DIGITAL FILMMAKER PDF
In this book, we'll guide you through the modern digital filmmaking workflow and about writing visually, check out the essay myavr.info located at. PDF | Machinima is a new form of creative digital filmmaking that leverages the real time graphics rendering of computer game engines. Because of the low. Download Digital FilmMaker - Issue 53, magazine for free from ebook biz. To download click on the following link.
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Amazingly it's about three years now since we first launched. Digital FilmMaker magazine and what a long way we've come in that time. Sure, we've always. involved: literary writing, photography, music, acting, ambientation among others. My training as a filmmaker enables me to provide a contemporary vision. Columbia participated in workshops and digital filmmaking intensives where they created short video portraits of themselves, their communities, their culture and.
A simple hand grip and counter-weight like this adds some smoothness to your handheld shots. The pivot and weight counteracts the movement of your hand, to some extent. However, the pivot-weight mechanism can become your enemy if it starts to swing around like a pendulum. You can see in this picture above Sean Baker filming Tangerine using his left hand to stop that counter-weight swinging around.
Motorized Gimbal Handheld 3-axis gimbals are used in stabilization systems designed to give the camera operator the independence of handheld shooting without camera vibration or shake. Powered by three brushless motors, the gimbals have the ability to keep the camera level on all axes as the camera operator moves the camera.
In short: the 3-axis gimbal works to give your footage a smooth, gliding look. Personally, I use a Zhiyun Smooth-Q the first model, see video above for a test. This is pretty much as far as you can go for optimal stabilization. In fact, smartphone cameras are really designed to be used that way.
They are designed primarily for ease of use. The truth, however, is that how you shoot your film is an entirely creative choice. You might find you like what the automatic controls do, or that they are simply more convenient when getting a certain shot. For example, what if a shot really requires speed on your part?
Hesitation might cause you to miss the moment. In which case, keeping controls set to automatic will help you focus on nothing but getting that shot. That said, you should seriously think about using manual controls. On automatic, as you move the camera the image will change: the exposure settings will change as the light changes, the focus point adapts to whatever object is in the focus finder, and the colour balance can change too.
If you pan left or right, unless the area you are filming has uniform lighting, the automatic exposure on your camera will start shifting the settings as the camera moves. So how do you use manual controls on a smartphone camera?
A light reflector can turn an ugly amateur-looking shot into a golden and gorgeously lit scene.
Have you ever seen those cool fish-eye scenes? That's from using a special wide angle lens. If you're shooting in super sunny situations, an ND filter or circular polarizer can dramatically improve the image.
Or what about super close-ups of a bug or flower, that's when you need a macro lens.
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Unless you're heading out into the Amazon, extra batteries should be enough for most shooting situations. External Hard Drive A portable hard drive comes in handy if you plan to do a lot of shooting in the field and need to offload your footage from your camera's memory cards.
We love the rugged lacies left. Lots of great choices here. Just pick something you like that fits the type of shooting you plan to do.
It's especially helpful if you don't want to use a tripod and a rig creates smoother-looking footage in a "run-and-gun" shooting situation. Specialty Gear for the "Cool" Shots: If you're ready to take your filmmaking up a notch, try some of these specialty video production equipment items to get those cool Hollywood-looking shots.
So when youre on location or on the set, remember that after the wrap someone you will have to put the footage together.
Shooting correctly also saves time, stress, and money in postproduction. Heres how:.
Maintain an Organized Shoot A well-organized shoot sets the stage for a well organized editing room. During the shoot be sure to: Keep accurate records, notes, camera logs, and sound logs. This gives the editor important information about the shots and assists the editing crew immensely in keeping track of the footage. Maintain good communication with the crew. Good communication, particularly between director, script supervisor, camera, and sound recordist, means that the right shots are filmed and printed and editorial does not have to chase down the crew or the lab to get the anticipated shots.
Stick to the shooting schedule as much as possible. This makes it easier to coordinate and schedule work in the cutting room. Then clap it if youre shooting double system sound and picture captured on separate mediums before whisking it out of frame. Clearly slating each take consumes but a few seconds in the field and saves valuable time and temperaments in the cutting room.
Voice slating is essential because dialogue editors will need to find the original takes for the audio tracks used in the show. We cant see the slate, explains dialogue editor Victoria Rose Sampson. We locate takes by the voice slate.
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Cut in the Camera NOT! Dont dictate where the editor should cut by ending shots or pointing the camera away from the action too early. Always remember: The camera sets the pace of the shot, the editor sets the pace of the show.
An inexperienced camera operator, believing static shots are boring, may push the zoom button as if playing a trombone. This frustrates the audience and the editor. The editor can set a fine rhythm with a lovely series of static shots and should not be limited by a hyperactive camera that zooms and pans without purpose and gathers no usable shots.
Get Coverage To cover a scene means to shoot angles in addition to the master shot such as close-ups and two-shots. Directors usually plan coverage for every scene. Because most scenes when edited dont work when played all the way through in a master shot.
Coverage adds needed pace and points of view and gives editors options for how to cut the show. Additionally, coverage serves as insurance in case the planned shot doesnt work, e.
By cutting to coverage, the editor can skip over the slow spot and cut back at a more vital point. Directors who dont cover themselves usually regret it. Hold and Repeat Action at the Start and End of Takes When shooting a new take, dont just continue from where the last take left off; repeat dialogue and actions from take to take.
Lets say youve filmed a master shot of a dining room scene where nutty Uncle Ed sits. When you film the medium shot of Uncle Ed, dont start with his joking. Rather, have him sit down and begin joking, repeating the action of the master. When you repeat action at the tail end of one angle and the head beginning of the next angle, the editor has the latitude to cut to any take at the best possible frame. Hold the camera Before starting and after ending every shot, be it a static shot, a zoom, pan, or dolly, hold the camera still for five seconds.
As with repeated action, these static seconds can make all the difference in the editor being able to cut to shots at the best moment.
Additionally, these action handles allow for dissolves, wipes, and other effects that an editor may apply to transition between shots. Occasionally, holding the camera even solves an editing problem: For example, editors sometimes use the footage from when the camera was rolling before the director yelled Action!
Make every effort to match pacing, actions, lighting, wardrobe, placement of props, hair, makeup, etc.
Its a shame to force the editor to cut earlier or later than optimal due to a lack of continuity. Weve all noticed the laughable mismatch between an interior and exterior shot of a traveling car moving at different speeds and with different scenery in each shot.
This continuity mismatch underscores why continuity is so important: Mismatches can take viewers out of your film, risking their distrust and disengagement, and lead to bad word-of-mouth. Here are four important components of achieving good continuity:. If jarring is what you want, shoot this way. Otherwise stick to the 30 rule: Vary the new camera angle at least 30 from the last and your angles should cut together like butter.
For more on cuttable angles, see the sections on smooth cutting angles and mismatches in Chapter 5. If shot incorrectly, their eyelines wont match and the characters will not be looking in the right direction.
This may confuse the audience and cause them to take an unintended meaning from the characters interaction. Lets say youre shooting a closeup of someone and their eyes and possibly head move left to right as they look at something. When you cut to that something, youre cutting to their POV. To match their eye and head movement, the POV shot must move the same direction, from left to right.
Notice that in the boys close up, he maintains the correct eyeline. If exits and entrances dont match, your audience wastes time keeping up with the action instead of immersing themselves in your movie.
Observe the Rule Crossing the line a. Shoot the pawns from the correct cameras or they will appear to jump sides. Example A car is going down a street and you shoot two angles, one from each side of the street. Perfectly valid angles but if cut together, the car appears to be traveling in the opposite direction.
Reason There is an invisible line in every camera set up that bisects the scene horizontally at The Rule: How to observe it Scenario If two people face each other, the line runs across their heads. When editing, if you cut to the angle behind them, the person on the left now appears to jump to the right, disorienting your audience.
Add another person and you add another line. The Rule When shooting, keep Person A on the left and Person B on the right by not moving the camera across the line. When editing, dont cut angles together that cause people to unintentionally jump sides in a scene.
Example Cinematographers and their crews shoot football games from one side of the field only. This way there is no chance to cut to the other side of the field and make the players appear to be running toward the wrong goal. When you dont get those shots, and you just have somebody coming in without any reason, then you have a scene where nobody relates to anyone.
Nobody is looking anybody else in the eye, and its totally disorienting. The audience might get thrown out of the scene because its non-connective.
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Film is con-. Of course there are many times nective; thats what film is. Here are several methods: Establish a new line Have the characters move within the shot or move the camera within the shot to break the line and create a new one. As Dede Allen notes, director Robert Wise always anticipated his axis changes. Shoot cutaways Cutaways diminish the disorientation, allowing the editor to cut away before cutting to the line-breaking angle.
An overhead angle keeps the audience oriented and enables the editor to freely cut to any angle. Jumping the line disturbs the audience, especially in 3-D movies, which, by their nature, immerse viewers more deeply than 2-D movies. Break the rule deliberately If you choose to ignore the rule, be aware that you are breaking it and be smart: Shoot some cutaways for insurance, just in case you dont like the resulting cut.
More frequently, due to the influence of modern-style cutting, filmmakers ignore the line. Where to Cut and Why, during the discussion of traditional editing style vs.
Many budget-conscious filmmakers, notably students, independents, documentarians, and television networks, use low cost digital video cameras but desire the film look. Weve all seen the scratchy, old timey film look applied after the shoot and many of us have used software to produce a supposed film look. But what exactly is the film look and whats the best way to get it when you shoot digitally?
As an editor, how do you advise clients and producers? As production and post overlap more and more in the area of perfecting a shows images, these questions continue to crop up. The topic has been coming up in Final Cut Pro and other digital system users groups for awhile and heres 1.
Photo courtesy of Panavision. To get the film look, shoot for it surprise during the shoot! Below are a few tips on how to do this.
Film and digital cameras capture images in two distinct ways. Film capture is a photochemical process which creates the grain texture, fullness and highlights were accustomed to seeing. Digital 1.
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Digi-cams ability to capture film-like shots is continually improving. So get the best digicam you can afford; either video camera or the new DSLR still cameras that can shoot videos. As of 1. So, to achieve a film look, address the differences between the two mediums using these specific methods: Shoot 24p as this format has the most film-like motion characteristics. Be conscious of how you block the camera:Preparatory phase during which script and money are finalized, the rest of talent and crew hired, locations and schedules locked, and sets, wardrobe, props, etc.
Smooth Cutting Angles 5. Color Correction Handbook Color Correction Handbook, written by Alexis Van Hurkman, provides professional techniques in color correcting for video and film editors.
Motorized Gimbal Handheld 3-axis gimbals are used in stabilization systems designed to give the camera operator the independence of handheld shooting without camera vibration or shake. Release prints are on mylar, a polyester-based medium. Always remember: Sound editor Editor who perfects the shows sound.