DISCOVERY OF INDIA BY JAWAHARLAL NEHRU IN HINDI PDF
JAWAHARLAL. NEHRU. The Discovery of India. DELHI. OXFORD and Persian ; the modern languages were Hindi, Urdu, Bengali,. Gujarati. The Discovery of India was written by India's first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru during his . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote the book 'The Discovery of India', during his imprisonment at Ahmednagar fort for participating in the Quit India Movement (
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Between the two, the liberals, the moderates, and the centre parties are disappearing everywhere. I have not included the Soviet Union in the above list of dictatorships, because the dictatorship there, although as ruthless as any other, is of a different type. It is not the dictatorship of an individual or a small group, but of a well-organised political party basing itself especially on the workers. They call it the 'dictatorship of the proletariat'.
I have referred to democracy as 'formal' in the preceding paragraph. The communists say that it was not real democracy: it was only a democratic shell to hide the fact that one class ruled over the others. According to them democracy covered the dictatorship of the capitalist class. It was plutocracy, government by the wealthy.
The much-paraded vote given to the masses gave them only the choice of saying once, in four. In either event the masses were to be exploited by the ruling class. Real democracy can only come when this class rule and exploitation end and only one class exists.
To bring about this socialist State, however, a period of the dictatorship of the proletariat is necessary so as to keep down all capitalist and bourgeois elements in the population and prevent them from intriguing against the workers' State.
In Russia this dictatorship is exercised by the Soviets in which all the workers and peasants and other 'active' elements are represented. Thus it becomes a dictatorship of the 90per cent over the remaining 10 or 5 per cent. That is the theory.
BOOK REVIEW: The Discovery of India
In practice the Communist Party controls the Soviets and the ruling clique of communists controls the party. And the dictatorship is as strict, so far as censorship and freedom of thought or action are concerned, as any other. But as it is based on goodwill of the workers it must carry the workers with it. And, finally, there is no exploitation of the workers or any other class for the benefit of another.
There is no exploiting class left. If there is any exploitation, it is done by the State for the benefit of all. Soviet policy with other nations was one of peace at almost any cost, for they wanted time to recuperate, and the great task of building up a huge country on socialistic lines absorbed their attention.
There seemed to be no near prospect of social revolution in other countries, and so the idea of a 'world revolution' faded out for the time being. With Eastern countries Russia developed a policy of friendship and co-operation, although they were governed under the capitalist system. This Soviet solution of the minorities problem has interest for us, as we have to face a difficult minority problem ourselves. The Soviets' difficulties appear to have been far greater than ours, for they had different nationalities to deal with.
Their solution of the problem has been very successful. They went to the extreme length of recognizing each separate nationality and encouraging it to carry on its work and education in its own language.
This was not merely to please the separatist tendencies of different minorities, but because it was felt that real education and cultural progress could take effect for the masses only if the native tongues were used.
And the results achieved already have been remarkable. The reason is that they have common ideals and they are all working together in a common enterprise. Each Union Republic has in theory the right to separate from the Union whenever it wants to, but there is little chance of its doing so, because of the great advantages of federation of socialist republics in the face of the hostility of the capitalist world… "These Central Asian republics have a special interest for us because of our age-old contact with Middle Asia.
They are even more fascinating because of the remarkable progress they have made during the past few years. Under the Tsars they were very backward and superstitious countries with hardly any education and their women mostly behind the veil. Today they are ahead of India in many respects.
The whole country had been surveyed by scientists and engineers, and numerous experts had discussed the problem of fitting in one part of the programme into another.
For, the real difficulty came in this fitting in But Russia had one great advantage over the capitalist countries.
Under capitalism all these activities are left to individual initiative and chance, and owing to competition there is waste of effort.
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There is no co-ordination between different producers or different sets of workers, except the chance co-ordination which arises in the buyers and sellers coming to the same market The Soviet Government had the advantage of controlling all the different industries and activities in the whole Union, and so it could draw up and try to work a single co-ordinated plan in which every activity found its proper place. There would be no waste in this, except such waste as might come from errors of calculation or working, and even such errors could be rectified far sooner with a unified control than otherwise.
All this construction, all this machinery that came from outside, had to be paid for, and paid for in gold and cash. How was this to be done?
The people of the Soviet Union tightened their belts and starved and deprived themselves of even necessary articles so that payment could be made abroad. They sent their food-stuffs abroad, and with the price obtained for them paid for the machinery. They sent everything they could find a market for: wheat, rye, barley, corn, vegetables, fruits, eggs, butter, meat, fowls, honey, fish, caviare, sugar, oils, confectionery, etc.
Sending these food articles outside meant that they themselves did without them. The Russian people had no butter, or very little of it, because it went abroad to pay for machinery. And so with many other goods Nations have, in the past, concentrated all their efforts on the accomplishment of one great task, but this has been so in times of war only. To that purpose everything else was subordinated. Soviet Russia, for the first time in history, concentrated the whole strength of the nation in a peaceful effort to build, and not to destroy, to raise a backward country industrially and within a framework of socialism.
But the privation, especially of the upper and middle-class peasantry, was very great, and often it seemed that the whole ambitious scheme would collapse, and perhaps carry the Soviet Government with it.
It required immense courage to hold on. Many prominent Bolsheviks thought that the strain and suffering caused by the agricultural programme were too great and there should be a relaxation. But not so Stalin. Grin-fly and silently he held on. He was no talker, he hardly spoke in public.
He seemed to be the iron image of an inevitable fate going ahead to the predestined goal. And something of his courage and determination spread among the members of the Communist Party and other workers in Russia. But, as I have told you, this Five Year Plan brought much suffering, and difficulties and dislocation. And people paid a terrible price willingly and accepted the sacrifices and sufferings for a few years in the hope of a better time afterwards; some paid the price unwillingly and only because of the compulsion of the Soviet Government.
Among those who suffered most were the kulaks or richer peasants.
With their great wealth and special influence, they did not fit into the new scheme of things. They were capitalistic elements which prevented the collective farms from developing on socialist lines.
Often they opposed this collectivization, sometimes they entered the collectives to weaken them from inside or to make undue personal profit out of them. The Soviet Government came down heavily on them. The Government was also very hard on many middle-class people whom it suspected of espionage and sabotage on behalf of its enemies.
Because of this, large numbers of engineers were punished and sent to gaol. The tremendous growth of the Soviet Union was in itself a remarkable sign of prosperity. It was not due, as in America, to immigration from outside. It showed that in spite of the privations and hardships of the people there was, as a general rule, no actual starvation.
A severe system of rationing managed to supply the absolutely necessary articles of food to the population. Competent observers tell us that this rapid growth of population is largely due to a feeling of economic security among the people. Work remains, and must remain, though in the future it is likely to be pleasanter and lighter than in the trying early years of planning. Indeed, the maxim of the Soviet Union is: 'He that will not work, neither shall he eat.
In the past, idealists and stray individuals have been moved to activity by this incentive, but there is no previous instance of society as a whole accepting and reacting to this motive. The very basis of capitalism was competition and individual profit, always at the expense of others. This profit motive is giving place to the social motive in the Soviet Union and, as an American writer says, workers in Russia are learning that, 'from the acceptance of mutual dependence comes independence from want or fear'.
This elimination of the terrible fear of poverty and insecurity, which bears down upon the masses everywhere, is a great achievement. It is said that this relief has almost put an end to mental diseases in the Soviet Union. I shall tell you just a few odd facts which might interest you.
The educational system in Russia is supposed by many competent judges to be the best and most up-to-date in existence. The old palaces of the Tsars and the nobility have now become museums and rest-houses and sanatoria for the people I suppose the old palaces now serve the purpose of children and young people.
Children and the young are the favoured persons in Soviet land today, and they get the best of everything, even though others might suffer lack. It is for them that the present generation labours, for it is they who will inherit the socialised and scientific State, if that finally comes into existence in their time. Soviet Russia has been behaving internationally very much as a satisfied Power, avoiding all trouble, and trying to keep peace at all costs.
This is the opposite of a revolutionary policy which would aim at fomenting revolution in other countries. It is a national policy of building up socialism in a single country and avoiding all complications outside. Necessarily, this results in compromises with imperialist and capitalist Powers. But the essential socialist basis of Soviet economy continues, and the success of this is itself the most powerful argument in favour of socialism.
The conflict between capitalism and democracy is inherent and continuous; it is often hidden by misleading propaganda and by the outward forms of democracy, such as parliaments, and the sops that the owning classes throw to the other classes to keep them more or less contented.
A time comes when there are no more sops left to be thrown, and then the conflict between the two groups comes to a head, for now the struggle is for the real thing, economic power in the State. When that stage comes, all the supporters of capitalism, who had so far played with different parties, band themselves together to face the danger to their vested interests. Liberals and such-like groups disappear, and the forms of democracy are put aside.
This stage bas now arrived in Europe and America, and fascism, which is dominant in some form or other in mast countries, represents that stage. Labour is everywhere on the defensive, not strong enough to face this new and powerful consolidation of the forces of capitalism.
And yet, strangely enough, the capitalist system itself totters and cannot adjust itself to the new world. It seems certain that even if it succeeds in surviving, it will be but another stage in the long conflict. For modern industry and modern life itself, under any form of capitalism, are battlefields where armies are continually clashing against each other. The Soviet Union in Europe and Asia stands today a continuing challenge to the tottering capitalism of the western world.
While trade depression and slump and unemployment and repeated crises paralyse capitalism, and the old order gasps for breath, the Soviet Union is a land full of hope and energy and enthusiasm, feverishly building away and establishing the socialist order. And this abounding youth and life, and the success the Soviet Union has already achieved, are impressing and attracting thinking people all over the world.
Great progress was made and the standards of life went up, and are continually going up. Culturally and educationally, and in many other ways, the advance all over the Soviet Union has been remarkable.
Anxious to continue this advance and to consolidate its socialist economy, Russia consistently followed a peace policy in international affairs. In the League of Nations it stood for substantial disarmament, collective security, and corporate action against aggression.
It tried to accommodate itself to the capitalist Great Powers and, in consequence, Communist Parties sought to build up 'popular fronts' or 'joint fronts' with other progressive parties. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government.
National security and foreign policy See also: Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from to , during its first years of freedom from British rule. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations.
He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U. Recognising the People's Republic of China soon after its founding while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China , Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea.
Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah , whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him.
His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in Filebogra nehru.
Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.
Final years File:Ashokesen. JPG Nehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in aroused criticism for alleged nepotism , although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of "dynastism"; he said, indeed it was "wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing", and refused her a position in his cabinet.
After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in , and then he annexed it to India. It increased his popularity, but he was criticized the use of military force. In the elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority. The war exposed the weaknesses of India's military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his government's insufficient attention to defence.
In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. He died in the early hours of 27 May Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River , witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds.
Legacy Nehru's statue in Aldwych , London. As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy.
He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education , reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India.
Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences ,  Indian Institutes of Technology ,  and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I don't think others might have succeeded in doing.
This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary. While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions.
In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, "Integrate or perish. Many of you responded with some wonderful suggestions. We also received many e-mails suggesting books we had never heard of.
Here then, is the list of 10 books in no particular order on Indian history that we have compiled based on your responses. It gives a detailed account of the period ranging from the coming of the Aryans to the establishment of the British Empire. This book was also produced as an award-winning television series by Shyam Benegal. The series of events that unfold during this period are worthy of this book being classified as a historical one.
It is extensively researched, gives incredible details that you never knew for instance, do you know who actually drew the dividing line between the two nations and on what basis?
The book also includes interviews with Lord Mountbatten, the last viceroy of British India. Promotion 3.We cannot live carefree assuming that we are safe. The New York Times. How have we played our part in this brief interlude that draws to a close?
Industrialization of China and India: If any people choose to think of me, then I should like them to say:
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