HIGH SPEED CMOS DESIGN STYLES PDF
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jan 1, , L. BISDOUNIS D. GOUVETAS O. KOUFOPAVLO and A comparative study of CMOS circuit design styles for low-power high-speed. HIGH SPEED CMOS DESIGN STYLES by. Kerry Bernstein. Keith M. Carrig. Christopher M. Durham. Patrick R. Hansen. David Hogenmiller. Edward J. Nowak . PDF High Speed CMOS Design Styles By Kerry Bernstein AUDIOBOOK WapSpot Mobi is the fastest and the best online youtube converter and.
It has full swing voltage levels. Clock and Clock signals cause both stages of the circuit to enter the evaluation phase simultaneously. This design uses one clock signal, which is in contrast to NP and PN complementary designs that use two complementary clock signals, but the speed of this circuit is reduced due to the pMOS transistors used in its design.
The other disadvantage of this implementation is that this circuit is not full swing, because discharging the load capacitance of Sum is done through pMOS transistors.
Multi-Output dynamic logic design is introduced with the aim of enhancing the previous reported design as shown in Figure 4 b.
Two pMOS transistors are used to charge the outputs in precharge phase. The bridge style is used to obtain Carry function and then, Carry itself creates the Sum function.
After adding the transistors needed for the inverted inputs to the ones in the design, there will be total 21 transistors. This function has only odd numbers of input. Majority Not Function The majority structure is implemented by three input capacitors. These three input capacitors prepare an input voltage that is applied for driving static CMOS inverter. For implementation, the majority not function circuit as shown in Figure 5 a , high threshold voltage Vth transistors have been used.
Needed this Book. "High Speed CMOS Design Styles".
The capacitor network is used to provide voltage division for implementing majority logic. The input capacitance of the CMOS inverter is negligible and has no effect on operation of the circuit. The Majority not function is implemented efficiently by using only capacitors and a static CMOS inverter. It uses three input capacitances in order to implement different functions with unique circuit implementation.
As shown, the number of transistors is reduced leading to lower power dissipation. In order to make the pre-discharge circuit working as a Majority Not Function, the threshold voltages of pMOS transistor is reduced to This reduction in Vth influenced the performance of the circuit, but on the other side the lower power dissipation is gained. All these function could be designed by selecting the correct values for input capacitances.
NOT 43 0. Implementing voltage-mode multiple-valued logic MVL requires partitioning the total voltage range, zero to supply voltage in to many discrete levels. Thus, the dynamic range and the noise margin are highly dependent on the supply voltage. In current-mode circuits, currents are usually defined to have logical levels that are integer multiple of a reference current unit.
Current can be copied, scaled and algebraically sign-changed with a simple current mirror circuit. The main advantage of current mode comparing to the voltage mode is that the summation in current mode requires no extra elements. Another feature in current mode is that the direction of current can be used to show the sign and as a result the additional bit for representing the sign in numeric system, can be eliminated.
The main feature in current mode circuits is that we can design various logic circuits using threshold detector by changing threshold value and sometimes by increasing or decreasing the number of inputs. The designing of threshold value is possible by changing only the threshold detector transistors dimensions.
As can be observed, the uniform structure of current mode circuits, easily allows the designer to increase the number of inputs, while in the voltage mode, this is only possible with increasing the number of transistors. If the sum of the inputs is greater than logic 1. In the circuit illustrated in Figure 7 a , both inputs and outputs are of current in gender.
M1 transistor converts quantities of the input currents into voltage and provide it to an inverter. The threshold voltage of the inverter is pointed out with TD and provided to the designer. M2 transistor is switched on and off under the control of the inverter, thus connects and disconnects the output current. If different quantities of TD are specified, the produced functions in the output of this circuit are also changed. As an instance, with a threshold detector from 0.
The circuit in Figure 7 b is same as the circuit of Figure 7 a with a difference that in the output which is sinking instead of source.
As the Table 2 exhibit, Sum is different in merely two places with Majority not function when inputs are or These transistors must be arranged in such a way that ensures the correctness of the circuit as shown in Figure 8.
Three capacitors are used to generate the Carry majority not function output. In order to design circuit operations in the given state one nMOS and one pMOS pass transistor are added to the circuit as shown in Figure 5. Table 2.
In view of the fact that three separate capacitors are used for designing each of these gates and that these input capacitors influence the circuit performance by replacing the number of capacitors, the overall performance of the system can be improved.
Therefore we have eliminated six out of the nine capacitors. Simulation results illustrate that the reported adder circuits having low PDP works properly at low voltage . Outputs of the circuit will be connected to power supply or ground and therewith, the circuit has good drive capability. These inverter based full adders are a suitable structure for the construction of low-power and high-performance VLSI systems.
The basic idea to generate Sum from Carry by using 5 inputs majority-not function with three input signals A,B,C and with two Carry input signals are illustrated in Table 2 . This design is based on the idea that the carry output function is the same as 3- input majority function shown in Figure A A Maj. B Carry Maj. Its output Sum function is based on 5 input majority-not gates. In this design, the first majority-not gate is implemented with a high-performance CMOS bridge circuit .
This design uses more transistors, called bridge transistors, sharing transistors of different paths to generate new paths from supply lines to circuit outputs.
The bridge design style offers more regularity and higher performance than the other CMOS design styles and is completely symmetric in structure. Its output Sum function is based on Current mode majority function. In this design, the first majority-not gate is implemented with a high-performance dynamic CMOS bridge circuit .
The advantage of this adder cell is higher speed, lower transistor count and it compromises noise margin. Full adder output Carry function is designed with 3 input Majority Not function logic and output Sum function generated in bridge logic style as shown in Figure 12 a.
In this design, the majority-not gate is implemented with a capacitors and high-performance CMOS bridge circuit. This type of circuit is preferred in smaller area requirement with lesser delay at low voltage. The advantages of the dynamic CMOS logic style are its robustness against voltage scaling and transistor sizing high noise margins and thus reliable operation at low voltages and arbitrary even minimal transistor sizes ratio less logic are possible.
Input signals are connected to transistors gates only, which facilitates the usage and characterization of logic cells. Full adder output Carry function is designed in Pseudo logic style and output Sum function generated from 5 input Majority Not function logic as shown in Figure 13 b. In the current mode, the current which is pulled from the Carry transistor must be twice as much as the current from input transistors to satisfy the following equations .
Its output Sum function is based on current mode majority function. In this design, the first majority-not gate is implemented with a high-performance Static CMOS bridge circuit . In MixFA3 full adder output Carry function is designed with 3 input Majority Not function logic and output Sum function generated in current mode majority function logic style as shown in Figure 14 b.
In this design, the majority-not gate is implemented with capacitors. The results of the designed circuits in this paper are compared with a reported standard CMOS full adder circuits.
To perform a comparative study of simulation performance of various full adder topologies, the same input test pattern have used 3input signals A, B, C and these signals are square waves of equal on and off times. Each 1-bit full adder has been analyzed in terms of propagation delay, average power dissipation and their products.
PDP and EDP are particularly important when low power and high speed operation are needed and its comparison at 1. The maximum delay is taken as the cell delay. The delays of the newly designed circuits are compared with other reported circuits. Figure 15 shows that the delay of the reported dynamic adders is low as compared with conventional static full adder circuits.
However, simulation results show that the newly designed circuits can work at other supply voltages and also it is completely robust to voltage variations. The area overhead of the designed circuits is lower than that of reported conventional adders and also than that of some other adder circuits.
By optimizing the capacitance parameters and transistor sizes of the full adders that have been considered, it is possible to reduce the delay of all adders without significantly increasing the power consumption, and transistor sizes can be set to achieve minimum power delay product PDP and energy delay product EDP.
All adders are designed with minimum transistor sizes initially and then simulated. Table 3. Results and Discussion 6.
The power consumption worsens with the increase in the voltage supply. Hybrid full adder HyFA4 has the lowest power consumption in comparison to the other simulated adder circuits. It worked successfully at low voltage supply. The MixFA3 full adder consumes higher power due to use of high power consuming current mode majority function in a single unit. Delay Comparison Similar to previous simulation setup, the average propagation delay has been studied with the supply voltage variation in all circuits.
Simulation results in Figure 14 show that MajFA1 is the best circuit in terms of speed at 1. It has high delay and high sensitivity against voltage scaling. Design2 HyFA3 is the fastest full adder circuit. Mixed mode adders have almost the same delay at 1. Energy delay product EDP Comparison Figure 16 shows the energy delay product of the Hybrid and mixed mode adder circuits.
The conditions are same as power and delay simulation setups. An extensive performance analysis of 1-bit MOSCAP based hybrid majority function and current mixed mode function full adders have been presented.
Different adder logic styles have been implemented, simulated, analyzed and compared. Using the adder categorization and hybrid- CMOS design style, many full adders can be conceived. As an example, new full adders designed using hybrid-majority function design style with C-CMOS, Bridge and Pseudo logic circuit are presented in this paper that targets minimum delay and EDP.
The comparison of simulation results shows that the performance of the newly mixed mode designs are superior in terms of high-speed as against other reference designs of full adder circuits. Weste and K. Addison —Wesley. Weste and D. Jha and S. Gupta, Testing of Digital Systems. Cambridge, U. Cambridge Univ. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B.
Pedram and M. Zhuang and H. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. Chandrakasan and R. Brent and H. Computer, Vol.
DOWNL0AD in [P.D.F] High Speed CMOS Design Styles [F.u.l.l ~Books~]
Han and D. Computer Arithmetic, Italy, pp. Oklobdzija, B. Zeydel, H. Dao S. Mathew and R. VLSI Syst. Dao ,B.
Zeydel and V. Issam, A Khater, A. Bellaouar and M. Shalem, E. John and L. Great Lake Symp. VLSI, pp. Circuits Devices Systems, Vol. Shams, Tarek K. Darwish, and Magdy A. Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol. Wairya, R.
Nagaria and S. Jiang, A. Alsheridah, Y. Wang, E. Nagaria, S.
Sharma, R. On Nanotechnology, Vol. Navi, R. Faghih, M. Moaiyeri, B. Mazloom Nezhad, O. Hashemipour and K. Navi, V. Foroutan, M. Rahimi, M. Maeen, M. Ebrahimpour, M. Kaveh, O. Haghparast and K. Freitas and K. Navi, A. Kazeminejad and D.
International Symp. Ghorbannia Delavar, K. Navi and O. Navi, M. Kazemi Parsa and A.
Pishvaie, K. Navi and M. Foroutan, B. Mazloomnejad, Sh. Bahrololoumi, O. The logic style used in logic gates basically influences the speed, size, power dissipation, and the wiring complexity of a circuit. The circuit delay is determined by the number of inversion levels, the number of transistors in series, transistor sizes i.
Circuit size depends upon the number of transistors, their sizes and on the wiring complexity. Some of them use one logic style for the whole full adder while the other use more than one logic style for their implementation. Power is one of the vital resources, hence the designers try to save it while designing a system. Power dissipation depends upon the switching activity, node capacitances made up of gate, diffusion, and wire capacitances , and control circuit size.
At the device level, reducing the supply voltage and reducing the threshold voltage accordingly would reduce the power consumption. Scaling the supply voltage appears to be the well-known means to reduce power consumption. However, lower-supply voltage increases circuit delay and degrades the drivability of the cells designed with a certain logic style.
One of the most significant obstacle in decreasing the supply voltage is the large transistor count and loss problem. By selecting proper ratio we can minimize the power dissipation without decreasing the supply voltage.
D.O.W.N.L.O.A.D in [P.D.F] High Speed CMOS Design Styles [F.u.l.l Books]
To summarize, some of the performance criteria are considered in the design and evaluation of adder cells and some are utilized for the ease of design, robustness, silicon area, delay, and power consumption. The paper is organized section wise. Section 2 describes the review of full adder circuit topologies. The simulation results are analyzed and compared in Section 6.
Finally, Section 7 concludes the paper. Review of Full Adder Topologies In recent years, several variants of different logic styles have been proposed to implement 1-bit adder cells [ 5 — 28 ].
Re: Needed this Book. "High Speed CMOS Design Styles&am
There are two types of full adders in case of logic structure. One is static and the other is dynamic style. Static full adders are commonly more reliable, simpler and are lower power consuming than dynamic ones. Dynamic is an alternative logic style to design a logic function. It has some advantages over the static mode such as faster switching speeds, no static power consumption, nonratioed logic, full swing voltage levels, and lesser number of transistors.
This also results in a reduction in the capacitive load at the output node, which is the basis for the delay advantage. There are various issues related to the full adder like power consumption, performance, area, noise immunity, regularity and good driving ability. Many researchers have combined these two structures and have proposed hybrid dynamic-static full adders. They have investigated different approaches realizing adders using CMOS technology each having its own pros and cons.
Full adder circuits can be divided into two groups on the basis of output. The first group of full adders have full swing output. The second group comprises of full adders 10T, 9T and 8T without full swing outputs [ 21 — 28 ].
The nonfull swing full adders are useful in building up larger circuits as multiple bit input adder and multipliers. One such application is the Manchester Carry-Look Ahead chain. The full adders of first group have good driving ability, high number of transistors, large area, and usually higher power consumption in comparison to the second group.
There are standard implementations for the full-adder cells which are used as the basis of comparison in this paper. Some of the standard implementations are as follows. CMOS logic styles have been used to implement the low-power 1-bit adder cells.
The advantage of complementary CMOS style is its robustness against voltage scaling and transistor sizing, which are essential to provide reliable operation at low voltage with arbitrary transistor sizes.
The pass-transistor logic PTL is a better way to implement circuits designed for low power applications. The low power pass-transistor logic and its design analysis procedures were reported in [ 12 , 13 ]. Its advantage is that one pass-transistor network either pMOS or nMOS is sufficient to implement the logic function, which results in lower number of transistors and smaller input load. Moreover, direct -to-ground paths, which may lead to short-circuit energy dissipation, are eliminated.
Pseudo nMOS full adder cell operates on pseudo logic, which is referred to as ratioed style. This full adder cell uses 14 transistors to realize the negative addition function. The advantage of pseudo nMOS adder cell is its higher speed compared to conventional full adder and less transistor count. The disadvantage of pseudo nMOS cell is the static power consumption of the pull-up transistor as well as the reduced output voltage swing, which makes this adder cell more susceptible to noise.
To increase the output swing, CMOS inverter is added to this circuit. Newly designed full adder [ 20 ] is a combination of low power transmission gates and pseudo nMOS gates as depicted in Figure 2. Transmission gate consists of a pMOS transistor and an nMOS transistor that are connected in parallel, which is a particular type of pass-transistor logic circuit. There is no voltage drop at output node, but it requires twice the number of transistors to design similar function.
Figure 2: TG-Pseudo adder cell. Another full adder is the Complementary Pass Transistor Logic CPL with swing restoration, which uses 32 transistors [ 5 , 6 , 30 , 31 ].
CPL adder produces many intermediate nodes and their complement to give the outputs. The most important features of CPL include the small stack height and low output voltage swing at the internal node which contribute to reduction in power consumption. The CPL suffers from static power consumption due to the low swing at the gates of the output inverters.High Speed CMOS Design Styles is an excellent source of ideas and a compilation of observations that highlight how different approaches trade off critical parameters in design and process space.
This technique helps in reducing power consumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of mixed- mode logic designs. Description High Speed CMOS Design Styles is written for the graduate-level student or practicing engineer who is primarily interested in circuit design. The most important features of CPL include the small stack height and low output voltage swing at the internal node which contribute to reduction in power consumption.
A XOR circuit based Transmission gate full adder 20T and Transmission function full adder 16T are designed to improve the circuit performance parameters.
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