FATAWA E ALAMGIRI URDU PDF
Fatawa Aalamgeeri Jild-1 to 10 Complete in Arabic+Urdu Original by Fatawa e Alamgiri (Fatawa e Hindiya) [Fiqh wa Usool-e-Fiqh]. Identifier. Fatawa-e-Alamgiri (also known as Fatawa-i-Hindiya and Fatawa-i Hindiyya) ( Arabic: الفتاوى .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. کتاب: فتاوي عالمگیری اردو مترجم: مولانا سید امیر علی رحمة الله Fatawa alamgiri urdu book in pdf.
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Urdu Translation From the Arabic Complete 10 Volumes PDF Books Al-Fatawa The Fatawa-e-Alamgiri is notable for several reasons. Fatawa Alamgeeri: Urdu Set Hanafi Fatwas collection Also Known as The Fatawa-e-Alamgiri is notable for several reasons: It was one of the earliest fiqhs It . Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah also known as Fatawa Alamgiri is a collection of Fatawa Mahmoodiya By Mufti Mahmood ul Hassan Gangohi, Urdu Shamaa-il- Tirmidhi, Urdu Tarjuma Wa Sharh Kasaail-e-Nabawi Arabic Books (PDF) Online.
This, however, is an erroneous assumption. A mufti is not required by Islam to answer each and every question.
Abdullah ibn Masud and Abdullah ibn Abbas, both Companions of the Prophet, relate that someone who gives an answer fatwa to every question is mad. In this regard, it is instructive to note that the early Muslim scholar Ibn Abi Laila says that he met Companions of the Prophet and that every one of them wanted that in place of him, some other Companion should narrate hadith reports or give fatwas.
Fatawa Alamgeeri in URDU
Large numbers of muftis do not fulfill even the basic qualifications for giving fatwas. According to Imam Shafi, a person who delivers fatwas must have several qualifications, including deep knowledge of the Quran, and good understanding of Hadith and Arabic grammar. He must be familiar with the differences in opinions on various issues among Islamic scholars.
Among the conditions for being a mufti that Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal lays down is that one must be aware of the conditions of the people—which means having a good understanding of contemporary social realities, of the impact of social and temporal changes on social life, of issues and problems that emerge from the evolution and development of society, and so on. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was of the view that in order for someone to be qualified to issue fatwas, he must be familiar with at least , hadith reports.
However, today, most of our muftis refer to fiqh, rather than hadith reports, for their fatwas. Another issue to consider is the fact that many muftis in India today are cut off from society. They are not part of the mainstream of society—not even of Muslim society. This is one reason why they are often unable to comprehend the actual nature of various issues they are asked to deliver fatwas on.
Imam Muhammad, a noted student of Imam Abu Hanifa, would walk through the market-place in order to understand it so that he could provide proper religious guidance to people on matters concerning the market. It was not that in order to answer the questions that people asked him on these issues he relied simply on predetermined views, without deep investigation of the particular case before him.
Compare this with an incident that took place some years ago. A well-known Islamic institution in India was asked to give its opinion on an issue concerning robots.
It was this lack of awareness that drove some 18th and 19th century ulema to denounce and oppose useful inventions such as the printing press, the telephone, telegrams and loudspeakers. This same lack of awareness underlies the opposition today in some Islamic circles to things like televisions, cameras and the Internet. A highly-respected Islamic institution in India even issued a fatwa that only such television channels were permissible for Muslims to watch as were without images!
Such naivety is regarded as piety in some circles! As the above instances illustrate, some sections of our religious class are characterized by extreme stagnation. On the question of photography, as well as a host of other issues, ulema in Arab countries have adopted a positive approach.
Yet, the majority of the ulema in South Asia are still confused about several such issues.
Their mindset is such that their major focus is on declaring this or that to be forbidden. In this regard, it is useful to note that according to Ibn Qayyim, that if the Prophet declared something to be forbidden, then, at the same time, he would indicate an appropriate substitute for it. In his at-Tabligh, he recommended that in the present context, it was not proper to declare something halal or permissible to be haram or forbidden only on the basis of some doubt or the other with regard to it.
He suggested that even issues about which there was doubt about them being forbidden or permissible should be considered to be permissible. He cautioned against rigidity in fatwas, noting that expansiveness was a feature of the Shariah. If fatwas were based on rigidity, he remarked, people might begin to believe that the Shariah itself was rigid and that it was nothing but prohibitions la yajuz.
On the other hand, if fatwas helped people by making it easier for them to follow religious commandments, this expansiveness would lead people to appreciate the Shariah as good and merciful. In this way, they would come to love the Shariah, and this would inculcate love for God in their hearts. The Prophet wanted people to develop love for Islam, not aversion for it.
He is said to have advised Yassiru wala tuassiru, wa bashshiru wala tunaffiru, which means that one should make things easy, not difficult, and one should give people good tidings and not make them hate. As Ibn Qayyim opines, if a mufti conceals his knowledge by not giving a fatwa on a particular issue because doing so might cause harm to Islam and its followers, it is not a sin. If the mufti apprehends that there is a greater possibility of harm resulting from expressing an opinion in the form of a fatwa than by remaining silent, then he must abstain from giving a fatwa.
Likewise, if a mufti apprehends that he may not properly understand the issue put to him for a fatwa, it is necessary for him to adopt silence by not giving a fatwa.
These days, however, this issue is rarely considered. Very often, muftis ignore the sensitiveness of a fatwa and simply issue prefabricated fatwas, which leads to very grave misunderstandings.
There is, thus, an urgent need to re-structure the system of providing fatwas today. As Berkey has described in detail for the education in medieval Cairo , unlike medieval Western universities, in general madrasas had no distinct curriculum, did not issue diplomas.
The educational activities of the madrasas focused on the law, but included what Zaman called " Sharia sciences" as well as the rational sciences like philosophy, mathematics or medicine; the inclusion of these sciences sometimes reflect the personal interests of their donors, but indicate that scholars studied various different sciences.
Early on in Islamic history, a line of thought developed around the idea of mysticism , striving for the perfection of worship. Originating out of Syria and Iraq rather than the Hijaz , the idea of Sufism was related to devotional practices of eastern Christian monasticism , although monastic life in Islam is discouraged by the Quran.
During the 7th century, the ritual of Dhikr evolved as a "way of freeing the soul from the distractions of the world". Important early scholars who further elaborated on mysticism were Harith al-Muhasibi and Junayd al-Baghdadi ; the early Muslim conquests brought about Arab Muslim rule over large parts of the Hellenistic world. During the time of the Umayyad Caliphate , at latest, the scholars of the emerging Islamic society had become familiar with the classical philosophical and scientific traditions of the world they had conquered; the collection of classical works and their translation into the Arabian language initiated a period, known today as the Islamic Golden Age.
According to Hourani, the works of the classical scholars of antiquity were met with considerable intellectual curiosity by Islamic scholars. Hourani quotes al-Kindi , "the father of Islamic philosophy", as follows: "We should not be ashamed to acknowledge truth from whatever source it comes to us if it is brought to us by former generations and foreign peoples. For him who seeks the truth there is nothing of higher value than truth itself.
In general, the Islamic philosophers saw no contradiction between philosophy and the religion of Islam. However, according to Hourani, al-Farabi wrote that philosophy in its pure form was reserved for an intellectual elite, that ordinary people should rely for guidance on the sharia; the distinction between a scholarly elite and the less educated masses "was to become a commonplace of Islamic thought".
As exemplified by the works of al-Razi , during times, philosophy "was carried on as a private activity by medical men, pursued with discretion, met with suspicion"; the founder of Islamic philosophical ethics is Ibn Miskawayh He combined Aristotelian and Islamic ethics, explicitly mentioning the Nicomachean Ethics and its interpretati Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India , ruled from until his death in In his youth, he conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb , the sixth Mughal emperor, ascend to the throne a number of times.
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Shah's plans were intercepted by the emperor. In , he was imprisoned by Marathas for seven years. From to , he was governor of Akbarabad and Lahore.
After Aurangzeb's death his eldest son by his chief consort, Muhammad Azam Shah , declared himself successor, however was shortly defeated in the Battle of Jajau and overthrown by Bahadur Shah. During the reign of Bahadur Shah, the Rajput states of Jodhpur and Amber were annexed for a short time. Shah sparked an Islamic controversy in the khutba by inserting the declaration of Ali as wali , his reign was disturbed by several rebellions, the Sikhs under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur , Rajputs under Durgadas Rathore and fellow Mughal Kam Bakhsh.
During his grandfather's reign Muazzam was appointed vizer of Lahore from Shivaji raided the outskirts of Mughal Deccan's capital Aurangabad while the indolent Mu'azzam did little to prevent it. In , Mu'azzam organised an insurgency to overthrow Aurangzeb and proclaim himself the Mughal emperor; this plan may have been hatched at the instigation of the Marathas, Mu'azzam's own inclinations and sincerity are difficult to gauge. Anyway, Aurangzeb learned about the plot and sent Mu'azzam's mother Begum Nawab Bai to dissuade Mu'azzam from rebellion.
Nawab Bai brought Mu'azzam back to the Mughal court, where he spent the next several years under Aurangzeb's supervision. However, Mu'azzam revolted in on the pretext of protesting Aurangzeb's treatment of Rajput chiefs. Once again, Aurangzeb followed his previous policy to dissuade Mu'azzam with gentleness and to place him under greater vigilance. For the next seven years, from to , Mu'azzam was a "grudgingly obedient son". In , he was sent by Aurangzeb to the Deccan to crush a revolt raised by his step-brother Sultan Muhammad Akbar.
According to the historian Munis Faruqui, Mu'azzam deliberately failed in his mission. In , he was ordered by Aurangzeb to march to the Konkan region to prevent the still rebellious Akbar from fleeing the country, but again Mu'azzam's "half-hearted" mission failed to achieve the assigned goal; the emperor still persisted in entrusting his son with responsibilities, in , Aurangzeb ordered Mu'azzam to march against the sultanate of Golconda.
Within weeks, the emperor's spies intercepted treasonous messages exchanged between Mu'azzam and Abul Hasan , the ruler of Golconda. This was something. Aurangzeb imprisoned him. Mu'azzam's loyal servants were moved by his father into the imperial service, the remaining servants were sacked.
Fatawa alamgiri urdu book in pdf
Aurangzeb forbade Mu'azzam to cut his nails or hair for six months, gave orders depriving him of "good food or cold water. Around , Aurangzeb rehabilitated Mu'azzam and allowed him "to rebuild his household", rehiring some of his servants, dismissed. Aurangzeb continued to spy on his son, appointing his men to Mu'azzam's household, sending informants to his harem and choosing his representatives at the imperial court.
Mu'azzam and his sons were transferred from the Deccan to north India , were forbidden to lead military expeditions in that region for the rest of Aurangzeb's reign. Although the commander imposed "heavy taxation" on the rajas, he thought it necessary to leave the Sikhs undisturbed in their fortified city of Anandpur and refused to wage war against them out of "genuine respect" for their religion. That year Mu'azzam was appointed governor of Akbarabad , in he was transferred to Lahore.
After the death of Amin Khan he assumed that position in , holding it until his father's death in Without appointing a crown prince, Aurangzeb died in when Mu'azzam was governor of Kabul and his half-brothers were the governors of the Deccan and Gujarat respectively. All three sons intended to win the crown, Kam Bakhsh began minting coins in his name.
Azam prepared to march to Agra and declare himself successor, but was defeated by Mu'azzam at the Battle of Jajau in June Azam and his son, Ali Tabar, were killed in the battle. With his predecessors unable to make significant gains in Rajputana , after ascending the throne, Shah made plans to annexe cities of the region to the Mughal empire.
In the religion of Islam it refers to punishments that under Islamic law are mandated and fixed by God; these punishments were applied in pre-modern Islam, their use in some modern states has been a source of controversy. Traditional Islamic jurisprudence divides crimes into those against man; the former are seen to violate God's hudud or "boundaries", they are associated with punishments specified in the Quran and in some cases inferred from hadith.
The offenses incurring hudud punishments are zina, unfounded accusations of zina, drinking alcohol , highway robbery, some forms of theft.
Jurists have differed as to whether apostasy from Islam and rebellion against a lawful Islamic ruler are hudud crimes. Hudud punishments range from public lashing to publicly stoning to death, amputation of hands and crucifixion. Hudud crimes cannot be pardoned by the victim or by the state, the punishments must be carried out in public; these punishments were implemented in practice, because the evidentiary standards were impossibly high.
For example, meeting hudud requirements for zina and theft was impossible without a confession, which could be invalidated by a retraction.
Based on a hadith, jurists stipulated that hudud punishments should be averted by the slightest doubts or ambiguities; the harsher hudud punishments were meant to deter and to convey the gravity of offenses against God, rather than to be carried out. During the 19th century, sharia-based criminal laws were replaced by statutes inspired by European models nearly everywhere in the Islamic world, except some conservative regions such as the Arabian peninsula; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia.
Reinstatement of hudud punishments has had particular symbolic importance for these groups because of their Quranic origin, their advocates have disregarded the stringent traditional restrictions on their application.
In practice, in the countries where hudud have been incorporated into the legal code under Islamist pressure, they have been used sparingly or not at all, their application has varied depending on local political climate. Their use has been a subject of debate. Hudud is not the only form of punishment under sharia. For offenses against man — the other type of crime in Sharia — that involve inflicting bodily harm Islamic law prescribes a retaliatory punishment analogous to the crime or monetary compensation.
Criminals who escaped a hudud punishment could still receive a ta'zir sentence. In practice, since early on in Islamic history, criminal cases were handled by ruler-administered courts or local police using procedures that were only loosely related to sharia. Hudud crimes are defined in the Sunnah ; the Qur'an describes several hudud crimes and in some cases sets out punishments.
The hudud crime of theft is referred to in Quranic verse As to the thief, male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah , for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power; the crime of "robbery and civil disturbance against Islam" inside a Muslim state, according to some Muslim scholars, is referred to in Quranic verse The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land:, their disgrace in this world, a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.
The crime of illicit consensual sex is referred to in several verses, including Quranic verse The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication - whip each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment; the crime of "accusation of illicit sex or rape against chaste women without four witnesses" and a hudud punishment is based on Quranic verses , , and , among others Quranic verse.
And those who accuse chaste women and do not bring four witnesses - flog them with eighty stripes and do not accept their witness thereafter. Indeed they themselves are impure; the crime of intoxication is referred to in Quranic verse , hudud punishment is described in hadiths : O ye who believe!
Intoxicants and gambling and arrows, are an abomination , - of Satan's handwork: eschew such, that ye may prosper; the sahih hadiths, a compilation of sayings and traditions of Muhammad as observed by his companions, are considered by Sunni Muslims to be the most trusted source of Islamic law after the Quran.
They extensively describe hudud punishments. In some cases Islamic scholars have used hadiths to establish hudud punishments, which are not mentioned in the Quran. Thus, stoning as punishment for zina is based on hadiths that narrate episodes where Muhammad and his successors prescribed it; the tendency to use existence of a shubha to avoid hudud punishments is based on a hadith that states "avert hadd punishment in case of shubha".
The offences subject to hudud punishment are: Some types of theft. Punished with amputation of a hand.
With a land area of 2,, km2, Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East , the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south, it is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains.
As of October , the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; the territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. The prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world.Got rid of the Syed Brothers. We have mentioned above that Shustrai and Ibn Battutah, respectively belonging to the Ja'fari and Maliki schools of Islamic law, were appointed qadis in India.
This document is known as Mahdar. In the name of training would-be muftis, almost all that they do is to ask students to copy fatwas from different texts. Bioarchaeological Investigations - Jennifer L. In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as al-Magar whose epicenter lay in mod Lahore Lahore is a city in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Fatawaa is a digital fatawa shami urdu pdf publishing platform fatawa shami makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Manufactured goods and peasant-grown cash crops were sold throughout the world. The Fatawa-e-Alamgiri also formalized the legal principle of Muhtasibor office of censor  that was already in use by previous rulers of the Mughal Empire.
All three sons intended to win the crown, Kam Bakhsh began minting coins in his name.