthesis. Alkyl halides groups are quite rare in biomolecules.
Haloalkanes In the alcohol functional group, a carbon is single-bonded to an OH group the OH group, by itself, is referred to as a hydroxyl. Except for methanol, all alcohols can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary.
In a primary alcohol, the carbon bonded to the OH group is also bonded to only one other carbon. In a secondary alcohol and tertiary alcohol, the carbon is bonded to two or three other carbons, respectively. When the hydroxyl group is directly attached to an aromatic ring, the resulting group is called a phenol. The sulfur analog of an alcohol is called a thiol from the Greek thio, for sulfur.
Alcohols, phenols, and thiols Note that the definition of a phenol states that the hydroxyl oxygen must be directly attached to one of the carbons of the aromatic ring.
The compound below, therefore, is not a phenol - it is a primary alcohol. The distinction is important, because as we will see later, there is a significant difference in the reactivity of alcohols and phenols.
The deprotonated forms of alcohols, phenols, and thiols are called alkoxides, phenolates, and thiolates, respectively. A protonated alcohol is an oxonium ion. In an ether functional group, a central oxygen is bonded to two carbons.
Below is the structure of diethyl ether, a common laboratory solvent and also one of the first compounds to be used as an anesthetic during operations.
The sulfur analog of an ether is called a thioether or sulfide. Ethers and sulfides Amines are characterized by nitrogen atoms with single bonds to hydrogen and carbon.
Just as there are primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, there are primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. Ammonia is a special case with no carbon atoms. One of the most important properties of amines is that they are basic, and are readily protonated to form ammonium cations. In the case where a nitrogen has four bonds to carbon which is somewhat unusual in biomolecules , it is called a quaternary ammonium ion.
Amines Note: Do not be confused by how the terms 'primary', 'secondary', and 'tertiary' are applied to alcohols and amines - the definitions are different. In alcohols, what matters is how many other carbons the alcohol carbon is bonded to, while in amines, what matters is how many carbons the nitrogen is bonded to. Phosphate and its derivative functional groups are ubiquitous in biomolecules. Phosphate linked to a single organic group is called a phosphate ester; when it has two links to organic groups it is called a phosphate diester.
A linkage between two phosphates creates a phosphate anhydride. Organic phosphates Chapter 9 of this book is devoted to the structure and reactivity of the phosphate group. There are a number of functional groups that contain a carbon-oxygen double bond, which is commonly referred to as a carbonyl.
Ketones and aldehydes are two closely related carbonyl-based functional groups that react in very similar ways. In a ketone, the carbon atom of a carbonyl is bonded to two other carbons.
In an aldehyde, the carbonyl carbon is bonded on one side to a hydrogen, and on the other side to a carbon. The exception to this definition is formaldehyde, in which the carbonyl carbon has bonds to two hydrogens.
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A group with a carbon-nitrogen double bond is called an imine, or sometimes a Schiff base in this book we will use the term 'imine'. The chemistry of aldehydes, ketones, and imines will be covered in chapter The eponymous member of this family is the carboxylic acid functional group, in which the carbonyl is bonded to a hydroxyl group.Being covalent in nature, these have low boiling point and melting point and soluble in organic solvents.
However, one similar group should be present at the adjacent double bonded carbon atoms. Ethene, the simplest alkene example, is a gas that serves as a cellular signal in fruits to stimulate ripening. Carbon bearing a positive charge is called carbocation and carbon bearing negative charge is called carbanion. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention Varma 10 Definition, Goals and Methods of Green Chemistry Green Chemistry, also called Benign Chemistry or Clean Chemistry, refers to the field of chemistry dealing with: - synthesis the path to making chemicals - ppg g rocessing the actual making of chemicals -use of chemicals that reduce risks to humans and impact on the environment.
It offers students and professional chemists a valuable resource for conducting experiments and performing a broad range of applications, from pharmaceuticals to plastics to pesticides. For naming the organic compounds you need a logical approach towards it.