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Figure Ten photos digitally combined to make a panorama of Pariser Platz. The software corrected this for me automatically, and theres no evidence of my poor hand-holding even upon close inspection of the final image. Balance and Visual Weight Just like two kids on a seesaw have balance, the subjects in a photo have balance. Rather than balancing based on physical weight, subjects in a photo balance based on visual weight. Five elements determine a subjects visual weight: Size.

The bigger something is in the picture, the more visual weight it has. Figure In this photo, the visual weight of the bright balloon is enough to balance massive buildings. Brighter subjects have more visual weight than darker subjects. Brightly colored subjects have more visual weight than dull subjects.

Subjects that are in focus have more visual weight than out-of-focus subjects. An object thats moving, looking, or facing to one side carries its visual weight forward. Its this factor that makes the Rule of Space work.

To understand an images balance, deconstruct it into the most basic components. For example, consider the picture of Stockholm, Sweden, in Figure , and the deconstructed version of the image. If you were to place the deconstructed image on a balance, it wouldnt tip to one side or the other. Note that the circle representing the deconstructed balloon is larger Figure Moving the balloon unbalances the photo, creating a much less pleasing composition.

Moving the balloon to the heavy side of the picture creates a very unbalanced composition, as shown in Figure The subjects in the photo are the same, but a balanced arrangement creates a much more pleasing image.

Most of us can feel whether a composition is balanced or unbalanced without deconstructing it. If you like the subject in a photo, but the overall composition feels uncomfortable, you might be able to fix it by changing the balance. Frame Edges and Negative Space Watch the edges of the frame as you compose your picture. Too often, photographers have a beautifully composed picture with either an uncomfortable crop or something sticking in near the edge of the frame.

This is an easy problem to solve. Before pressing the shutter button, simply look around the edges of the frame for any distractions. You might be able to fix the problem by moving to the side, crouching, or stepping back and zooming in. You also need to provide a bit of negative space around the edges of your frame. Negative space is the area in your photo thats not filled by the main subject. Though I often urge photographers to fill the frame with the subject, I never mean it literallyevery photo needs a subject and negative space around the subject.

Strive to provide a similar amount of negative space around all edges of a subject. Specifically, if you choose to include both the head and feet of a person or animal in a photo, be sure to leave a similar amount of room below the feet and above the head.

Too often, people leave room above the head, but crop too closely to the feet, as Figure demonstrates. Please dont think this means that you need to zoom back and take only full-body photos so you can leave room around the entire person. As I discussed in the Simplifying section earlier in this chapter, when taking pictures of people, your subject is rarely the entire body, hair, clothes, and shoes.

You should, however, carefully control the negative space around the real subject: their face and expression. Black and White Black-and-white photography is a tribute to photographys history, when we used films coating in chemicals to capture light.

Today, black and white photography is an artistic choice rather than a practical one. Compositionally, converting a picture to black and white changes the visual weight of objects to de-emphasize colorful subjects. If you love your childs expression in a photo, but theyre wearing an obnoxiously bright shirt that distracts from the subject their face , try converting the picture to black and white. If you make a cityscape of Boston but the orange Citgo sign annoys you, black and white will almost make it disappear without requiring you to alter the truthfulness of the photo.

Figure Provide a balanced amount of room around your subject at the edges of the frame. Not only do you need to capture the birthday girl and the candles, but you need to capture the action of her blowing them out.

This means that a photo with puffed cheeks and pursed lips tells the story better than a picture with just a smile. Similarly, its not enough to capture the candles, but you need to capture them going out. You could do this by capturing a moment when the flame is bent from her breath, or when theres smoke from extinguished candles. This is the most important element of the story, so it should have the most visual weight Shooting in black and white can be as simple as selecting an option in your camera.

However, if youre a serious black and white photographer, you should capture images in color and then convert them to black-and-white so that you can more carefully control the brightness of different colors. Film photographers do this, too, by using different colored filters.

Chelsea tells you more about black and white photography in the video above. Storytelling Pictures of people, wildlife, and landscapes are all relatively simple: youre taking a picture of a person, place, or thing, and thats your subject.

The most amazing photos, however, tell a story. During those moments, you become more than a photographer; you become a storyteller.

On her birthday cake. Obviously, you need to show the cake, because its an important part of the story. Its not as important as the girl or the candles, however. For example, youre a storyteller when youre taking pictures at a childs birthday party. Youre job isnt simply to document what the attendees look like; your job is to tell a story. Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px.

Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Weve spent six years creating this book, and we hope to spend the rest of our lives improving it and supporting readers. Making photos and helping people is what we love to do. If were going to make this work, however, we need your help spreading the word.

If you feel youve already mastered the basics, you can skip ahead to Chapter 2. Take Lots of Pictures and Delete Most of Them I would never condone thoughtless photography, but taking multiple pictures will produce better results in some situations. The more a scene is changing, the more pictures you should take. If a soccer player is making a drive for the goal, hold down the shutter and keep shooting until shes done celebrating. Its much easier to delete all but one of those pictures than it is to recreate the action to capture the perfect moment.

In particular, take multiple pictures of people. Even if youre just snapping a shot of your friends at a party, take four or five shots. Later, you can flip through your pictures and all but the best shot.

For example, in the sequence of photos in Figure , holding down the shutter paid off. I took about 50 pictures of that moment; the more important a photo, the more shots you should take. Chances are good that the perfect angle isnt the way you walked up to the subject.

Walk around your subject and think about: How the subject appears from that angle. How the light falls on the subject.

Especially when the sun is low on the horizon, changing your viewpoint can dramatically change the lighting. What you see in the background. Most beginning photographers spend all their time looking at the subject and never think about background distractions.

Tony Northrup's DSLR Book: How to Create Stunning Digital Photography

Sometimes, walking a few feet to the side, or stepping back and zooming in, will give you a much more pleasing background.

Try Different Viewpoints Most people hold the camera at eye-level to take a picture. This provides a realistic depiction of what you see, but it doesnt always show a subjects most interesting angle.

For smaller subjects, including kids, dogs, and cats, kneel down to see them eye-to-eye. For flowers, lie on the ground and shoot up to show the sun or the sky in the background. If you have a tilt screen, use it. You can also go even higher than normal.

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For people, stand on stairs or a chair and have them look up at you. High perspectives and wide-angle lenses create an almost cartoonish distortion by making the persons head look larger than the rest of his or her body.

Got it! Figure Digital film is free. Take lots of pictures and keep only the best! Figure shows a handful of different viewpoints of the same subjectthe Eiffel Tower. Which perspective you prefer is entirely subjective, but theyre all very different because I varied my angle and distance. You dont have to get the perfect angle with one shot.

For best results, combine this with the take lots of pictures technique. Turn the camera sideways. Zoom in. Say something funny to make people laugh. Crouch down to get a low angle, or hold the camera above your head to get a high angle. Then, delete all but the best shot. I did use a camera bag and a lens cap the first couple of years I used a camera; I was very careful about it because everyone had warned me that if I didnt, Id surely get scratches on my lens that would ruin the all-important sharpness of my photos.

Every time Id want to take a photo, Id unzip my camera bag, pull my camera out, remove the lens cap, and finally take the picture.

Then, I would reverse the whole process to put the camera away. The bag and lens cap made me miss too many great pictures and slowed down my learning. It was simply too time-consuming to get the. Changing your viewpoint can create drastically different pictures of the same subject. Any fleeting moment kids, wildlife, street photography would be lost by the time I removed all my camera protection, and I was more reluctant to take still-life photos because it took me so long to grab a shot.

Now, I use a shoulder strap to carry my camera and protect the lens using only a lens hood. It takes me about a second to take a picture. Some of my lenses have a decade of hard use, and theyre completely scratch-free. Some people will tell you to use a UV filter to protect your lens. Filters reduce the image quality by requiring light to pass through an unnecessary layer, and they can also introduce flaring discussed in Chapter 5, Problem Solving and vignetting.

The cheap filter will scratch, which might make you think its saving your lens, but your lens typically made of glass is actually pretty scratch-resistant. For those reasons, I dont recommend using a UV filter.

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If you do get some damage that a bag or lens cap would have protected you from, all the extra shots you got will make it worthwhile. Plus, you wont ever notice the effect of minor scratches in your pictures.

To see our free video tutorials for popular camera models, visit: You can see them at sdp. If you dont see your camera, choose a similar model.

Use fill flash outdoors when your subject is backlit to fill in shadows and create catch lights in your models eyes. Use bounce flash indoors to softly light both the foreground and the background. Figure on the next page shows two outdoor snapshots. Because the sun was behind Chelsea my wife, co-photographer, and editor , her face is in shadow. Turning the flash on balanced the foreground light with the sun. The second shot shows my favorite tip for outdoor portraits: Have the model stand with his or her back to the sun and turn on flash.

The sunlight will cause the hair to glow, and the flash will light your models face. Youll be surprised how much your photography can improve just by knowing how to use your camera. Dont panic; Im not going to make you read your entire manual. For now, just read the pages that tell you how to:. Dont wait until your pictures are a distant memory before looking at them. There are many different ways you can use your pictures, and the more you do, the better youll get:.

Turn the flash on and off. Select continuous shooting. Set the cameras timer. Select aperture priority and shutter priority. View the histogram. Because readers have so many different cameras, this book cant always tell you exactly which buttons to push on your camera.

However, I have created free video tutorials. Make prints from sites like Shutterfly. Post your pictures on Facebook and tag people.

Put a digital picture frame in a prominent location in your house. Create a photo book available at Shutterfly. Once youre feeling confident with your. To watch a video comparing online print services, visit: As a reader of this book, I invite you to visit the Stunning Digital Photography Readers group on Facebook and post your pictures on our wall. Chelsea and I visit the page almost every day to answer questions and give feedback, and thousands of other readers will help, too.

Even if you dont feel like sharing a picture or asking a question, you can learn a lot just by looking at other peoples pictures. Other photo communities include Flickr, Photo. If youre feeling To watch a video on Creating an Online Portfolio, visit: The best photographers at each of these sites are truly inspirational, so do your best to learn from them, rather than be intimidated by them.

You can also get feedback from other photography enthusiasts. Generally, people are very supportive, so if youd like criticism, ask for it! Once you get a few pictures you like, you should create an online portfolio. A portfolio showcases your best photos. Its a great way to show the world what an amazing photographer youve become, but even more importantly, its the best way to keep track of your progress as you learn photography.

Know Your Final Format Think about how youre going to use your pictures when you press the shutter. For example, if you have a wall space that would be perfect for a vertical 8x10 print, shoot the picture vertically, and leave a little room at the top and bottom so you can crop the edges to.

On the other hand, if your favorite place to display pictures is a horizontal digital picture frame in your kitchen, be sure to take horizontal pictures so you can use the entire space.

If you must display a small version of the picture such as in a small picture frame or the web , zoom in close to your subject and compose the picture as simply as possible. If you plan to display a large version of the picture, zoom out to show more detail. If youre not sure how youll use a picture, take both horizontal and vertical pictures, and leave room for cropping.

Make a Great Thumbnail Pictures on the Internet, including Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites, always start with a very challenging format: Thumbnails are tiny versions of photos that you see when you browse, and if a thumbnail catches your eye, youll click on it to see the full-sized version of a picture. Therefore, if youre sharing photos on the web, you need to make great thumbnails, or nobody will see the full-sized picture. Like all smallformat pictures, thumbnails should have simple subjects that fill the frame and no distractions.

For example, consider the popular photography site, px. All the most popular photos on the site have simple subjects that are clearly visible when the image is scaled down to a x pixel thumbnail. If the thumbnail doesnt grab a viewers attention, they wont click on it to see the full-size picture. This simple fact means many artistic but complex photos go unseen. Even if you have a 50 megapixel camera, you need to think about each photos 0.

Consider the eight thumbnails in Figure For most people, its the picture of the duck the third picture on the bottom row. The thumbnail is bright and colorful, and its easy to see the subject. When people see the prints in the real world, however, they prefer the second photo on the top row.

The complexity of that cityscape works great in a large format, but its lousy thumbnail means itll never get many clicks on the web. Get Another Opinion My favorite pictures are rarely other peoples favorites. Sometimes a photographers emotions or focus on the technical details of a picture, like sharpness and contrast, can hinder his or her ability to judge the aesthetics that most non-photographers can just feel. Outside opinions, no matter who theyre from, are valuable.

Its not especially sharp or interesting, but its one of my bestselling stock photos of all time. I spent hours in the woods, including standing in the rain, to get close enough to get the picture in Figure of a robin feeding her babies. I love it because I remember the energy that I put into it.

Nobody else seems to think. I stubbornly keep the robin picture in my portfolio, but I have to acknowledge that its not as good a picture as the coyote picture because I trust other peoples opinions before my own. Edit Your Pictures Editing your pictures isnt cheating. Today, its expected; every single photo you see in the media has been edited.

Theres no excuse for crooked or washed-out pictures anymore, because free image editing applications, such as Picasa, allow you to quickly fix just about any problem. Editing your pictures is also a great way to learnif you discover that your family photos are better when you crop them down, the next time you take pictures youll remember to zoom in closer.

If all your pictures are orange, you can adjust the white balance in your image editing appand youll know to fix the white balance setting on your camera the next time. Once you discover the importance of postprocessing, youll spend more and more of your time editing your pictures.

At that point, it makes sense to upgrade to Adobe Lightroom. Lightroom provides more powerful editing capabilities than Picasa or any other image management software, but most importantly, it makes your workflow more efficient.

For that reason, every single professional and serious amateur I know uses Lightroom. See something you want to remember. Hold the camera up. Press the shutter. Though I prefer the picture of the robins, others prefer the picture of the coyote. Envision a photograph. Find the best location. Find the best viewpoint. Find the best time. Determine how the natural light needs to be modified.

Identify the camera settings you need to get the right exposure, perspective, background blur, and depth-of-field. Edit the picture to complete your vision. The first photo in Figure shows a snapshot I took of Chelsea at a park. A few minutes later, I found better natural lighting and a nicer background, and we made the second picture.

Making pictures doesnt have to take. Evaluate Your Photography People are too biased to judge the quality of their own photos. If you ever want to objectively determine how good one of your pictures is, consider the experience, planning, and camera equipment: Many people buy a camera, take a few pictures, and then give up when the results arent professional. People seem to think that photography is not a skill, but a gift that youre born with.

Yet, every great photographers first shots are throwaways. Photography, like just about everything else in life, requires experience. With experience, youll learn how to set up your camera, choose the right lens and composition, and adapt to the lighting.

Ansel Adams, like all great photographers, planned every great shot. For his camera, he carefully chose a view point, a lens, film, and camera settings. He also chose a time of the year, time of the day, and weather conditions when the sunlight perfectly illuminated his subject. You can take good pictures spontaneously, but if you want to take great pictures, you need to plan them.

The last factor in the photo quality equation is equipment. No photographer should be held back by poor-quality equipment. However, dont spend money on high-end equipment before you gain the experience and learn to plan a shot.

How to Create Stunning Digital Photography

The most experienced photographers cant take a great picture on-the-spot; they need to plan it out. Even with great camera equipment, inexperienced photographers who dont plan their shots out will produce lousy pictures. To make great pictures, build up experience by studying and practicing for years, plan your shots out, and use good-quality camera equipment.

The single most common mistake I see people making is being preoccupied with equipment and settings. Of course, we constantly get the question that I consider to be the highest compliment from a non-photographer: What camera do you use?

Usually especially when sharing pictures on Facebook , it doesnt much matter. Settings such as the shutter speed and aperture usually dont matter as much as people think, either. Recently, Chelsea posted her photo of our daughter Figure to our Facebook page and a reader asked, What was your shutter speed?

Heres what we did to make that picture, none of which is quite as simple as buying expensive equipment, pressing a button, or flipping a switch:. We were at the beach with our daughter. We went an hour before sunset so the lighting would be nice. We picked a day with clear skies, which creates a nice, hard light from the sun.

There was no wind, and thus no waves, creating glassy reflections on the water and allowing you to see the ripples. Chelsea moved to a spot where the sun was behind Madelyn to create the silhouette. Chelsea composed the photo carefully, zooming in to eliminate distractions and positioning Madelyn according to the rule of thirds.

Chelsea patiently watched Madelyn for several minutes, snapping dozens of photos. Back at home, Chelsea picked the single best of all of her photos and edited it to level the horizon. With the camera in aperture priority mode, Chelsea was able to focus on the mood, composition, and her subject instead of technical details.

My advice to beginning photographers is simply, Be there and think. And when I say think, I want you to think about the subject, the location, the perspective, the lighting, the timing, the weather, the mood, the pose, the clothes, the expression, the composition, and yes, the camera settings. Thats a lot to absorb, and Ill teach you every bit of it as you read this book, watch our videos, and share your photos on our Facebook page.

But Id rather you leave your camera in automatic mode than become preoccupied with any one aspect of making a picture, especially the equipment and settings. Carry Extras Nothing is more frustrating than missing a shot because you ran out of batteries or space on your memory card.

Buy an extra battery and keep it ready on your charger. When you go out, grab both batteries. Carry extra memory cards with you. Buy a handful of the cheapest memory cards you can find, even if theyre small, and stash them in your bag, purse, car, suitcase, and wallet.

The next time you fill up your memory card, or forget your card at home, your extra will save the day. Never Close an Empty Door When you take a memory card or battery out of your camera, leave the camera door open until you replace it.

The next time you pick up your camera, the open door will remind you that your cameras not yet ready.

Photography Projects Try these projects if you need inspiration! Make an artistic still life photo using household items: Pre-shot Checklist Even if you learn everything in this book, youre bound to forget something important in the field. Ive made a pre-shot checklist that you can print and keep with you.

Better yet, copy it to your smartphone so you never leave it at home. If you dont understand everything in the list yet, dont worryyou will when youre done reading the book. You can download and print the checklist from sdp. Good composition doesnt require an expensive camera or an understanding of the technical details of photographybut it can take years of practice before it becomes second nature.

In this chapter, Ill cover basic compositional techniques that artists have been developing for hundreds of years. The Rule of Thirds Instead of centering your subject in the frame, place your subject one-third of the way through the frame.

For example, heres the same picture at two different crops: As you can see in Figure , the photo with the subject centered looks like a common snapshot. Following the rule of thirds in the second photo. The first picture in Figure shows what most people do naturallyplace the subject in the center of the picture. The second picture reframes the same shot to follow the rule of thirds. As the diagram demonstrates, the second photo follows the rule of thirds in several different ways: The temple is aligned roughly with the right third of the frame.

The sky is aligned roughly with the top third of the frame. The water is aligned roughly with the bottom third of the frame. The rule of thirds is so pervasive that many cameras can display similar gridlines when framing a picture to help you follow the rule of thirds. Photo editing applications such as Adobe Lightroom display a rule of thirds grid when cropping photos, too. Figures and The rule of thirds makes pictures more interesting by creating negative space.

Look for the rule of thirds in the world around you in magazines, paintings, movies, and television shows. Youll discover that its used by all the masters. The rule of thirds is a very oversimplified guideline. The most important element to remember is not to place your subject in the middle of the picture, nor just slightly offcenter.

One-third of the way towards the edge is really just the beginning of where composition begins to look deliberate; many compositions look great at four-fifths or even nine-tenths. Figure shows two pictures that are cropped from the same photo. The first picture feels crowded because the deer is about to run into the left side of the frame.

The second picture simply moves the deer towards the right edge of the frame, giving him room to run. Pictures must have a focal point. Often, the focal point is obvious. If youre taking a picture of your daughter, shes the focal point.

If youre a bird photographer, the focal point will always be a bird. Both of the examples in the rule of thirds also demonstrate a second rulegive your subject room for movement.

If the subject is moving, or looking in a direction other than the camera,. Finding the focal point is more difficult with landscape, nature, and architectural photography.

For example, you might see a gorgeous landscape around you, but the picture. Leave room in front of your subject to avoid making the picture feel crowded. Without a focal point, the eye simply disregards the scene as background. Focal points can be flowers, animals, people, or anything that draws the eye. If you cant find a focal point by changing your position or perspective, dont be afraid to add one. For example, Lake Lucerne in Switzerland Figure is an amazing sightswans swimming across the glassy water with the snow-capped Swiss Alps as the backdrop.

Regardless, most people would quickly flip past my first photo. Waiting a few minutes for the ferry to arrive vastly improved the photo. If you cant find a focal point, use the sun in the photo, ask a friend to pose, or include yourself in the picture. For more information about taking selfportraits, refer to Chapter 6. The subject does not simply need to be a person or object.

If youre taking pictures at your sons baseball game, the subject might be the speed of the swing, the excitement of the crowd, or the happiness of the winning team. With practice, you will be able to capture these more complex subjects.

Attempt to fill the frame with your subject without crowding the subject by placing it too close to the edge of the frame. With portraiture, the subject is often simply their expression. For example, the portrait shown in Figure crops deeply into the models hair and shoulders, filling more of the frame with the subject: When you look at the picture, you dont wonder whether the top of her head is on fire or if shes actually a minotaur; your imagination fills in the missing details.

Consider the flower in Figure The first picture is sharp and centered, but quite boring. The second photo fills the frame with the subjects key elements: No viewer would see the second picture and want to see the rest of the flower; your brain fills in the gaps. Simplifying Once you determine your focal point, eliminate distracting elements from the picture.

The easiest ways to do this are to move around the. The subject of a portrait is rarely the entire person. Usually, the subject is the expression, and you should crop tight around the face. Another way to simplify pictures is to blur the background using a short depth-of-field. For more information about aperture and depthof-field, read Chapter 4, Controlling your Camera.

Angle of View One of the easiest ways to simplify your composition is to zoom in. Zooming in does more than move you closerit narrows your. If you zoom out to a wide angle, youll see more of the background. If you take a few steps back and zoom in, youll see less of the background. This difference in perspective gives you control over the background in your pictures.

If you want to see more of the background, step closer and zoom out. If you want to focus on your subject, step back and zoom in.

Figure shows Chelsea photographed with the Boston skyline in the background using a wide-angle 25mm , normal 50mm , and telephoto mm lens. I stepped farther away from Chelsea for each shot to keep her the same. Zooming in shows less of the background, but brings it closer. Zooming out shows more of the background and makes it seem farther away.

Because wide-angle lenses have a large field of view, they include a great deal of background in the picture. Step back a few feet and zoom in so that your subject takes the same space in the frame, and youll see much less of the background.

Step back farther from the model and zoom in all the way, paparazzi-style, and the telephoto lens will hide most of the background. This shows you fewer buildings, but each building appears much larger and seems to be closer to the model. Unless you have a beautiful and simple background, the telephoto zoomed in picture will probably be the prettiest of the three pictures.

Telephoto lenses blur the background, which makes the subject seem to pop off the background. Telephoto lenses also make facial features appear smallerin other words, a wide-angle lens can make your nose look big, even if its not. To watch a video on finding the angle, scan the QR code or visit: Lines Your eyes are naturally drawn to lines in a photograph.

You can use lines to draw the viewers eyes to key elements, create patterns, and divide a picture. Lines can be architectural elements such as railings or walls, geographical elements such as shorelines or horizons, or organic elements such as trees or people. Lines have different qualities, depending on their shape and direction: Converging parallel lines create a vanishing point a concept created by Renaissance artists the point at which the lines converge in the distancecreating depth and perspective.

One of the drawbacks of simplifying your composition is losing scale. Particularly when the subjects size is importantsuch as with babies, puppies, monster trucks, and giant redwoodsyou need to include something of a known size in the frame.

Thats why you see so many portraits of newborn babies being held in the fathers hand; the hand, for scale, immediately gives you a sense of the size of the subject. The same applies for large subjects, such as waterfalls and Great Danes.

If you want them to look large in the picture, include something small in the frame, as close to the large subject as possible. Figure shows two pictures of the American Niagara Falls.

Without the ferries in the picture, you dont get a sense of its massive size. Without the boats in the foreground, you dont get a sense of the massive scale of Niagara Falls. Vertical lines feel powerful, solid, and permanent. Diagonal lines are more dynamic, conveying movement and change. Straight lines feel formal, deliberate, and manmade.

Curved lines, especially an S-shape, feel casual and add sophistication, nature, and grace. In the photo of the New York City skyline Figure , the diagonal line of the Brooklyn Bridge provides a dynamic contrast to the vertical lines of the buildings and leads the eye through the frame from left to right. Also note the use of the rule of thirds, dividing the photo between water, building, and sky.

Leading lines draw your eye through the picture. For that reason, its important to have a focal point where the lines converge. For the pictures in Figure , I found a location with interesting lines and moved sideways until I found a viewpoint that caused the lines to converge on a subject.

The cityscape of Stockholm, Sweden, would be much less interesting if the lines of the railways didnt lead your eye to the most prominent of the buildings. The photo of the train tracks would be boring if my daughter werent at the focal point.

Any time a picture has prominent lines, including the oceans perfectly flat horizon or the vertical lines of a building, you must take care to make sure your camera is level. If you process your picture and discover that it isnt perfectly level, just rotate the picture in post-processing so that its straight.

Rotating pictures requires you to crop the edges slightly, so it helps to shoot slightly more wide-angle than you need. When you include angled lines, choose a perspective that allows the angles to be at least 20 degrees off-level.

Anything less doesnt look deliberate and isnt as appealing. To control the angle of lines, change your perspective. For example, in a landscape with a straight fence through it, you could hold your camera perpendicular to the fence so that it was perfectly straight across your picture. Or, you could move close to the fence and turn left or right so that the fence drew an attractive 20 to 30 degree angled line through the landscape.

However, you wouldnt want to be somewhere in-between; a 5 degree angle would look careless and unattractive. To watch a video on buildings and architecture, scan the QR code or visit: Patterns In the case of the travel photos in Figure , the pattern of red torii gates in Kyoto, Japan, seems to disappear into the distance, implying that there are thousands of the gates.

Indeed, there are thousands of the gates, but it would be impossible to show them all in the photo. By using a pattern without a definite ending, the viewer gets the feel for the quantity without having to show it explicitly.

Frames You can add depth to a picture by using a natural frame. Frames can be trees, doorways, window frames, or anything that surrounds your subject. The photo of the author watching the Boston skyline, Figure , is framed by a lighted shelter in the foreground. The photo of a flower has depth because the flower is growing outside of its frame.

Symmetry Symmetry creates pictures where one half could be a mirror image of the other Figure Symmetry shows geometric precision and simple beauty.

The picture must be perfectly centered, vertical lines must be straight, and the horizon must be completely flat. Often, you will need to disregard the rule of thirds and perfectly center the subject in the frame.

When you see a reflective surface, such as still water, use symmetry. Showing Depth When many beginning photographers first begin thoughtfully composing their shots, they have a tendency to line up shots perfectly straight, square, and flat. Moving off-center and showing a subject at an angle shows more depth and provides a more lively, dynamic, and casual composition. Compare the photos of the Nyhavn district in Copenhagen, Denmark, in.

Shooting straight on made the buildings look flat top. The lively scene and fun colors arent well suited to the square framing; the compositions that include depth simply suit the subject better.

Theres value to square composition; it conveys a stately, formal, and professional attitude. If that suits your subject, then a straight composition is a good choice. Wes Anderson often uses square composition to subtly set a mood in his films, especially in Moonrise Kingdom.

In architecture, square compositions are perfect when you want to convey formality.Now, consider whether adding a bed, you use your LED book light to read a few second light source from another direction to more pages from the still very white pages. The videos are a great help and compliment the text very well. Because panoramas stitch together multiple pictures, they effectively increase your cameras megapixels, allowing you to take sharper pictures and create much larger prints.

The most experienced photographers cant take a great picture on-the-spot; they need to plan it out. More importantly, it cast shadows against the other facets of the octagonal water tower, highlighting its interesting form. Heres a more complex example. The second picture shows the flash bounced off the right corner of the room, creating broad lighting by lighting the side of the models face closest to the camera.

Square compositions are often required when using symmetry.

PAMILA from Illinois
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