Fiction One Thousand One Nights Pdf


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One Thousand One Nights Pdf

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Thousand and One Nights, Vol. I., by Anonymous This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . An alternative open source is available; see MediaWiki2LaTeX. For Help with downloading a Wikipedia page as a PDF, see Help:Download as PDF.

By he had completed the whole translation in the formal, archaic form of the Greek language katharevousa. Following this, he revised the text adapting it to contemporary spoken Greek.

The cultural kinship between Greece and the Orient probably supported the development of a style faithful to the original, as it allowed the exact rendering of integral expressions as well as of everyday habits and features preface by Voutieridis in Trikoglidis — Trikoglidis translated the whole of the Nights into Greek. Unfortunately, his translation has never been published in its entirety. The published part in- cludes about half of the stories considered as canonical — i.

Trikoglidis also abandoned the division into nights. Some of the stories in his translation had never before been translated into Greek. Actually, the published part might contain more original plots than the sheer numbers indicate, since Trikoglidis must have selected at least one from each group of the stories that occur in more or less identical form within the collection. From this group of six stories only two have been published in Greek.

The seventh volume contains three stories that were not part of the original corpus of the Nights: Syntipas i i panourgies kai i mihanorrafies ton gynaikon. Translated by Kostas Trikoglidis from the Arabic edition. Ganiaris [] reprint Athens: Iridanos Editions, Even though that collection and its embedded stories are included in the prin- cipal Oriental editions of the Nights, their history in the Greek language has been independent, as a Greek version of Syntipas already existed in the elev- enth century.

With the addition of these stories, the total number of stories from the Arabian Nights translated into Greek comes up to Only Sindbad remained Sevah, as his name was so well established in the Greek language that it was difficult to introduce a different one Trikoglidis — Hilies kai mia nyhtes. Metafrasi — Epilogi Stavrou A. Vlachou epimeleia Aggelou S. Vlachou Thousand and One Nights.

Translated and Selected by Stavros A. Vlahos [edited by A. Hermeias, We can thus safely assume that any influence of written versions of the Nights in Greek oral tradition is due to the European translations, in particular those by Galland and Burton. The only Greek translation prepared directly from an Arabic text comes too late to interfere decisively with oral tradition.

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Kaplanoglou However, the most important observation concerning the Greek trans- lations is related to the fact that at least half of the main corpus of the Nights has never been published in Greek translation. This gap could probably be filled with the publication of the unpublished part of the Trikog- lidis translation. Written Literature and Orality The exchange between Greek oral tradition and Oriental tradition neither be- gins nor ends with the Greek translations of the Nights.

Well before the Euro- pean translations from Arabic, oral channels of transmission existed. These channels must be considered in a mutual perspective.

On the one hand, traces of classical and Hellenistic Greek literature and culture have been detected in the corpus of the Nights see Chauvin ; Macdonald ; Horovitz ; Grunebaum On the other, Greek folklorists usually consider the long Ottoman occupation an influential phase in the exchange between Greece — and the Balkans in general — and the Orient. While, during this process, Turkish culture may to some extent have transmitted its own imagery through the Arabian tales, the effect of direct Arabic influence on Greek tradition is considerably lighter.

Meraklis In this respect, prominent Greek folklore scholar Georgios A. Already eighteenth century travelers in Greece observed that kind of narrative kinship which they largely attributed to an Oriental and Arabic heritage de Guys Nikolaos G. Politis — , the founder of Folklore Studies in Greece, also referred to those analogies in one of his early studies in discussing a motif from the Odyssey Politis Politis avoided committing himself to any particular origin instead preferring to explain the phenomenon by a model of three traditions communicating with each other: In general, the distinct cultural background of each era affected the thematic loans as well as the style of narration ruling the various translations.

As a case in point, explicit references to sexual intercourse are extremely rare in Greek oral tradition where meaningful standard expressions are preferred in- stead. Papachristophorou In contrast, oral folktales such as the majority of the reg- istered Greek ones, opt for an everyday type of speech avoiding complicated expressions.

In a similar vein, Greek folktales would extend their length by ad- ding episodes, whereas tales in the Nights turn to describing details or deviate into poetry see MacDonald The distinction between Greek folktales and stories from the Arabian Nights relates to both narrative style and cultural specifics. At the same time it is in accordance with the mnemonic procedure of remembering and retelling folktales as well as the maintenance of an interior rhythm during the time of narration.

Another possible reason for the stylistic differences between the Nights and Greek folktales is the socio-historical context of the two corpora.

The registers of the Greek folktales here referred to originate from traditional agricultural communities of the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. This means that the narration was clearly posited in the framework of an acceptable social behavior according to the rules of those communities. Their rules would in- clude a sense of economy, and the resulting modesty would permit a certain degree of diversion only for jocular narratives, even though there again de- tailed descriptions would not be tolerated.

In other words, laughing about a jocular narrative is more due to the signified than to the signifier. These stylistic arguments affect all of the tale-types dis- cussed below. Therefore, the amount of registered Greek variants in the following table above all indicates the dissemination of a given tale-type in the Greek ter- ritory before The Arabian Nights in Greece No.

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AT No. None 60 vol. None 75 69 vol. On the other hand, only a few of the tales belong to those popular in Greek tradition with more than 20 registered variants while not regularly corresponding to a translated story from the Nights.

The quantitative evalu- ation suggests that the Greek translations of the Nights are not a main point of entrance into Greek oral tradition for those tales. The Forty Thieves, AT Independently of a high or low dissemination of the Greek variants, some of the plots and themes have evolved in unexpected ways in Greek tradition. Search for the Golden Bird. In the Greek variants, several elements are not represented, such as the lower maternal origin of the third son or his mar- riage with two or three princesses during his adventures.

A major difference in the Greek vari- ants of AT The Animal Languages is the fact that the laborer has received the gift to understand the language of the animals from a grateful snake.

Thousand and One Nights. Now First Completely Done into English Prose and Verse

This motif is also known from Greek mythology in the story of Melampous. Instead of AT A: The Greek variants of AT The Entrapped Suitors, corresponding to three stories from the Nights Chauvin: In the Greek texts, faithfulness and faithlessness are described in the same contexts and become extremely confusing in very similar plots.

Here, we recognize a process common in oral tradition, especially jokes and gossip, to consistently confuse truth and falsehood in order to veil deviant social beha- vior Papachristophorou The motifs related to the clever peasant girl Mot. J Here the debate of the couple consists of a codified dialogue, quite dif- ferent in each variant, or in the intelligent way the girl divides a roast chicken for the members of her family according to their status such as in AT The Wise Carving of the Fowl.

Apart from the clever argument, however, the two plots differ so much that they can hardly be considered as two variants of the same tale-type. Dissimulated inversions of certain themes are indicated by Greek variants of AT In the Greek texts, the daughter of the sea refuses to speak to her human husband un- less he tells her about her origins. Julnar in the Nights, on the contrary, breaks her self-imposed silence herself in order to tell her human husband about their forthcoming child and explain her own origins.

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It is a standard motif in the Greek variants of tale-type AT Through the motif of the supernatural wife, tale-type AT is affiliated with types AT The Mouse Cat, Frog, etc. As Megas has shown By further adding to the above-mentioned tales tale-type AT The Four Skillful Brothers, which is connected to the same story by the in- troduction of the three brothers who have fallen in love with the same woman, four tale-types from Greek oral tradition are in close connection with the tale from the corpus of the Nights.

The archery contest serves as an alternative introduction for two more tale- types in the Greek corpus, AT and AT Tale-type AT also pre- serves a considerable amount of points in common with the Arabian tale. Megas The animal form of the supernatural wife is also a dominant element in the Greek corpus of AT A: The Quest for the Unknown, even in those vari- ants that contain an alternative introduction.

There, the hero is of low social condition, usually a fisherman, and the supernatural bride appears in the form of a turtle he has captured in his net. According to Megas f.

This form of the tale-type is so popular in the Greek corpus 32 out of 80 and so similar to the three stories from the Nights that it can be considered their Greek equivalent.

These variants are close to the Greek legends about fairies with the only difference that the quest for the lost wife is successful. The alliance with a fairy always brings the hero to a position of power and wealth, a develop- ment that is in accordance with the legendary benefactor effect of the alliance between fairies and human beings.

Another persistent narrative element in those stories is the attachment of fairies to their children that is typical for fairy legends in general. Loans from legends appear to be quite common in the stories and tales we have examined on this occasion, revealing a more complex level of affiliation with this genre of orality, a suggestion enhanced by the kinship of the fairies of Greek oral tradition with the Nymphs and the Moirai Fates of Greek mythology Papachristophorou The Greek fairies are thus close to the three Fates who always predict an irrevocable destiny for humans on the third day of their life.

Moreover, they are close to the figure of Fortune that, while being unique for each human being, can be changed. This contradictory perception of destiny has probably affected the dissemination of several tale-types related to stories from the Nights elaborating the theme of destiny.

Conclusion While Greek oral tradition offered a fertile soil for the creative adaptation of various tales included in the corpus of the Arabian Nights, it did not do so for all of them. At the same time, the similarities discussed above are neither al- ways explicit nor do they always concern entire tale-types.

Even so, they sug- gest a considerable exchange between the narratives of the Nights and Greek oral tradition. Most likely, the introduction of specific narratives into Greek oral tradition was not, however, due to the literary tradition of the Nights in Greek translation or other European translations. Since the peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean area share a secular history of co-habitation through both invasions and commercial ex- change, the reception ground was even more fertile.

This fact applies in general to the Balkan region.

The period of four or five centuries of Ottoman occu- pation had profoundly familiarized the peoples of the Balkan with Oriental mentality. That historical impact affected the approach of modern Greek scholars, who, starting with the middle of the eighteenth century, debated the argument of an uninterrupted historical continuity whose origins were posited in ancient Greece, and instead argued for a cultural kinship with the Occident towards which the newly born Greek nation was bound to turn see Dimaras Against that backdrop, the Arabian Nights at the historical mo- ment of their introduction into scholarly consciousness in Greece could not offer an attractive field for comparative research.

Nevertheless, the field for studying the similarities of narrative constituents and the socio-cultural el- ements that facilitated their reception is vast, while divergence and variety be- speak the mechanisms of oral tradition.

Georgiou A. Katalogos ellinikon paramythion George A. Catalogue of Greek Folktales. AT —; vol. AT — Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Mille et un contes de la nuit. Gallimard, Chauvin, Victor: Harrassowitz, — Folktales and Society: Story-telling in a Hungarian Peasant Community. Transated by Emily M. Indiana University Press, Dimaras, Konstantinos Th.: Neoellinikos Diafotismos Modern Greek Enlightenment.

Ermis, Dragoumis, Nicolaos: Oi kata tin Anatolin Mythologoi Mythologists in the Orient. Pandora 1,3 69— Steiner, Essai de classification. Bey- routh: El-Shamy, Hasan: The Demographic Factor. The Telling of Stories. Approaches to a Traditional Craft. Odense University Press, , 63— Gerhardt, Mia I.: The Art of Story-telling: Brill, Grunebaum, Gustave E.

Histoire et civilisation. You are on page 1of 1 Search inside document The collection of Arabian Nights Stories is the most famous literary product of a classical Islamic Civilization that was formed through a merging of Arabic culture especially religion and the great imperial traditions of the eastern Mediterranean and the Persian empire of the Sassanians.

Ironically, the work was not widely accepted as serious literature by the intellectual and literary elite of the Islamic world. This rejection reflects the Koran's condemnation of fictional narratives as lying. Most traditional Arabic narrative was didactic or religious - history, useful knowledge moral instruction. Imagination and fantasy were more commonly expressed in poetry which had a tradition in Arabic life pre-dating Islam and was not constrained by religious concerns. The Arabian Nights has often been banned by Arab governments even as recently as when Egypt issued a ban.

The first documented evidence for the collection is a 12th century Cairene notebook : the oldest manuscripts date from the 15th century and consist of about nights. The stories were circulated in manuscript for centuries until they were written down in a definite form during the late 13th century, somewhere in Syria or Egypt.

All later manuscript versions originate in this now-lost document and they fall into two main bunches one developed in Syria and the other in Egypt. The Syrian collection remained close to the original.As a case in point, explicit references to sexual intercourse are extremely rare in Greek oral tradition where meaningful standard expressions are preferred in- stead.

The textual history of the Nights before Galland strongly suggests that complete manuscripts of the Nights in Arabic had not been available at least since the date of the oldest preserved manuscript dating from the fifteenth century. While existing studies indicate a certain silence about the relationship of Greek and Oriental narrative traditions, they also reveal the preference of Greek scholars for con- necting modern Greece to its classical and Western history.

The Egyptian collection, on the other hand, absorbed many further stories in an apparent quest to actually arrive at the nights of the title. She hung the lamb's other half onto a hook in a place where there was a draft of air, although Wardan did not know where this draft came from. Ta paramythia mas Our Folktales. Written by Arabic writers from tales gathered in India, Persia and across the great Arab Empire, the One Thousand and One Nights are the never-ending stories told by Shahrazad night after night, under sentence of death, to the king Shahrayar who has vowed to marry a virgin every night and kill her in the morning.

The following comparison shows several degrees of exchange between the two narrative corpora. For our present considerations, it is revealing to see that two tales appear in both works even right after the other without any intervening passages or other tales.

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