ESSENTIALS OF STRENGTH TRAINING AND CONDITIONING 3RD EDITION PDF
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This principle says that you must give the athletes body an unambiguous message of what you want it to become by providing training stressors that mimic all, or parts, of the target physical capacities or skills. The SAID principle constrains strength training and conditioning coaches in their program designs to achieve specific adaptations based on the demands put on the system. A training lesson is a single bout of training where the athlete begins a session with a warm-up, practices some aspect of the sport or strength training and conditioning, and then ends the session with a cool-down.
A single training lesson is relatively powerless in influencing the adaptation of an athlete. Only by the accumulation of about a weeks or microcycles worth of training stimuli is the athlete forced to adapt to the new training demands. Program In the strength training and conditioning world, a program is the actual exercises, sets, repetitions, resistances, inter-set rest periods, inter-lesson rest periods, and so forth.
An example program is provided at the end of this chapter. Annual Plan Basis of Program Design Decisions Training theory goes to considerable lengths to describe the time dimension in designing training tasks. An annual plan is the calendar-based approach used to place the various demands of training within a calendar year. Usually, the annual plan begins immediately following the last competition of the previous season, and ends after the last competition of the succeeding season.
For example, nearly all program designs are based on a simple yet profound idea proffered by Hans Selye called the General Adaptation Syndrome GAS 49, The athlete begins with a level of being called homeostasis 7.
The alarm phase occurs when the athlete is presented with a large enough stressor to evoke fatigue 16, Stress is defined as anything that causes an organism, or in this case an athlete, to react 49, The alarm stage is distinguished by markers of fatigue, reduced performance abilities, and decreased physical capacities.
Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning-3rd Edition
The resistance phase occurs when the body temporarily adapts to the applied stressor and is able to cope physically with the demands. Finally, if the stressor is too great to continue to resist, the stimulation increases, or the athlete is not allowed to rest, then the body slips into the exhaustion phase.
During the exhaustion phase, symptoms of the alarm phase return but the magnitude is greater and the fatigue much more profound. Figure shows the three stages of Selyes stress adaptation model overreaching, supercompensation, overtraining , and demonstrates how performance is affected in each of the three phases. Training Load Prescriptions Training theory is not useful unless it can be applied to the real world of training.
Figure shows how training loads are applied in a systematic fashion to take advantage of the GAS, and systematically improve athletic performance. Note that the principle of progression is important when prescribing training loads throughout a program to ensure proper, and desired, adaptations. Rules for Exercise Selection and Prescription The field of strength training and conditioning is driven by research-based information that allows for the proper utilization of sets, repetitions, volume, and rest periods to elicit desired physiological adaptations.
The information surrounding these topics has been a topic of discussion for many years. Professional organizations have guidelines and recommendations associated with these variables that allow strength training and conditioning coaches to target specific adaptations to the physiological system based on the guidelines provided 3,4,5,24, It is imperative that strength training and conditioning coaches understand these guidelines, and the application of these guidelines, to induce the desired adaptations for the athletes that they work with.
These guidelines and recommendations not only promote certain training adaptations, but also decrease the likelihood of injuries during training. Direct access to these guidelines and recommendations should be available to strength training and conditioning coaches at any facility. Access to this information will not only decrease the chance of injuries due to improper programming but also provide correct prescription to target physiological variables progressively during the course of a training macrocycle.
Refer to the sample program at the end of this chapter for further information on program design. Figure shows the spectrum of various repetition ranges and their relative placement over time.
Note that repetition ranges will be dictated by the resistance involved, such that one should attempt to keep the resistance in line with the repetitions diagramed in Figure Figure Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome 49,50 In Figure , athlete preparedness is represented by a curved line at the top of the graphic.
Homeostasis is the horizontal line labeled at the right. Note that the line that represents athletic preparedness shows that the athlete fatigues, recovers, and then supercompensates enters the resistance stage. If nothing else is done, the athlete returns to homeostasis via involution, or descends into overtraining and exhaustion due to the return of fatigue and the inability of the athlete to continue to compensate for the applied stressors.
Figure shows the Selye-type curves of adaptation together with an example of training loads and how the training loads, adaptation, rest periods, and timing work together.
Warm-Up and Stretching A warm-up is designed to prepare an athlete for training or competition, and can improve subsequent performance and lessen the risk of injuries. A warm-up should be incorporated in every program design.
A warm-up period is important before any athletic performance or physical activity, the goal being to prepare the athlete mentally and physically for exercise or competition.
A well-designed warm-up should increase muscle temperature, circulation, and provide an opportunity for skill rehearsal 1,28,37, Moreover, one of the aspects of a warm-up is simply to stir cellular content so the sarcoplasm becomes liquefied 43,45,47, These warm-up effects can have the following positive impacts on performance: Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and antagonist muscles 33 Basics of Strength and Conditioning 15 Figure Combination of Training Design Aspects in Relation to the General Adaptation Syndrome 49,50 Improvements in the rate of force development and reaction time 2 Improvements in muscle strength and power 14,24 Lowered viscous resistance in muscles 6,42,47,58 Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect, whereby higher temperatures facilitate oxygen release from hemoglobin and myoglobin 39 Increased blood flow to active muscles 39 Enhanced metabolic reactions 24 While the influence of a warm-up on injury prevention is unclear, the evidence suggests a positive effect, or no effect at all, on injury 15,21,29,52,53, The relationship between stretching and injury prevention is tenuous at best.
Components of a Warm-Up A total warm-up program includes the following two components 17,28,31,37 : A general warm-up period may consist of 5 10 min of slow activity, such as jogging or skipping. Alternatively, low-intensity sport-specific actions, such as dribbling a soccer ball, can be productive during this time.
This provides a very sport-specific general warm-up that aids in skill development and raises body temperature. The aim of this period is to increase heart rate, blood flow, deep muscle temperature, respiration rate, perspiration, and decrease viscosity of joint fluids. A specific warm-up period incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athletes sport.
It involves 8 12 min of dynamic stretching that focuses on movements that work through the range of motion required for the sport, such as the walking knee lift.
Sport-specific movements of increasing intensity, such as 16 Basics of Strength and Conditioning Figure Repetition Ranges for Specific Training Outcomes sprint drills, bounding activities, or jumping, follow the dynamic stretching. The more power necessary for the sport or activity, the more important the warm-up becomes.
Including high-intensity dynamic exercises can facilitate subsequent performance. This phase should also include rehearsal of the skills to be performed. A warm-up should progress gradually and provide sufficient intensity to increase muscle and core temperatures without causing fatigue or reducing energy stores.
It is likely that there are optimal levels of warm-ups related to the specific sport, the athlete, and the environment, so no one warm-up routine is best for every athlete, or sport. Dynamic stretching, which is functionally based and sues sportspecific movements to prepare for activity, does not seem to elicit the performance reduction effects of static and PNF stretching, but has been shown to improve subsequent running performance 27,60, Given these findings, the use of static, PNF, and ballistic stretching in a warm-up needs to be questioned.
Based on current evidence, dynamic stretching is the preferred option for stretching during a warm-up. The degree of stretching required in a warm-up depends on the type of sport. Sports that require increased flexibility, such as gymnastics or diving, require a greater degree of stretching Additionally, those sports with high demands for a stretchshortening cycle of high-intensity, as in sprinting and American football, are likely to require more stretching than those with low or medium stretch-shortening cycle activity, as in jogging or cycling Strength training and conditioning professionals should look at the specific range of motion and stretch-shortening cycle requirements of the sport or activity and use this information to design an appropriate warm-up routine.
Stretching During Warm-Up There are four main types of stretching: static, ballistic, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF. Static stretching has long been used in a warm-up, with the aim of enhancing performance.
However, recent reviews of the literature surrounding the role of static stretching question this practice 51, There is little, if any, evidence that stretching pre- or post-participation prevents injury or subsequent muscle soreness 32,34,46,48,51, Although static stretching before activity may increase performance in sports that require an increased range of motion, such as gymnastics, stretching activities may or may not influence subsequent strength, power, running speed, reaction time, and strength endurance performance, and often depends on what intermittent activity was used between the stretching and the strength activity 11,12,13,19,20,36,40,41,44,48,54,55, In these cases it is important that the strength training and conditioning professional performs a benefitrisk analysis when choosing whether or not to include static stretching in a warm-up Conclusion Program design must take into account many factors related to the life and training of each athlete.
Program design is guided by theory and hands-on experience from many previous and current coaches and sport scientists. The following provides a week strength and conditioning program as an example of how to develop and implement the lessons presented throughout this manual. Allerheiligen, WB. Stretching and warm-up. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; , Mechanoelastic properties of human muscles at different temperatures.
Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 96 1 : 83 93, Association NSCA.
Position paper on strength training for female athletes. NSCA Journal 11 4 : 43 55, Position statement: Explosive exercises and training.
NSCA Journal 6, NSCA Journal 16, Human motor control consequences of thixotropic changes in muscular short range stiffness. Journal of Physiology , Resistance training.
Banister, EW. Modeling elite athletic performance. Planning for future performance: Implications for long-term training.
Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 5 3 : , Modeling the training response in athletes. In: Landers, DM Ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 7 23, Sprint and vertical jump performances are not affected by six weeks of static hamstring stretching.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 22 1 : 25 31, A comparison of two warm-ups on joint range of motion. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21 3 : , Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching.
Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 26 3 : , Bergh, U, and Ekblom, B. Influence of muscle temperature on maximal strength and power output in human muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica , Bloomfield, J, and Wilson, G. Flexibility in sport. In: Elliott, B Ed. Bompa, TO. Periodization of Strength. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Veritas Publishing; Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; The text is organized into five sections. The first three sections provide a theoretical framework for application in section 4, the program design portion of the book.
The final section offers practical strategies for administration and management of strength and conditioning facilities. Section 1 chapters 1 through 10 presents key topics and current research in exercise physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, biomechanics, endocrinology, sport nutrition, and sport psychology and discusses applications for the design of safe and effective strength and conditioning programs. Section 2 chapters 11 and 12 discusses testing and evaluation, including the principles of test selection and administration as well as the scoring and interpretation of results.
Section 3 chapters 13 and 14 provides techniques for warm-up, stretching, and resistance training exercises. For each exercise, accompanying photos and instructions guide readers in the correct execution and teaching of stretching and resistance training exercises. This section also includes a set of eight new dynamic stretching exercises.
Section 4 examines the design of strength training and conditioning programs.
The information is divided into three parts: Step-by-step guidelines for designing resistance, plyometric, speed, agility, and aerobic endurance training programs are shared. Section 4 also includes detailed descriptions of how principles of program design and periodization can be applied to athletes of various sports and experience levels.
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Within the text, special sidebars illustrate how program design variables can be applied to help athletes attain specific training goals. Section 5 chapters 21 and 22 addresses organization and administration concerns of the strength training and conditioning facility manager, including facility design, scheduling, policies and procedures, maintenance, and risk management. Chapter objectives, key points, key terms, and self-study questions provide a structure to help readers organize and conceptualize the information.
Unique application sidebars demonstrate how scientific facts can be translated into principles that assist athletes in their strength training and conditioning goals. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning also offers new lecture preparation materials. A product specific Web site includes new student lab activities 4. Students can visit this Web site to print the forms and charts for completing lab activities, or they can complete the activities electronically and email their results to the instructor.
The instructor guide provides a course description and schedule, chapter objectives and outlines, chapter-specific Web sites and additional resources, definitions of primary key terms, application questions with recommended answers, and links to the lab activities.
The presentation package and image bank, delivered in Microsoft PowerPoint, offers instructors a presentation package containing over 1, slides to help augment lectures and class discussions.
In addition to outlines and key points, the resource also contains over figures, tables, and photos from the textbook, which can be used as an image bank by instructors who need to customize their own presentations. Easy-to-follow instructions help guide instructors on how to reuse the images within their own PowerPoint templates. These tools can be downloaded online and are free to instructors who adopt the text for use in their courses. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Third Edition, provides the latest and most comprehensive information on the structure and function of body systems, training adaptations, testing and evaluation, exercise techniques, program design, and organization and administration of facilities.
Its accuracy and reliability make it not only the leading preparation resource for the CSCS exam but also the definitive reference that strength and conditioning professionals and 5. If you want to download this book, click link in the next page 6. Thank You For Visiting. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save.Section 2 chapters 11 and 12 discusses testing and evaluation, including the principles of test selection and administration as well as the scoring and interpretation of results.
Microcycle Training Design Terminology As with every other area covered in this manual, we have had to cover new terms that are a part of the knowledge area, and sometimes the culture of a particular facet of strength training and conditioning.
(PDF Download) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning - 3rd Edition PDF
Journal of Dance Medicine and Science 5: 75 81, Section 4 examines the design of strength training and conditioning programs. Yamaguchi, T, and Ishii, K. Association NSCA. Note that the line that represents athletic preparedness shows that the athlete fatigues, recovers, and then supercompensates enters the resistance stage.
Do cross-bridges contribute to the tension during stretch of passive muscle? A training lesson is a single bout of training where the athlete begins a session with a warm-up, practices some aspect of the sport or strength training and conditioning, and then ends the session with a cool-down.
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