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The Catholic Encyclopedia is the most comprehensive resource on Catholic teaching, history, and information ever gathered in all of human history. This work is incomplete. If you'd like to help expand it, see the help pages and the style guide, or leave a comment on this work's talk page. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http: //books. myavr.info k The Catholic Encyclopedia VOLUME TEN M ass— N ewman I L. \ \ r.


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Original Preface. The Catholic Encyclopedia, as its name implies, proposes to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic. the New Catholic Encyclopedia covers a vast range of topics of interest to Encyclopedia – the volume set and its yearly supplements, including the new . revised edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia incor- porates material from the volume original edition and the supplement volumes. Entries that have.

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It's a little awkward to ask, but we need your help. If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you. Thank you. Search Search the Catholic Encyclopedia. Rosaries, Rosary Bracelets and Birthstone Rosaries Never Miss any Updates! The same situation prevailed elsewhere in Italy. During this period mosaicists had little interest in medieval work. In the later 18th century the renewal of interest in classical, early Christian, and medieval mosaics resulted in a growth of mosaic production throughout Europe; the renewal also reached America.

This revival reflected in many ways the eclecticism of the period. Early Christian mosaics were carelessly restored, as in the case of the apse mosaic of San Michele in Affricisco in Ravenna, acquired by Prussia in and transferred to Berlin. The classical pavements discovered in the excavations of the Roman towns in Campania influenced the activity of the Belloni workshop in Paris during the early 19th century. During the 19th and the early 20th centuries churches received extensive mosaic decoration.

Watts and Alfred Stevens. Michael, and Joan of Arc.

The new cathedral in St. Louis, Mo. On the whole, the style of all these mosaics is eclectic and mechanical.

At the present time mosaic is used widely as an adjunct to architecture and as an independent art. But its importance is not clearly established.

The preference in contemporary art for composite media has blurred the role of mosaic as an independent medium. The recent mosaics of Jeanne Reynal, consisting of tesserae scattered here and there on rough panels of colored cement, illustrate this tendency.

In recent church architecture, because of the increased awareness of the medieval heritage of Christian mosaics, frequent use is made of mosaic for the decoration of central areas in the sanctuary. On the whole, however, the influence of the architecture of the International Style on recent churches and buildings in general, with its emphasis on clean wall surfaces and spatial clarity, seems to have impeded a broader role for architectural mosaic. The exterior of the library is wholly covered with mosaics depicting scenes from the history of Mexico.

In the bright sun these mosaics sheathe the building in a blaze of color. Bibliography: E. Chicago DIEZ and O. Princeton Athens Third Preliminary Report Oxford Lay physician; b. Benevento, Italy, July 25, ; d.

Naples, Italy, April 12, Giuseppe Moscati was seventh of the nine children of Francesco Moscati d. The family moved to Naples when his father was appointed president of the court. Following his graduation from secondary school with honors , Giuseppe studied medicine at the University of Naples.

He earned his degree with first-class honors Aug. When Vesuvius erupted April , Moscati rushed to the hospital at Torre del Greco to help evacuate patients before the roof collapsed. Similarly, in , he assisted in containing a cholera outbreak. That same year he finished his scientific preparation, passed the medical boards, was appointed to a university chair in biochemistry, and began lecturing on applied research and clinical research, as well as clinical medicine.

He became known as one of the most outstanding researchers in his field. In addition to his educational and scientific contributions, Giuseppe was a practicing physician and an administrator.

In the course of time he was appointed director of military hospitals during World War I with the rank of major , director of the Hospital for Incurables July 16, , coadjutor ordinary, medical director of the United Hospitals, director of the department of tuberculosis, and associate of the Royal Academy of Surgery. Giuseppe Moscati is honored by the Church for the manner in which he practiced medicine. He required no payment from the poor, the homeless, religious, or priests, and, in fact, paid for their prescriptions himself.

He used his time with patients to speak to them about the faith, often healing wounded souls as well as bodies. Moscati dedicated himself to the sacraments and prayer for his patients. He died peacefully of a stroke at age forty-seven.

Patron of bachelors. Feast: Nov. Giuseppe Moscati nel ricordo dei suoi contemporanei Naples Rome Giuseppe Moscati 3rd ed. Zeitschrift 38 : — Brussels z—tb.

DAWES, trs. He was a monk and traveler, known for his collection of vivid monastic tales titled Leimon or Neos Paradeisos in Latin, Pratum Spirituale.

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Moschus began his monastic life at St. Toward the end of his life, John set down over tales of edifying incidents, replete with details of the life and beliefs of the times. Their circulation was widespread. The Greek text was first printed by Fronton du Duc , more completely by Cotelier There seems to be no English translation. It is a neglected source of social and religious history, and a critical edition is needed.

Sophronius and Moschus also composed a life of John the Almsgiver, Patriarch of Alexandria, of which only a portion has survived. Bibliography: J. MIGNE, ed.

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Patrologia Graeca, v. Paris —66 Paris —90 — Paris —53 7. Freiburg —32 — Little is known with historical exactitude about this key figure in the history of Israel through whose efforts the motley Hebrews became a tribal confederacy and, ultimately, a monarchy.

Although his existence is no longer denied by scholars, arriving at the historical substance of Moses has been made complex by authors and editors of the Pentateuch. Factual details have long been obscured in the oral and written traditions of the cult epic celebrating the historical deeds of Yahweh.

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The name Moses Heb. A popular Hebrew etymology is offered in Ex 2. Moses was born apparently at the beginning of the 13th century B.

The account of his birth parallels the legendary story of King Sargon I of Akkad, who, deposited in a basket boat and rescued, achieved great prominence. Acts 7. The Biblical narrative, a composite of oral and perhaps even written traditions, portrays Moses as fleeing to Midian after killing an Egyptian in defense of a countryman Ex 2.

There he again exercised his role of champion in the cause of the seven daughters of the Kenite Jethro, a Midian priest, in whose household he then resided 2. Moses married Zipporah, a daughter of Jethro, who bore him two children, Gershom 2. On Mt. Yahweh, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob 3. In a scene somewhat inconsistent with his personality and education, Moses pleaded his ineptness for the task.

Yahweh assigned a coadjutor role to Aaron 4. Finally Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt after the ceremonial of a Passover meal. Arriving at Mt. Sinai, the people through Moses entered formally into the covenant relationship with Yahweh Ex 19 and 24; Dt 5 , the terms of which are codified in the Decalogue Ex At Cades Moses guided the Israelite tribes through the difficult period of development.

His mission accomplished, he died at Mt. Nebo without entering the promised land of Canaan Nm Though the name of Moses has always been connected with the Pentateuch, his personal contribution to Israel was long overlooked. Outside the Pentateuch the oldest references to the Exodus make no mention of Moses. Reference is seldom made to him among the Prophets. Perhaps this is due to the Israelite mentality of eliminating instrumental causes and attributing events to the direct intervention of Yahweh.

The picture that Israelite tradition created is reflected in his subordinate characterization by later authors as the servant of God 2 Kgs In the NT, where he is the most frequently mentioned OT personality, he appears primarily as the lawgiver Mt 8.

For this reason Jesus met opposition in attempting to bring the law of Moses to final realization. As Moses proclaimed the Old Law from Mt. Sinai, the Gospel writers similarly situated Jesus on a mountain for the revelation of the New Law. The typological prefigurement of Jesus by Moses in the Exodus events is solidly founded. Jesus used him to witness His approaching suffering and death Mt Moses is a model of faith for all Christians Heb Although Moses is portrayed as the father type in the Sistine Chapel, elsewhere he is more often represented in the role of savior and legislator.

The striking of the rock and the revelation of the Law were the two predominant scenes until the 5th century, when other themes were introduced. Photograph by John R. As a result of a misunderstanding of Ex Bibliography: M. Monk; b. His strength and ferocity became legendary. The details of his conversion are not known.

It is thought that he took refuge from the law with some monks and was overwhelmed by their example, for he next appears at the monastery of Petra in the Desert of Scete. He found it hard to control his violence, but he was encouraged by Abbot St. Isidore of Alexandria. Finally, through physical labor, mortification, and prayer, he succeeded in overcoming himself. When the Berbers threatened his monastery, he remained with seven companions; all but one perished.

He was buried at the monastery of Dair al—Baramus, which still stands. Feast: Aug. Acta Sanctorum Aug. Plan of the Mosque. From here he repeats the call at two specified points during the Friday service. Early Mosques. The earliest mosques of Islam were little more than open quadrangles. The Mosque and Worship. Outside the capital prayers were recited in the mosque for the Caliph or ruler as a kind of oath of loyalty; often it was in the mosque that revolutions were begun, the first open sign thereof being the substitution of another name for that of the ruler.

With the great increase in the number of Muslims, however, and the universal need that was felt for the weekly community service, there came to be Friday mosques even in the villages; the larger centers may have several, often of considerable size. From the beginning there were many mosques besides the congregational mosques. Numerous local and tribal mosques formed the center of both the religious and political activities of particular groups.

Mosque of the Sultan Hassan, Cairo, Egypt. According to some authorities there should be no more than one in a particular town; in fact, according to others there should 10 Again, following the ancient Arabian custom of honoring the graves of ancestors and important chiefs and the Christian veneration of the saints, a great number of mosques were built as sanctuaries over the tombs of various saints and heroes of Islam, distinguished for their piety, learning, etc.

While originally the building of mosques and their maintenance were taken as responsibilities of the government, later many were built and endowed by private individuals as pious works. As a result, the number of mosques reported to have existed at certain times in various major cities, even allowing for considerable exaggeration on the part of the sources, is truly astounding.

The Mosque and Education. From early times mention is made of the majlis or h: alqa circle of those who came to hear and receive the instruction of learned men and ascetics who taught and preached there.

LEWIS et al. Leiden — — For further bibliog. Marseilles, France, He was a member of a distinguished family. From the start, he worked for the sanctification of his clergy. To this end he reorganized the seminary and made it a model for others in Spanish America; he organized the Spiritual Exercises for the priests and issued important decrees on ecclesiastical discipline.

He visited all of his extensive diocese and endeavored to provide for the Christian education of youth. For this purpose he opened a secondary school run by the Jesuits; he adapted the catechism to the needs of the people of his diocese; and he helped to establish elementary schools. Mosquera tried to support the legitimate government in times of revolution, and this made many enemies for him.

Since the government considered itself the heir of the Spanish crown in the exercise of patronage, the congress of passed a series of laws on religious matters that amounted to serious interference in the discipline of the Church.

He asked his suffragans to work to the same end. The congress of took him to court for disobeying the laws and inciting others to do so, and he was condemned to exile and deprived of his salary. Mosquera traveled to the United States, where he was given a warm demonstration by the Catholics of New York.

He continued to France and was en route to Rome to see the pope when he died. Paris Mexico City, ; d. Puebla, April 15, He was educated at the Dominican convent in Mexico City, earning a doctorate in theology. He twice refused appointment as bishop of Nicaragua and later of Panama before accepting the See of Guadalajara in Preaching to the rebels in their own language, he exhorted them to remain obedient.

Through a policy of care, gentleness, and justice he succeeded in pacifying them while at the same time he won the Spaniards over to better treatment of the indigenous tribes. One result of his labors was the baptism of five important caciques.

Mexico City — In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, secular and political motets also were extensively cultivated, and the term fell somewhat into disrepute, though not disuse, for titles such as Sacrae cantiones vulgo motecta appellatae are occasionally encountered. In its earliest stages the motet was a verbal trope of the clausula the short melisma in the chant Gradual or Alleluia —words mots carefully underlaid to the hitherto vocalized duplum second voice part.

The duplum later changed its name to motetus. When a third or fourth voice was added to the existing tenor and duplum, it might sing the same text as the motetus conductus-motet , or each voice might have a separate text. Two or three texts could be sung simultaneously without incurring practical or aesthetic objections, since the various texts were usually related to each other as well as to the feast for which the composition was intended.

Although in the 13th century the early motet was at its peak as a genuine and expressive embellishment of the liturgy, it was then also that the substitution of French secular texts for the Latin took place. By mid-century the top voice part tended to predominate because of its deliberately attractive melodic interest Franconian style , showing the way for the more advanced methods of Petrus de Cruce, Philippe de Vitry, and Guillaume de Machaut, all of whom wrote political as well as liturgical motets.

From the short-winded ordines, or rhythmic schemes for the tenor, the concept of isorhythm slowly developed, reaching a perfect, though by no means final, stage of technique in the motets of Machaut. Originally applied to the tenor only, isorhythm later pervaded all voice parts in certain motets, so that they were melodically independent but rhythmically bound to a recurring pattern called talea.

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Some relaxing of this strict compositional discipline came with the motets of Guillaume Dufay and John Dunstable, whose example was influential for a considerable part of the 15th century. At this time it was not unusual to find the plainsong, skillfully decorated, in the highest voice, supported by two independent instrumental parts. The growth of choral polyphony caused a further change in the career of the motet.

Texture became much richer, progressing from density to radiance in the works of Ockeghem, Obrecht, and Desprez. Their music, known throughout Europe, set a standard of taste and technique that was to usher in the greatest era of the choral motet, culminating in the vast production of Lasso, Palestrina, Byrd, Victoria, and their contemporaries.

Most of their texts were still liturgical, but some composers preferred psalm verses and other Biblical texts occasionally brought together for special reasons. Ceremonial motets for great occasions of church and state continued to emerge from time to time, and a growing interest in instrumental support can be sensed toward the end of the 16th century.

The Roman composers remained faithful to the unaccompanied choral motet well into the baroque era, while the Venetians notably G. Gabrieli and Monteverdi were boldly experimenting in instrumentation, spatial separation of choirs, and new effects of every kind stile concitato. From the 17th century onwards, the term motet came to be applied mainly to non-liturgical musical settings of religious texts. With the end of the Baroque period, the motet became less prominent as a distinctive genre of church music.

If Mary is not truly the mother of God, then Christ is not true God as well as true man, and he is not the Redeemer of the whole of humanity. Opponents to this teaching sprang up in the early Church. These false teachings were ably refuted by St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Justin, St. Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian, but others continued to challenge this key doctrine.

In rebuttal St. Mary was for them the mother of Christ in whom the Word dwelt substantially. At the first session, on June 22, , the Council fathers unanimously approved one of St.

Denzinger, Enchiridion symbolorum ed. Mystery of the Motherhood. To restore the human race into his own image, the heavenly Father willed to put his own Son into the very materials of his creation in such a way that the eternal Word would restore harmony in the universe of matter and spirit and between the human and divine orders.

Irenaeus develops this parallelism between the fallen angel and the disobedient virgin in Eden and the loyal angel and the obedient virgin at Nazareth, between the first Adam and the tree in paradise and the Second Adam and the Tree on Calvary. The mutual giving of the Person of the Word and Mary to each other in mutual consent is a kind of divine marriage.

These divine nuptials matrimonium ratum by a special grace in her soul virtually and radically bestow upon Mary the bride the divine motherhood front the first instant of her existence. This theory has no support in Scripture or patristic tradition.

This resulting relation of origin forms a supernatural reality that stands between the hypostatic union and the accidental union caused by sanctifying GRACE. Thomas Aquinas affirms that some relations are founded upon what remains in the agent from the action performed In 3 sent. What remains in the agent after the transient generative action is a permanent disposition or habit, drawing the mother to her child as an immediately connatural object of knowledge and love.

As the human generative act was composed of a spiritual and a material element, so does the resulting habit possess composite elements.

Only the Father and Mary have generated the same eternal Person, he according to his divine nature, she according to his human nature. Alonso finds in the Church Fathers the thesis that the divine motherhood is a formal participation in the fecundity of the Father.

He holds that the three Divine Persons in the order of efficient causality keep their distinct functions in the identity of operations and impress their personal characters on the effect produced.

The supernatural form effected in Mary by the Trinitarian relation of the Father is called her personal maternal being, and is the only sanctifying form she possesses. First introduced toward the end of the 4th century, the Feast of Mary, Mother of God is the oldest Marian feast in the Roman liturgical calendar.

In the latter part of the 5th century, especially after the Council of Ephesus , the liturgical commemoration of the Mother of God appeared in many places. Thus, the first Marian feast was a feast of the divine maternity of Mary and it concluded the Christmas Octave in the Roman calendar. Until the middle of the 7th century, the Christian West did not seem to have known any other feast other than the feast of Mary, Mother of God. When other Marian feasts were introduced from the 7th century onward, the feast of Mary, Mother of God declined in importance and was replaced by the feast of Circumcision of Christ.

The revision of the Roman liturgical calendar revived the celebration of the feast of Mary, Mother of God on January 1, thereby restoring the octave of Christmas to its original Marian character.

Bibliography: R. Paris —61 —, with extensive bibliography. Munich —59; 6th ed. Westminster, Maryland —53 — Baptized Gonxha in English, Agnes Bojaxhiu, she was one of five children of a middle-class family. Her father Nikola, a grocer, died in , and her mother, Dronda, in At the age of 18, Gonxha joined the Sisters of Loreto with the intention of serving in the missions.

En route to India she spent two months in Ireland, studying English. When she entered the novitiate in at Darjeeling in the foothills of the Himalayas, she became known as Sister Teresa. On Sept. In August , she left the sisters of Loreto with the blessing of her superiors and the permission of the archbishop of Calcutta to live in the slums of Matizhil. She donned the sari and applied for citizenship in her adopted country.

The women, including some of her former students, whom she enlisted as volunteers to assist in the work became the nucleus of the Missionaries of Charity. In the order received canonical approval from church authorities. In Mother Teresa opened the first of many hospices for the dying. Under her guidance the Missionaries of Charity established numerous centers where they ministered to the aged, lepers, cripples, AIDS victims, and the dying. But I am grateful to receive [the Nobel] in the name of the hungry, the naked, the homeless, of the crippled, of the blind, of the lepers, of all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared-for throughout society, people that have become a burden to society and are shunned by everyone.

In March they elected Nepal-born Sister Nirmala to head the order. Surrounded by sisters of the community Mother Teresa died peacefully on Sept. On September 13, they buried her in a simple white marble tomb in the mother house of the Missionaries of Charity. EGAN and K. EGAN, eds.Irenaeus develops this parallelism between the fallen angel and the disobedient virgin in Eden and the loyal angel and the obedient virgin at Nazareth, between the first Adam and the tree in paradise and the Second Adam and the Tree on Calvary.

EGAN and K. In the later 18th century the renewal of interest in classical, early Christian, and medieval mosaics resulted in a growth of mosaic production throughout Europe; the renewal also reached America. That makes The Catholic Encyclopedia an essential reference work for the history of biblical interpretation and theological studies.

Polychrome pebble pavements of decorative design were used during the archaic period. Plan of the Mosque. The congress of took him to court for disobeying the laws and inciting others to do so, and he was condemned to exile and deprived of his salary.

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