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It is the same with AutoCAD. Although learning AutoCAD is not an easy style, you will have fun learning this exciting technology, even though sometimes you will not understand why the program does not run or freeze. Your intention was obvious and clear, only command prompt was not correct, or the approach was wrong. Please do not give it up in such a situation! I promise you will sit back satisfied drinking a good glass of cold beer!

You will find several links in the book. These are short links, referring to the autocad-architecture-blog. The primary audience for this book are current AutoCAD users, however if beginners do the exercises and chapters related to each other, they will have an overall picture of programs operation and use; and at the end of the book will have sufficient experience to confidently use of the AutoCAD This book shows, through a sample from beginning to end the mindset of the program, and technique of its using.

In doing so, however, the book does not attempt to be an entire fledged model in every respect, and documentation development. Rather, the intention is to introduce the more functions, and possibilities of AutoCAD Architecture software. The desired end result - another order of importance, by other means - in some places it would be easier to produce, but in this case the book could show less possibilities of the program. The described exercises assume that the reader continuously performs them from the beginning and gradually practices the handling techniques of the program.

After some time the detailed explanation like which mouse button to click and where will decrease. Creating sample building of tutorial two drawings are necessary, which can be downloaded from http: Section 3 - Introduction of Sample The exercises are based on a two-storey house plan.

The original plans can be found at www. The exercises - with the consent of the page - sometimes changed, sometimes simplified and do not fully cover the initial design work.

Horvath AutoCAD Architecture My First Project Metric version 13 The exercises described in this book process a relatively small building, but try to use a wide range of program features. Nevertheless, the AutoCAD Architecture software has many tools, and objects have a lot of skills that the sample does not use. The exercises carried out two-three times provide a good basis for confident usage of the software and for knowledge of the logic used by the program.

Section 4 - Terms Used in the Book and Sign Conventions Below treatments of technical elements are described, which are frequently mentioned in the exercises of the Textbook. Basic Mouse Techniques The following terms will be used to clarify the instructions for use of the mouse. Left- Click Quickly press and release the left mouse button.

Right-Click Quickly press and release the right mouse button. Double-Click Rapidly click the left mouse button twice. Click in Click inside of any kind of element, object to set something in it. Click on Click anywhere on any kind of element or object to open it. Drag Press and hold down the left mouse button while you move the mouse. In AutoCAD the main management tool is the left mouse button. Thus, clicking always means with the left mouse button click in or specify a point.

If the right mouse button is to click, it is always indicated separately. The right mouse button click - if an object is selected is a typical way to display the context menu. See chapter 2. It is a typical way of starting commands. Selecting an element is to move cursor above its contour or internal line and click with left mouse button. More elements could be selected one by one, but it is better to use the so-called Window selection, means selected all objects completely inside a rectangle defined by two points.

Click the left mouse button on an empty field and the program begins to draw a selection box. Drag the cursor to the left or right, and specify the opposite corner point of the selection window. Dragging the cursor from right to left AutoCAD draws a so-called Crossing selection that has dashed contour, and in AutoCAD its fill color is light green in default mode. Crossing selection select all objects within its borders or which are sectioned by the window contour.

The Window Selection selects only those objects which are fully inside in the window. In most cases selection in AutoCAD is a recursive operation, after a selection operation program will initiate new selections until you indicate by pressing ENTER to finish selection operation.

Then the commands run will continue. You can take back from the objects already selected if any kind of selections single, crossing, window is done by pressing SHIFT button. It is one of the novelties that you can see next to Crosshair what you are actually doing. Move, Copy, Rotate, etc.

Same with Selection. You can see that you use either Window selection or Crossing selection. Another novelty is Lasso selection. Lasso selection is a new way to select objects.

You click in a blank area and drag around objects. Release the mouse button when youre done. Anything that crosses the lasso boundary is selected. Typically this mode displays local menus. To show short-cut menus, enter or return, click the right mouse button.

Object Snap Mode can be turned on or off by pressing F3 functional tab, even during a command performing.

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Setting mode of searched special points can be found in the book exercises. Horizontal is defined as being parallel to the X axis of the UCS and vertical as being parallel to the Y axis. In Ortho Mode, cursor movement is constrained to the horizontal or vertical direction relative to the User Coordinate System. Operating mode can be turned on or off by pressing F8 functional tab, even during a command performing. Typographical conventions The following special treatment of characters and fonts in the textual content help you to understand the meaning of words or sentences in AutoCAD Italic Command prompts.

Bold Important and highlighted parts of the text. Tips, notes, and cautions given in the book help you identify and remember important concepts, commands, procedures, and tricks used by professionals that would otherwise be discovered only after much experience. Save Although during exercises you are always warned to save your drawing, it is recommended you to do it very often in your work. In case of bigger drawing using the Automatic save can take for a few seconds which inhibits the work.

For better vision of the figures, the color of the drawing window was changed to white, and the GRID F7 was turned off. Although the color of the objects was set to dark background, if somebody would like to change the color of the drawing window background, he can do it in the following place.

Click on the Customize icon next to the Command line and then the Options from the flyout in order to open the panel. On displaying Options panel, go to the Display tab and by clicking on the Colors button open the Drawing Window Colors panel. You can see here in the first field which Context is active. In the second field you can choose the Interface element that you would like to change. If there is not, click on the menu item, and then try to dock the palette on the left or right side of the screen.

You can move the drawing all over the work area and view the drawing area outside the work area also. You should still have your L-Block drawing out on your work bench so take some time now and experiment with Pan and Zoom. To use the zoom window: Click the zoom window icon Move your cursor down into the work area.

Notice you have the orange reference lines and the cursor turns to a magnifying glass. When you have done that release the left mouse button and you will zoom right into the area. The smaller the zoom window you create, the closer you will zoom into the area.

When you are done, click the previous view icon to zoom back out. Pan and Zoom by mouse wheel Zooming and panning can be achieved by mouse wheel scrolling.

Holding down the Ctrl key allows, the view can be grabbed and dragged by mouse.

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When pressing this icon, all your hatches become invisible, and all images and text only have their bounding boxes shown.

You can use this, when you have a lot of hatches in your drawing and want prevent LibreCAD to slow down when rendering your drawing. Info icons On the Icon menu on the left you will find the Info Icon green horizontal ruler icon. With this icon you can actually measure an entity without having to dimension it. It is useful for checking your work as you draw or for a general check of information of an entity. The top right icon let's you measure point to a line.

The middle left icon let's you measure an angle. The middle right icon let's you measure total length of entities. The bottom icon let's you measure the area of a polygon. These icons are simple to use as you just click one point or entity and then click the other point or entity and the results will be displayed on the bottom in the command information box. Since you have the L-Block drawing on your workbench, go ahead and take a few measurements now.

LibreCAD has an Isometric grid setting to enable us to do this. I know from experience that Automotive parts drawings usually contain a front view, side view, and top view in 2D and a small 3D isometric view of the part to assist in making the part. The craftsman making the part then has a good visual idea of what the complete part looks like. An Isometric view of a part might look like the diagram on the right.

This is a simple L-Bracket. Looking at this Isometric view you get a very good idea of how the part should look. What you see in this drawing is a metal L-Bracket with a 1 mm thickness. In a 3D CAD program you would also be able to shade the surfaces to make them solid surfaces and you would have 3D rotation to look at all angles at the part. Since this is a simple part, an Isometric view will suffice nicely for us.

How do we make an Isometric view? We will look at this in steps as we draw our first Isometric view. In this drawing we will also learn some new drawing tools like drawing parallels, trim and extend, creating a radius on a part and even tools we already have learned like Pan and Zoom, Dimensioning, Changing line types and Basic drawing tools we have learned before.

Click edit on the top menu bar. On the drop down menu select current drawing preferences. In the box that pops up select the grid tab on top. A grid options area will appear in the box. We are only going to change one thing here. Click the Isometric button and select ok on the bottom of the box. You will notice more grid points have appeared on the grid.

That is because we now have a third coordinate we will draw on. Take a look at this illustration: Up until now we have been drawing in the orthogonal grid which is the 2D grid. In the illustration above, the left side shows the X and Y coordinates, which show length and height. In the Isometric grid, we still have the X and Y coordinate, but now we have a Z coordinate which shows us depth or width now as well. It is limited, but then again, this is a 2D drawing program.

Turning back to the drawing on your workbench, click on file on the top menu and select save as. You are going to save the drawing as L-Bracket so type that and click save now. We will now do some drawing so click the line Icon on the left Icon menu and select line the icon with the line and green points on each end and move your cursor into the work area. The first thing you will notice is that the yellow reference lines now show the Y and Z coordinates.

This is because we are drawing in Isometric mode. Everything we learned about drawing lines still applies here except for the Isometric angle. We are going to draw an Isometric rectangle to start our drawing. When you finish the rectangle, it should look like: Your rectangle should look like the Illustration above. The important part right now is the How and not the size. If you make a mistake, just click edit and undo to correct the mistake. Once you have a drawing that looks like the above, then draw the bottom of the L-Bracket.

It should look like: You now have the basic Isometric L-Bracket that looks like the Illustration above. As you can see, this does show a 3D object showing Length, width, and Height. Now that we have the basic L-Bracket we need to make some minor changes and add thickness to the part. It is a good idea to save your work at this point, so do that now. Line Modification If you look at the L-Bracket you will see that part of the long line in the back runs behind or is hidden by the front upright part of the L-Bracket.

In other words, if you looked at the part in real life you would not be able to see part of the back edge of the L-Bracket. Line properties We need to change this line to a hidden line to show that part of the line is not seen. Normally, this is a simple change by making the whole line a hidden line but in this case, only part of the line is hidden. In this case it is a two step process to achieve this.

The first step is to change the whole line to hidden and the next step is to use trim to remove part of the line and replace it with a solid line. Take a look back at the Illustration you saw at the beginning of this chapter and you will see what this will look like.

The first step is the line modification properties : Click modify on the top menu bar. On the pull down menu click properties Move your cursor crosshair over the back edge of the part and click 1 time.

The line will turn red to show it is selected and a line box will appear like the one shown below. Click line type and all the available line types will be in the pull down menu. We will select Dash small from this menu and then click ok. Your part should look like the illustration below.

As you can see the back edge is now a hidden line. Using Trim To change the line we need to first trim the line and then redraw the part of the line trimmed as a solid line. This is done in two steps. First though, click modify again and the menu will again appear. This time we want to select Trim from the modify menu. Move your cursor back into the work area. Center your cursor crosshair over line 1 and click 1 time. The line turns gray. In trim, the first line you select is the cutting line.

Now move you cursor over and click on line 2 where shown. This is the part of the line you want to keep. The line to the left of the cutting line gets trimmed away. Now right click 2 times to come out of trim. The only thing now left to do is click the Draw on the top menu and Line from the pull down menu and redraw the solid line from the point on the cut line line 1 to the end point of the part.

It should look like the Illustration below. Remark: Redrawing is the second best solution. You can never be sure that your new line is exactly in line with previous one. But when you point the mouse to the line only one part will be selected after clicking left mouse. The line is divided and second part may receive different properties.

The basic L-Bracket is now finished. Take the opportunity now to save your work. The next step is to add thickness to the part. LibreCAD has a tool for that in the line drawing menu. Once you have selected the top left icon for Line another menu will open and we will select the parallel line icon on the menu.

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We do this in the commandline. Move your cursor down to the commandline on the bottom and click left click 1 time. If you look at the commandline it is asking you to specify distance. Since the L-Bracket thickness is 1mm you will type 1 on the commandline and press enter on the computer keyboard.

You have now set the distance at 1mm and it will remain set at 1mm until you change it again. Move your cursor into the work area and note the parallel line will appear when you move close to a line on the part. Notice that if you move to one side of the line the parallel will be shown on that side.

If you move on the other side of the line the parallel will be shown on that side. The line will not be drawn however until you left click the mouse button so please keep that in mind. We are now going to place the first line as shown below.

I have changed the color of the parallel to green for clarity in this exercise. Go ahead and place the line and left click 1 time.

If you make a mistake, click edit and then undo to start over. You will now draw more parallel lines as shown in the illustration below.

Once you have finished drawing all of the parallels then right click the mouse 1 time to come out of the command. We are now finished adding the parallel lines we need.

We do not add parallel lines to the back edges because of the angle on which the part is shown would place those lines almost on top of the existing part edges. It is a good idea to save your work at this point so go ahead and do that now. Connecting the corners We now need to connect the corner points of our part. Because the lines are so close together we need to zoom in on the corners. They spend several minutes trying to select lines and points only to become extremely frustrated.

Please avoid this by using the zoom when working this close. Remark: for quick paintings the recommendation above is good enough. If you are an experienced user please image points and lines as mathematical objects.

They have only one dimension line or no extension at all point. Theoretically it will be impossible to hit a point or a line by mouse pointer. When you connect lines there will always be a gap or an intersection.

Solution: use Snap tools! For heavy users it is recommended to use the mouse wheel: Mouse wheel will zoom in and out. Pressing the mouse wheel and move the mouse will shift the window.

We are now going to draw a line between the 2 points circled. We do this by using the draw line Icon or selecting draw then drawing the line between the 2 points. You will need to use trim to remove any excess lines that run past the corners also. Go ahead and do that now. When you are finished use the pan icon first icon on the right looking at the zoom icons above and move to the other top corner.

That means we have to modify the line to lengthen it. Click on the commandline and type 2 or 3 this is how long we want the extension to be and without clicking the mouse button move it on to the vertical line and click 1 time with the left mouse button.

The result is shown above in the illustration. Now all that remains in this step is to use the trim command to trim the excess line. If the other green parallel is short, repeat the process. Sometimes you may skip the step lengthen and trimming alone will give the desired result. Now we need to draw the corner edge line. For this, we will use the draw and line between 2 point tool.

There is one more thing we want to do now also. Go ahead now and draw your line: Now the corner is complete. So far we have done the top two corners. Using the tools we have learned, move now to the two back corners and complete them. Before you do, save your work at this time. Work on the two corners circled: When you are finished save your work. Creating a radius in a corner Every metal part needs a radius on the bend line.

Our part has a 90 degree bend on one end. If we tried to bend this part without a radius, the part would break or crack on the bend line.

I not only worked on making parts like this, but also parts in different metal types in all different thicknesses and all different shapes Automotive parts. The metal needs to stretch rather than break or crack in the bend. So now let's work on the bottom front corners. Windowzoom in on the first corner as shown: Now let's look at the zoomed in area: We will use line modify again for this task. Move your cursor down to the inside vertical line and left click 1 time.

Move your cursor to the other green line taking care that the radius shown connects the 2 lines and left click 1 time. The results are shown below. Now left click on the vertical white outside line and then the bottom outside white line.

Now you have finished the corner. Go ahead now and pan to the other end and complete the part. Leave the white line left for a reference line. The completed part looks like shown below. You will note some differences in what you have hidden lines and the finished part.

Go ahead and make the changes in your part now. Save your work now before something happens and you need to redraw it. Dimensioning an Isometric Part In dimensioning this part two things to remember. Vertical dimensions use the same method of dimensioning that we used before. For dimensions on the angle we need to use aligned dimensions. Dimension Submenu Take a look at the dimension menu. We are going to select Aligned and move the cursor into the work area.

Start by dimensioning the lower front line. Everything works as it did before: Click on one end point Click on the opposite end point. Without clicking, move the mouse away from the line and left click one time. Move to the next line and repeat steps 1, 2, and 3. When you are finished dimensioning all the angular lines then right click 2 times to come out of the command.

Now click Vertical on the dimension pull down menu and dimension vertical lines. Save your work now. This finishes the Chapter on Isometric Drawing. Self Test We have learned quite a bit so far. At this point I have included a self test. The choice though is up to you. What you see is a small section of an Automotive part.

It is a small section of the top inner side inner panel above the door opening in a car. Usually you never see the inner panel because it is covered by the roof on the outside and trim on the inside. It is very important though because the part is designed to protect you in the event of a rollover.

What you are looking at is the front, top, and side views of the part. This is normally the way you would see them in a drawing and I, as a craftsman, would be asked to take a piece of sheet metal and make the part. But you do not have to make the part, just draw the drawing. I have drawn larger views below for clarity.

Front view: Side view: Top view: If you choose to work on it, save the drawing as hat section and later we will add a title Block to the drawing. Take your time and if you get stuck, go back in the manual to refresh your memory.

If you want to draw each view as a separate drawing you can do that also. Also check the drawing because I purposely left out one thing to see if you can catch it Just for fun. Title Block Every drawing usually has a title block. This provides a place on the drawing for extra information like part name, material, thickness, scale, and also a part or drawing number for filing purposes. You can make the title block as simple or complex as you want.

Title block, step 1: Title block, step 2: Title block, step 3: I drew this using the rectangle draw tool. I drew it 30mm x 80mm and then used the line drawing tool to divide it into 3 parts. I also drew a vertical line as shown above.

I then filled in the boxes as shown. I set the text height to 2 for the small text and for the large text I set the text height to 4. I might suggest that you draw the title block on a separate layer on your blank drawing file that you saved earlier in the manual. If you create a layer call it title block so you will remember what is on the layer.

You can make the block bigger to hold more information or change the labels in the boxes to suit your needs. Projection View Before we leave drawing views I want to cover briefly one more type of view and that is a projection view. Sometimes our drawing has surfaces on angles. A front, top, or side view does not allow us to truly dimension it as it really looks and this is even truer if the surface has a feature like a hole, slot, etc. The only way we can show the surface in a true view a view putting the angled surface 90 degrees to the work area.

Below you will see an example of a projection view. The top view is now a true view and allows us to dimension as the surface really looks. The view is drawn 90 degrees to the angled surface. I know many of you are going to say that an Isometric view then is not a true view and you would be correct. Many drawings, at least the ones I have worked with, have front, side, top, and a small Isometric view somewhere on the drawing.

The Isometric view is never dimensioned but drawn to show the craftsman what the part is supposed to look like. We dimensioned the Isometric view in the earlier drawing we did to demonstrate aligned dimensions. Further tools We are now going to cover a few more modify tools that will be useful to you.

You may access them via the icon panel or via menu bar Modify. In example A, I drew a simple line. The prompt on the bottom will ask me for a cut line or point. I then moved my cursor along the line and clicked at any point. I then right clicked 1 time to come out of the command.

Now if you go up and left click the line, you will notice you now have 2 lines. You have cut the line at the point you indicated. Example B shows the line I did and I colored one line red for clarity.

Please remember: lines are infinitesimally small. Sometimes it is difficult do touch a point on the line. If so, switch on an appropriate Snap tool. This tool works the same way the parallel line icon did. You simply select the tool and move to the side of the circle you want the concentric on and left click 1 time then right click 1 time to come out of the command. The command line assumes 1 unit distance if not specified differently.

Example D shows the results I used modify properties to change the line to a dashed line. By the way, on a drawing a circle drawn this way would indicate a threaded hole. In example G, I drew an arc and placed a line on each side using concentric. In example E, I drew a small circle. I then: Clicked the circle.

I then hit enter on the keyboard. The prompt on the bottom told me to select the first mirror point. I selected the right end of the circle. The prompt then told me to pick the second mirror point so I moved the cursor away from the circle and down. A mirror image circle appeared. When I moved the circle where I wanted I left clicked 1 time to set it in place. If the right mouse button is to click, it is always indicated separately. The right mouse button click - if an object is selected is a typical way to display the context menu.

See chapter 2. It is a typical way of starting commands. Selecting an element is to move cursor above its contour or internal line and click with left mouse button. More elements could be selected one by one, but it is better to use the so-called Window selection, means selected all objects completely inside a rectangle defined by two points.

Click the left mouse button on an empty field and the program begins to draw a selection box. Drag the cursor to the left or right, and specify the opposite corner point of the selection window. Dragging the cursor from right to left AutoCAD draws a so-called Crossing selection that has dashed contour, and in AutoCAD its fill color is light green in default mode. Crossing selection select all objects within its borders or which are sectioned by the window contour.

The Window Selection selects only those objects which are fully inside in the window. In most cases selection in AutoCAD is a recursive operation, after a selection operation program will initiate new selections until you indicate by pressing ENTER to finish selection operation. Then the commands run will continue. You can take back from the objects already selected if any kind of selections single, crossing, window is done by pressing SHIFT button.

It is one of the novelties that you can see next to Crosshair what you are actually doing. Move, Copy, Rotate, etc. Same with Selection. You can see that you use either Window selection or Crossing selection. Another novelty is Lasso selection. Lasso selection is a new way to select objects. You click in a blank area and drag around objects. Release the mouse button when youre done.

Anything that crosses the lasso boundary is selected. Typically this mode displays local menus. To show short-cut menus, enter or return, click the right mouse button. Object Snap Mode can be turned on or off by pressing F3 functional tab, even during a command performing. Setting mode of searched special points can be found in the book exercises. Horizontal is defined as being parallel to the X axis of the UCS and vertical as being parallel to the Y axis. In Ortho Mode, cursor movement is constrained to the horizontal or vertical direction relative to the User Coordinate System.

Operating mode can be turned on or off by pressing F8 functional tab, even during a command performing. Typographical conventions The following special treatment of characters and fonts in the textual content help you to understand the meaning of words or sentences in AutoCAD Italic Command prompts.If the other green parallel is short, repeat the process.

Again, if you have problems, refer back to drawing a circle we covered earlier. Freelance wiki workers wrote in In parts of the manual were published on LibreCAD wikipages.

This will make it much easier to draw straight lines. By studying this you can find any mismatches that may occur in assembling the vehicle. Move your cursor over to the right edge of your rectangle and left click anywhere on that line. After some time the detailed explanation like which mouse button to click and where will decrease.

We want everything to look as in the picture below. Starting on the top left you can choose the Font.

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