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# DRAWING FOR THE ABSOLUTE BEGINNER PDF

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications. This inspiring book makes drawing in a realistic style easier than you may think and Authors Mark and Mary Willenbrink (Watercolor for the Absolute Beginner) . Download the Book:Drawing For The Absolute Beginner: A Clear & Easy Guide To Successful Drawing PDF For Free, Preface.

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Connect the Opposite Corners Sketch lines connecting the opposite ends of the square. Each line will define the widest and narrowest parts of the ellipse. The intersection of these two lines is the center point of the ellipse. Their ends are round, even if the ellipse is rather flat. Vanishing point. Sketch In the Ellipse Sketch in the shape of the ellipse. Notice that the ellipse is longest in relation to the longest center line.

Ellipses In Use Ellipses can be drawn as vertical, horizontal and angled, but still use the same perspective principles.

Remember the first step in drawing an ellipse is to sketch a square in linear perspective. Sketch Cylinders Using Ellipses The ends of cylinders drawn in perspective are ellipses. First establish the horizon and vanishing points, then sketch the boxes. The ends of the boxes will be the boundaries for the ellipses. Connect the ellipses to create the cylinders. Notice how the center lines direct the shape of each ellipse. Circles are not the only curved objects you must draw in perspective. Arches are also quite common and need to follow the rules of perspective to look accurate.

The peak of an arch is centered over the space between its supporting walls. The same is true of most roofs. To draw a roof in proper perspective, you will need to know how to find its the center point. Measuring with a ruler will not give you the correct center point as far as perspective is concerned, which is why knowing how to find the center point is important. Try this little exercise to learn how to find the center point for a roof.

## Pencil Drawing - A Beginner's Guide

Sketch a Rectangle In Perspective Establish the horizon line, then the vanishing points which are far off to the left and right. Sketch a rectangle in perspective. This will become the walls that support the roof. Add Vertical Lines Sketch vertical lines up through the center of the Xs.

Connect Opposite Corners of the Rectangle Sketch lines connecting the opposite corners of the sides of the rectangle, making two Xs. The intersection of these lines are the center points for the sides. Sketch the Top of the Roof Sketch a line for the top of the roof.

If completely drawn, this line would converge with the other lines on the right side of the box at the vanishing point far off to the right. Connect the Points to Finish the Roof Connect the lines from the top of the roof to the side points. These lines will make the roof ends. Drawing the arch of a doorway or the bottom curve of a suspension bridge is similar to drawing the roof of a building.

For the doorway, find the center point of the rectangle by connecting the opposite corners of the rectangle. Make a vertical line straight up to establish the peak of the arch. The curve of a suspension bridge can be thought of as an arch with the curve at the bottom instead of at the top, so apply the same principles. The reflection shares the very same horizon and vanishing points as the images they are reflecting.

The vertical lines show how both the trees and their reflected images are perpendicular to the surface of the water. This is most noticeable when the reflecting surface is smooth. It is not a repeat or reverse of the bridge, but a continuation. The mountains are far away from the water, yet their image is still reflected on its surface.

Even the person viewing it is visible in the center. Values are the degrees of light and darkness in a drawing. They give additional form and depth to a basic structure.

Observing the wide range of values that make up your subject will give you a better understanding of how light creates highlights and shadows on the form. Observing Values Exercise Take white foam shapes from your local craft store, set them up with a good light source, then observe the characteristics of the shapes, the highlights and how the shadows fall. Notice the wide range of values. You may need to paint the foam white to get an opaque surface that reflects light smoothly and accurately.

Be sure to use latex paint, because spray enamel will melt Styrofoam. Contrast Differing values create contrasts that can affect the mood and composition of a drawing. The more extreme the difference between values, the greater the contrast.

One way to achieve higher contrast in your drawing is to place your darks and lights side by side. They appear differently according to their environment. The small square on the far left may appear darker than the small square on the near left, but both are the same value. The square on the left appears darker because it is placed directly against the pure white of the paper, providing more contrast. Value Contrast Creates Impact A drawing done without much contrast will not have much impact and will look flat and pale.

The white smoke of the rocket on the right looks brighter against the dark background. The drawing on the right uses richer values, creating more contrast. You can use a value scale to compare the values of a scene with that of a drawing.

Hold the value scale up to the subject and look through the holes punched along the side. Where do the values in the subject fall on the value scale?

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As you begin to compose a drawing see page 86 , it is always best to establish the highlights and very light areas. Sketch those in, then look for where the other values are in the subject. To fill in the other values, one option is to go from the lightest shades of the drawing to the darkest. Another way to map out the values is to fill in some of the darkest areas around the lightest areas, then work with the midtones last.

Try each of these methods to see which one works best for you. Add a line down the middle right of the rectangle as a guideline for the holes you will punch out in the last step. Create the Lighter Values Keeping the top white, use a 4H pencil to create the lighter values with back-and-forth strokes. Add the Darkest Values Use a 4B pencil for the darkest values. With scissors, trim around the rectangle pattern you drew, and punch seven holes along one side with a hole punch.

Map Out the Value Variations in Your Reference Photos Now you can hold your scale up to a picture or scene to judge the values as you work on your drawings.

Creating Values When you draw, you use lines to suggest light and dark values. The grade of pencil, the sharpness of its point, the angle of the point on the paper, the amount of pressure applied to the pencil, and the surface of the paper all influence the values you create.

Even the pencil strokes you use influence the values you create on the paper. Often type of stroke and the direction of the lines is determined by the subject. When drawing wood, the pencil lines will follow the direction of the grain; when drawing a cat, the direction of the pencil lines will follow the contours of its body.

Different Folks Make Different Strokes If you are right handed, it is natural for you to make lines moving from the upper right to the lower left. But lines may go any direction you like, depending on what is comfortable for you and the effect you want to achieve.

Here are some basic lines strokes created with different pencil grades. Hard pencils are good for sharp, crisp line work, and they keep their points longer than soft pencils. Soft-grade pencils can make smooth, dark values. Consider duplicating these pencil strokes as an exercise, then get creative and invent other textures. Light Effects Values are used to create the effects of light and shadow in a drawing.

To make your drawings look realistic, you will need to replicate these different light effects. Basically, the origin of the light. To determine the shading and shadows of a scene, it is important to determine the position of the light source so you know from which direction the light is coming. The light source is usually the sun or a lamp, so the light usually comes from the top.

A light source positioned at the top left or right will give more depth than one located straight above your subject. A highlight occurs where light reflects off an object. In a drawing, this appears as a bright spot. Form Shadow. A shadow on an object that gives depth and dimension to its form. Cast Shadow. A shadow that is cast or thrown by one object onto another surface. Light that bounces off a surface and adds light to a region of the object that would otherwise be darker.

Placing the light source below the subject contributes to his fightening looks. A Natural Light Source Moving the light source from below the subject to above gives the monster a less frightening appearance. Plotting Shadows While the concept of plotting shadows may seem daunting, a basic understanding of it will help you to draw realistically.

There are two primary methods of plotting a shadow. One is for when the light source is in the background and can be shown on the drawing; the other is for when the light source is in the foreground and cannot be seen directly. Both of these methods use the principles of linear perspective. Light Source in the Background In this example, the light source is in the background. Notice that there is a line coming straight down from the light source to the horizon. From this vanishing point, draw lines passing through the bottom corners of the cube.

Next, draw lines from the light source passing through the top corners of the cube. Unseen Light Source in the Foreground Though the general direction of the light is assumed, the light source is so far away that it cannot be indicated in the drawing.

Because of this, the direction of the light and where those lines would converge on the horizon will be a vanishing point. Then draw lines from this vanishing point and pass them through the bottom corners of the cube. Next, plot the lines coming from the vanishing point of the angle of the light source. Place this vanishing point below and perpendicular to the other vanishing point.

From this point, draw lines that pass through the top corners of the cube. The intersection of these lines will form the shape of the shadow of the cube. You will find certain subjects easier to draw than others. Challenge yourself—give some of the lessons you may deem more difficult a chance. You might even try some lessons more than once, then compare the results from your first attempt with your last.

I predict that you will be amazed at the improvement in your drawing skills. You can draw all of these examples with your 4H, HB and 4B pencils. Use the 4H and HB pencils for the light and medium values and the 4B pencil for the darkest values. Drawing Subjects Are Everywhere Be on the lookout for drawing subjects such as these rocks.

This drawing was done from a photograph taken by one of my students, Jackie Chunko. Clouds and Grass The world around us offers an infinite number of subjects to draw. Commonplace items such as clouds and grass can be interesting by themselves or as complements to other elements in a picture. When drawing clouds, start by sketching the outline, but use subtle value changes to show the shape and depth of their.

You can achieve value changes by varying the type or pressure of your pencil strokes. Be particularly conscious of the location of your light source. Stormy days while the sun is still out are especially good for drawing clouds because there are so many sharp contrasts between the lights and darks of the sky. With the light source above, the tops of the clouds appear lighter, while the undersides appear darker and shadowed.

One way to learn how to draw clouds in sunlight is to study the effects of light on something more solid, such as cotton balls.

Clouds can be both translucent and opaque. When the light source is behind the clouds, the cloud in front of the sun will appear bright white around the thin, translucent edges where the light shines through it.

The thicker parts of the cloud will appear darker because they are more opaque, blocking more of the light. Line strokes can imply individual blades of grass. Use darker strokes to indicate shading and depth. The background grass is shown as a dark silhouette, whereas the foreground grass is suggested with light pencil strokes. Vary the direction and spacing of the lines to make the grass look more interesting.

Trees may be the center of interest in a scene or just a background element. Each tree has a character all its own. Branch Out Exposed branches can add interest to an otherwise ordinary tree. First sketch the branches of the tree, then erase the lines that are going to be covered by the leaves.

Finally, shade in the leaves. Sketch the Basic Shape Start with the basic overall shape of the tree. Place the trunk toward the bottom of the page. Even if the branches are not visible in the final drawing, sketching them will help you understand both the structure of the tree and the placement of the leaves. Add more definition to the outer form of the tree by outlining the edges of the leaves. Add the Leaves and Shading Erase any unnecessary lines.

Use a variety of back-andforth lines to suggest the leaves. Make some lines darker than others to create shadows. Notice that the direction of the lines adds a sense of liveliness to an otherwise static subject. Remove your initial outline with an eraser. Use the same basic steps to draw evergreens as you would use to draw leafy trees. When drawing a tree, examine the subject closely to capture its uniqueness.

Sketch the Branches Sketch in the branches, noticing their direction. The branches angle downward the farther down you place them on the tree. Many trees are structured like this, not only evergreens. Add the Needles and Shading Erase any unnecessary lines. Use a variety of staggered back-andforth lines to suggest the needles of the tree. Apply some lines more heavily than others to create shading and depth.

Carry a Camera Be on the lookout for interesting trees that you can photograph and use as references for future drawings. Brick, Stone and Wood Knowing how to draw different building materials such as brick, stone and wood comes in handy when you want to draw a house.

These elements add a range of textures that make your drawing more interesting. Draw Anywhere, Anytime The really great thing about drawing is that once you have the necessary materials, you can draw anywhere, anytime.

Draw on the bus!

Draw on your lunch break! Bricks Up Close A subject viewed up close will display more texture than when viewed from a distance, so it should be drawn differently to show that detail. To emphasize their worn appearance, draw old bricks with multidirectional lines of varied degrees of thickness. Bricks at a Distance A distant view of bricks is drawn with minimal detail.

Use back-and-forth line strokes to add values to the bricks. Add shadows under the individual bricks with heavy dark lines for a subtle sense of depth. Also create depth through the use of one-point perspective. Draw the massive fitted stones of an ancient Roman building with shading lines going in different directions to show texture. Make the joints of the stones dark to imply shadow and depth.

Use irregular shapes and sizes, varied line strokes and shading to create a wall of rough stones. Add heavy, dark lines under the stones to imply shadow and depth.

Notice the left end of the wall is set against a background made of dark vertical line strokes to suggest a corner. Wood Beams Draw wood grain using differing values and line strokes. Make the places where the wood was chipped out darker to suggest shadow and depth.

Use semicircular lines to create the knots in the boards. Wood Boards Draw weathered wood boards with coarse pencil strokes flowing in similar directions to show the grain. The spaces underneath and between the boards are dark to suggest depth. Apply the same drawing principles and techniques that are used when drawing complex subjects to relatively simple subjects such as rocks. You can make the drawing more interesting by varying the shapes and sizes of the rocks. Sketch the Basic Shapes Sketch the outer shapes of the rocks, varying the sizes and shapes for interest.

Map Out the Lights and Darks Add lines to map out the lights and darks on the rocks. In this case, the light comes from the upper right, so draw lines on the upper right areas of the rocks for the highlights and on the lower left areas for the darkest portions of the rocks. Add Shading and Shadows Use consistent up-and-down pencil strokes so that the surface of the rocks will look smooth.

Make the pencil strokes darker on the left side of the rocks to create shading and depth. Rocks offer a variety of shapes, sizes and textures. Coarse Rocks The rough shaping of these rocks makes each one unique.

This appears to be a simple drawing, but its subtle value changes make it challenging The outer shape of some of the background rocks is defined by the shading behind them.

Projecting Rocks These rocks jut upward, their top edges appearing light in value. Use back-and-forth lines to fill in the values, altering the pressure of some of the strokes to add shading and depth. Sketch the Wings First sketch the wings as a long box, using two-point perspective as if looking down on the subject.

Draw lines to better define the shapes of the rudder. Chisel out the fuselage and shorten the lower wing tips. Add Lines for the Body Add lines for the basic structure of the fuselage and where the rudder and tail stop. These lines share the same perspective as the wings. Add Shading Erase any unnecessary lines, and shade in the overall form.

Add the darkest areas last, such as the shadow under the wings. Draw A High-Speed Jet First draw the basic shapes in perspective to carve out the shape of the plane. Add highlights, shadows and details. This type of steam engine is a Norfolk and Western The structural elements of this scene are drawn using one-point perspective. Make use of the principles of atmospheric perspective as you apply the lights and darks.

When you want to shade subjects like these, friskets and erasing shields may be handy tools to use. Sketch the Basic Shapes Draw the horizon line, with the vanishing point on the left side. Start with the basic shape in one-point perspective. Notice that all the vertical lines are perpendicular to the horizon at this stage.

Add More Structural Lines Add the more obvious lines, including the vertical lines that define the individual cars. Add a cross in the upper middle of the circle, to mark the placement of the engine lights.

Indicate the Basic Shapes of the Front Fill the previously drawn square with a circle. Add other lines to indicate the basic shaping of the front of the engine. Also add trim to the tops of the cars. Add Shading Erase any unnecessary lines, and finish with shading. Use uniform up-and-down pencil strokes to make a smooth appearance. Create atmospheric perspective by drawing the closer portion of the train with more contrasts and details than the more distant portion. Draw a Steam Engine Sketch the basic shapes, chisel out the shape of the train, and add feature lines.

Next add the shading, paying close attention to subtle value changes. This is a Facel Vega, a French sports car built in the s and s. This is a fun lesson to practice dissecting your subjects by first looking for the basic shapes, remembering the rules of perspective. Sketch the Basic Shapes Sketch a basic box shape in two-point perspective.

Take the time to get this right so the rest of the drawing will work out accurately. Add lines to mark the placement of the front elements such as the grill and headlights.

Add the Top and Squares for the Wheels Add the top of the car to the basic shape. This will help you draw the ellipses for the tires accurately. Like all the elements, the squares share the same perspective as the basic box shape. Add Details and Begin Shading Add details such as the headlights, grill, windows and interior.

Keep in mind that the cutouts for the wheel are shaped differently from the wheels themselves. Add some shading to the wheels and shadow under the car. Add Details and Shade Add more details to complete the car, such as wheel covers and chrome trim. Erase obsolete lines.

Shade the form, using uniform line work to create a smooth appearance. Add another layer of darks to the wheels and shadows, giving them more contrast against the lighter values of the car. Creating a Shiny, Metallic Surface Rich darks and graduated values give this Jaguar a shiny metallic appearance.

The graceful lines of boats and shimmering water reflections inspire great compositions. Sketch the the Lines of the Hull Start with the lines of the hull, which tilt slightly upward on the left side.

Add the Side of the Cabin and the Top of the Hull Draw the side of the cabin and the curve of the top of the hull. The boat is viewed from the side and at a distance, making it look flat. Add lines to indicate the placement of the cabin. Shade to Finish Add values to the elements. Use long, straight pencil strokes on the hull. Make the inside of the cabin dark. For those of you who are cat lovers, this demo will be lots of fun. For those of you who prefer dogs we know everyone falls under one of the two categories , go ahead and try this exercise, then give the finished art to one of your cat-loving friends.

This demo offers a great way to develop your shading skills. Sketch the Basic Shapes To draw the feline face, start with the basic outer oval, two lines for the top and bottom of the eyes, and an oval for the snout.

Place the Facial Elements Add more lines for the eyes, mouth and the top of the ears, as well as a triangle for the nose. Add details, including the pupils, nose and muzzle. Add Shading Erase any obsolete lines. Add shading with pencil strokes that follow the direction of the fur.

Apply darker values for the stripes and shadows. Cats are as varied as people, and it is fun to capture their unique qualities in your drawings. In addition to helping you create shape and texture, this demo will give you an opportunity to work on developing your proportioning skills.

To sketch the legs and body in the correct proportions, first sketch a baseline. A baseline is used to establish the placement of your subject and to help work out proportions of a drawing.

Sketch the Basic Body Shape Draw a rectangle to suggest the basic body structure. Take the vertical lines all the way down to the baseline. Add the Neck and Legs Add lines for the neck that connect the head to the body.

Sketch angled lines for the legs. See page 30 for instructions on how to transfer angles. Add the Head Shape Sketch an oval for the head. Position it so it just overlaps the top horizontal line. Complete the Body Draw the outline of the tail, and complete the legs. Add the outline of the ears and position the eye and mouth.

Erase any obsolete lines. Add details to the eye, mouth, nose, ear and paws. Start with the basic overall structure and then add more features as your drawing progresses. While observing dachshunds for this drawing, I became aware of how short dachshunds really are! Sketch the Basic Shapes Sketch lines to form the basic body and head structure, including a baseline to establish where the feet will rest.

Sketch lines that will indicate the muzzle and the foreground legs. Add Circles for the Head and Body Add circles for the head, chest and rear. Add the eye, tail, ears and legs. Place the background legs so they are staggered in comparison to the foreground legs. Add Fur, Details and Shading Erase any obsolete lines. Add details to the eye, nose, mouth and paws. Drawing Long Fur Use long pencil strokes that follow the direction of the fur to shade in the coat for a longhaired dog.

Make these pencil strokes less uniform than those used for a shorthaired dog. This will make the long fur look more textured. Cows are incredible creatures. Besides giving us milk, cheese and meat, cows do amazing tricks, but no one knows about it because they pull these stunts only when no one is looking.

Sketch the Basic Shapes Sketch the basic shapes: Add a baseline to establish the length of the legs. Add the eye, ears, tail and udders. Indicate the Neck and Legs Add lines for the neck and legs. Pay attention to the placement and angles of these lines. Use a small circle to indicate the joint of the front knee.

The elegant lines of this swan makes it an interesting subject. Enjoy practicing your skills with this mini demo and then consider using your drawing as a greeting card. Sketch the Basic Shapes Sketch the basic shapes of the head and body.

Be conscious of their proportions and placement. Add the Neck and Beak Add curved lines for the neck, then add the beak, paying attention to the distance between the neck lines. Add Final Details and Shading Add the shading with short pencil strokes. Start with the lighter values, then add another layer of pencil strokes for the darker areas.

Human Figures People make fascinating subjects to draw. While at a mall, just look at all the different sizes, shapes and proportions of the people around you. Proportions for Adults Though men are generally taller than women, they are shown as the same height here for comparison.

For both sexes, almost half the height is made up of the legs, with the tips of the hands falling to the mid-thigh region. The waist is lower in men than in women.

Another difference is that men are generally bulkier and wider than women. Equal Height and Width For most adults, their height is equal to the width of their outstretched arms. Proportions for Children Children are proportioned differently from adults, more noticeably in younger children. Their bodies are smaller in relation to their heads, and their legs are shorter, with the tops of their legs well below the middle line.

Figure Drawing Once you become familiar with basic body structure and proportions, you can draw more confidently, using a minimum of structural guidelines. Man Standing As you draw the human figure, remember that almost half the height of the body is the legs. Establish the middle line first, then mark the top of the inseam. Pay attention to the head size, which takes up a little more than one-eighth of the overall height. A common mistake in figure drawing is to make the head too large and the legs too short.

Establish the General Proportions Start with lines to indicate the placement and proportions.

Add top, bottom and middle horizontal lines. Then sketch a line halfway between the middle and top lines, then sketch another line between the last line drawn and the top line. The distance from the top line to the next lower line is one-eighth of the overall height.

You can use dividers if you want to check your proportions. Sketch in the legs, placing the top of the inseam just below the middle line. Add the Arms, Hands and Feet Add the arms, with the wrists falling at about the middle line and the fingertips reaching mid-thigh. Sketch a line for the placement of the eyes. Sketch in the feet along the baseline.

One way to do this is to use the width of the eye as a unit of measurement.

## Garcia W. Drawing for the Absolute and Utter Beginner

These examples show generic proportions of an adult male of European origin. The features of individuals vary according to age, gender and ethnicity, if only in subtle ways.

Sketch the Basic Shape Start with the basic shape eggshape of the head. It should be five eye-widths wide by seven eye-widths high. Add the Eye Line Sketch a horizontal line in the middle of the face to place the eyes.

Sketch a vertical line to establish the center of the face. Add a line for the nose a little less than half the distance from the eyes to the chin.

Sketch a line for the mouth a little less than halfway between the line for the nose and chin. Add Eyebrows and Lips Add a horizontal line above the eyes for the eyebrows and sketch them in. Add the top and bottom lips. Add the Nose and Ears Add the base of the nose. The width of the nose aligns with the inside corners of the eyes. Add the ears, with the tops of the ears aligned with the eyebrows and the bottoms aligned with the base of the nose.

A three-quarters view of the face shows most of the face and part of the side of the head. Keep in mind that the proportions and the placement of the elements are similar to the front view.

Sketch the Basic Shape Sketch an egg-shape for the threequarters view with the chin slightly off-center toward the right. Proportional dividers enable you to enlarge or reduce by measuring the reference with one end of the tool and then using the other end to determine the size of the image in your drawing. Proportioning can be done loosely for a quick sketch or more precisely for a finished drawing.

The subject also influences how accurate the drawing needs to be. You may be less concerned about the proportions of a tree than you are about the proportions of an automobile.

Using Standard Dividers Using Proportional Dividers Measure the subject in your reference with the dividers and transfer the length to your surface. You can only measure a one-to-one ratio with standard dividers. Proportional dividers are used not only to compare proportions but also to enlarge or reduce. Measure the subject in your reference with one end of the dividers, then use the other end to mark the measurement for your drawing.

The notches in the center of the dividers let you determine just how much you want to enlarge or reduce the size of the image. Using a Sewing Gauge Align the edge of the object with the end of the sewing gauge, then move the slider up or down to mark the other edge.

Transfer that measurement to your drawing. Get It Straight Straight lines can be drawn using a straightedge or ruler. Another method is to place the side of the hand holding your pencil against the edge of your drawing surface, then glide your hand along the edge.

If you want to take the guesswork out of drawing angles, use an angle ruler. Correct angles will make your drawings more successful. Duplicate the Angle Transfer the Angle to Your Drawing First, duplicate the angle of the subject by aligning a pencil with it. Keeping the pencil at the same angle, hold it over the drawing and adjust the sketch as needed. Using an Angle Ruler An angle ruler see page 12 also can be used for duplicating angles. Line up the angle ruler with the subject, then hold it over the drawing.

Then transfer the angle to the drawing by placing the angle ruler on the relevant area of the drawing and marking along it. It is good to practice observing actual subjects such as the birds in your backyard. Firsthand observation will help you to capture the essence and nature of your subject. The problem with observing from life is that the subject, especially an animal, may not stay still for you. Moreover, the lighting and colors will constantly change.

A still life, in which you set up your subject matter with a consistent light source, is another option. How to Approach a Challenging Drawing Some subjects may seem so daunting, you may not know where to begin. Even finding the basic shapes, which is the best place to begin, may be hard. The following method may help. Tracing paper Reference material Trace the Basic Shapes Lay a piece of tracing paper over your reference and trace the basic shapes of the image.

Basic-shapes reference Initial source reference Use Your Tracing as a Reference Use the tracing as another reference to determine the placement of the shapes and their proportions as you begin the drawing. Reference Materials Observation of a subject can be enhanced with reference material.

Start a reference file by categorizing photos and magazine pictures in an accordion folder. It affects almost everything we see, if only in subtle ways, which is why it is important to have an understanding of how perspective works.

Artists employ two types of perspective: linear and atmospheric also called aerial. Linear perspective involves the use of converging lines and the manipulation of the size and placement of elements within a composition to create the illusion of depth and distance. Atmospheric perspective, which will be explained in more detail on page 41, relies not on lines but on variations in value and detail to achieve similar effects. Horizon Line The first step in using linear perspective is to establish a horizon line where the land or water meets the sky.

Even when the horizon line is not actually visible, its location must be clear or the perspective of the scene may not be correct see page Vanishing Points Vanishing points occur where parallel lines appear to converge, usually on the horizon.

For example, when you look down a train track, the rails seem to converge in the distance. The place where the rails appear to meet is the vanishing point. A single drawing may contain several vanishing points—or none at all— depending on the location of elements within a scene and the vantage point of the viewer.

Vantage Point The best way to describe the vantage point is to say that it is the point from which the viewer observes a scene. In a drawing, the relationship between the location of subject elements such as trees and buildings and the horizon line will determine the eye level of the vantage point.

In addition, the vantage point can influence the mood of a scene see page Vanishing point Vanishing Points A vanishing point occurs where parallel lines appear to meet in the distance. For instance, when you look down train tracks, the parallel lines of the rails seem to converge at a point on the horizon. Notice that the horizon line goes through the eye of the dog.

Overhead View With the horizon placed well above the man and dog, the vantage point is also very high. This creates the feeling that the viewer is looking down on both of them. A high horizon can give an unnatural feel to a subject that is normally viewed from eye level.

Instead, bring the horizon line down to a more natural vantage point. Placing the horizon unnaturally low will make the viewer feel as if he were looking up at the subject from a very low vantage point.

Placing the horizon unnaturally high will make the viewer feel as if he were looking down on the subject from a great height. Remember to always draw the horizon line first, then determine the placement of the vanishing point on the horizon, which should not be far from the center of the scene.

First draw the horizon line, then determine the placement of your two vanishing points on either side of the paper on the horizon line. As you work out the perspective of the elements in the scene, extend the parallel lines either up or down toward the vanishing point, depending on the vantange point you want to create for the viewer. These tools will make technical and perspective drawings easier to do and more accurate.

The vantage point is somewhere above the man and the dog creating the feeling that the viewer is looking down on the scene. All parallel lines angle up to converge at the vanishing point.

Similar objects will appear bigger if they are positioned closer to the viewer than if they are placed farther away. Objects closer to the viewer may hide from view, cover up or cancel out objects that are farther in the distance. Elements that are parallel to each other will appear to converge in the distance.

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You can find your tracking number by clicking on the order on your My Orders page. Change or Cancel My Order Once your order has been placed, we are unable to make any changes. Please make sure to double check that your shipping and billing information is correct as well as the number of items before submitting your order.Sketch In the Ellipse Sketch in the shape of the ellipse.

How to Paint Eyes The point of convergence is called the vanishing point. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Darken the arms and hand, making the farthest arm darker than the nearest arm. You Need Only a Few Materials to Draw All you really need is a pencil and some paper, but a few other tools will make drawing easier whereever you go.

The Art of Basic Drawing. Add Light Values to the Apples With the 4H pencil, add value and form to the apples with light lines that follow their contours.

With these definitions in mind, recognize that there are times to begin a drawing with a sketch and there are times to begin a sketch without any intention of refining it into a finished drawing. The image will be visible through the drawing paper to provide a foundation for your value, black-and-white and contour drawings.

JOSEF from Florida
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