MICROPROCESSOR PDF NOTES
PDF | On Dec 13, , myavr.infoi and others published microprocessor notes. Lecture Note. On. Microprocessor and Microcontroller. Theory and Applications. Subject Code:BEE Semester: 5 th. Branch: EE and EEE. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors. Lecture Notes. Module 1 learning unit 1. • A Computer is a programmable machine.
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Basic Concepts of Microprocessors. • Differences between: – Microcomputer – a computer with a microprocessor as its CPU. Includes memory, I/O etc. Microprocessors i. About the Tutorial. A microprocessor is a controlling unit of a micro-computer, fabricated on a small chip capable of performing Arithmetic. What is the history of the development of the microprocessor? – How does Microprocessor is a computer Central Processing Unit (CPU).
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ECE571: Advanced Microprocessor-Based Design
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Units Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units SI. If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. It is set, when the operation performed in the ALU results in zero all 8 bits are zero , otherwise it is reset. It helps in determining if two numbers are equal or not.
Auxillary Carry Flag: It occupies the fourth bit of the flag register. In an arithmetic operation, when a carry flag is generated by the third bit and passed on to the fourth bit, then Auxillary Carry flag is set. If not flag is reset.
Note — This is the only flag register in which is not accessible by user. Parity FlagL: It occupies the second bit of the flag register. Carry Flag: It occupies the zeroth bit of the flag register.
If the arithmetic operation results in a carry if result is more than 8 bit , then Carry Flag is set; otherwise it is reset.
The size of these registers is 16 bits because the memory addresses are 16 bits.
They are :- Program Counter: This register is used to sequence the execution of the instructions. Data are accessed in the Data Segment by an offset address or the content of other register that holds the offset address.
Stack Segment SS: SS defined the area of memory used for the stack. Extra Segment ES: ES is additional data segment that is used by some of the string to hold the destination data. Flag Registers of Flag register in EU is of bit and is shown in below fig: Flags Register determines the current state of the processor.
The development of a microprocessor-based system on a limited budget
They are modified automatically by CPU after mathematical operations, this allows to determine the type of the result, and to determine conditions to transfer control to other parts of the program. Conditional Flags 2. Control Flags Conditional Flags: Conditional flags represent result of last arithmetic or logical instruction executed. Conditional flags are as follows: This flag indicates an overflow condition for unsigned integer arithmetic.
It is also used in multiple-precision arithmetic. D0 — D3 to upper nibble i. D4 — D7 , the AF flag is set i.
This is not a general-purpose flag, it is used internally by the processor to perform Binary to BCD conversion. This flag is used to indicate the parity of result.
It is set; if the result of arithmetic or logical operation is zero else it is reset. In sign magnitude format the sign of number is indicated by MSB bit. If the result of operation is negative, sign flag is set. It occurs when signed numbers are added or subtracted. An OF indicates that the result has exceeded the capacity of machine. Control Flags: Control flags are set or reset deliberately to control the operations of the execution unit.
Control flags are as follows: Trap Flag TP: Interrupt Flag IF: Direction Flag DF: The status of the interrupt enable flag bit is updated at the beginning of each cycle. The status of the flag is indicated through this bus. When Low, it indicates that is in control of the bus. During a "Hold acknowledge" clock period, the tri-states the S6 pin and thus allows another bus master to take control of the status bus. Lines are decoded as follows: Thus by decoding these lines and using the decoder outputs as chip selects for memory chips, up to 4 Megabytes one Mega per segment of memory can be accesses.
This feature also provides a degree of protection by preventing write operations to one segment from erroneously overlapping into another segment and destroying information in that segment. Eight-bit oriented devices tied to the upper half of the bus would normally use BHE to control chip select functions. BHE is Low during T1 state of read, write and interrupt acknowledge cycles when a byte is to be transferred on the high portion of the bus. The S7 status information is available during T2, T3 and T4 states.
The signal is active Low and floats to 3-state during "hold" state. This pin is Low during T1 state for the first interrupt acknowledge cycle. This signal is active low during T2 and T3 states and the Two states of any read cycle.
This signal floats to tri-state in "hold acknowledge cycle". Otherwise the processor waits in an "idle" state. This input is synchronized internally during each clock cycle on the leading edge of CLK. Interrupt Request It is a level triggered input which is sampled during the last clock cycle of each instruction to determine if the processor should enter into an interrupt acknowledge operation. A subroutine is vectored to via an interrupt vector look up table located in system memory.
It can be internally masked by software resetting the interrupt enable bit INTR is internally synchronized. This signal is active HIGH. Non-Muskable Interrupt An edge triggered input, causes a type-2 interrupt.
A subroutine is vectored to via the interrupt vector look up table located in system memory. NMI is not maskable internally by software.
This input is internally synchronized. Reset Reset causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activity. The reset signal to can be generated by the Clock generation chip. To guarantee reset from power-up, the reset input must remain below 1. Correct operation is not guaranteed if the setup and hold times are not met. Clock Clock provides the basic timing for the processor and bus controller. Minimum frequency of 2 MHz is required, since the design of processors incorporates dynamic cells.
Since the does not have on-chip clock generation circuitry, and clock generator chip must be connected to the clock pin. The crystal connected to must have a frequency 3 times the internal frequency. In minimum mode, the itself generates all bus control signals. In maximum mode the three status signals are to be decoded to generate all the bus control signals. The corresponding 8 pins function descriptions for maximum mode is explained later.
WR is active for T2, T3 and Tw of any write cycle. Interrupt Acknowledge It is used as a read strobe for interrupt acknowledge cycles. It is an active high pulse during T1 of any bus cycle.
ALE signal is never floated. This signal floats to tri-state off during local bus "hold acknowledge". It will be low beginning with T2 until the middle of T4, while for a write cycle, it is active from the beginning of T2 until the middle of T4. It floats to tri-state off during local bus "hold acknowledge".Shaikh Abdul. EU has bit ALU, which can perform arithmetic and logical operations on 8-bit as well as bit. It had 29, transistors. Operations initiated by the slaves or peripherals.
Clock generation chip. Its clock speed was KHz. Each pin is bi-directional and has an internal pull up resistors. QS0, QS1 provide status to allow external tracking of the internal instruction queue.
By Majeed Patel. The CPU is divided into two independent functional units:
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