EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY PDF
PDF | David C. Berliner and others published Handbook of educational psychology. Kelvin Seifert is professor of educational psychology at the University of the editor of the online journal called "Teaching Educational Psychology," and has. HANDBOOK of. PSYCHOLOGY. VOLUME 7. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. William M. Reynolds. Gloria E. Miller. Volume Editors. Irving B. Weiner. Editor-in- .
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course in educational psychology that is part of a teacher-training educational psychologists' interest in classroom learning has increased dramatically. A. Introduction to Educational Psychology - 1 Chapter 1 philosophy, psyChology, researCh, and theories By Andrew P. Johnson, Ph.D. Minnesota State University, . For some little time we " educational psychologists" have felt occasional pricks of professional conscience about the subject matter of what we sometimes.
Accuracy rating: 5 The content in this resource is accurate. I was not able to find any errors and did not find biases. We already have professors in our department using this resource and I have not heard from them that there has been any issues in these areas either.
Since the book is so comprehensive I don't believe the authors could go in depth on many of the topics. They discuss the topics very well.
The only suggestion I would have is that they add to each section actual strategies to help teachers with applicability. Clarity rating: 5 The text is written so that a student new to the field could understand it - the authors take time to explain terminology that is specific to the field. But you cannot say that water temperature causes drowning as more people tend to be in the water when it is warmer. And when the water gets really cold ice forms.
Few people seem to drown on ice-covered lakes. You can find many examples in the popular media of people usually with a political agenda who misuse correlational research by trying to attribute cause and effect. A common misuse is to try to link a decrease in any type of test scores with an increase or decrease in the issue of the day such as: Internet usage, video games, family values, teachers unions, teaching of traditional values, gay marriage, phonics instruction, whole language, prayer in school, or saying the Pledge of Allegiance.
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Causal—comparative research compares groups in order to find a cause for differences in measures or scores. For example, if a principal was interested in looking at the effectiveness of a new math program, she could use causal—comparative research to make an informed decision. The math achievement scores of several schools, some of which used the new program and some of which did not, would be compared and analyzed. The independent variable would be the type of math program used.
The dependent variable would be the average math scores on similar standardized tests from each school. If the schools using the new math program demonstrated higher test scores, and these differences in scores were statistically significant, it would be reasonable to assume that the new math program may be more effective than traditional methods. Qualitative research.
Qualitative research uses systematic observations in order to understand a phenomenon, condition, or situation. Examples of qualitative researchers include Charles Darwin observing the origins of species on the Galapagos Islands, Jane Goodall studying gorillas in the wild, or Maria Montessori observing how children learn in classrooms.
Examples of data collection in a qualitative research might include interviews, structured observations, surveys, checklists, samples of dialogue, audio or video recordings, student or school records, artifacts, case studies, products, performances, or field notes. As an example of a qualitative study, Dr. Samuel Jones wanted to understand how kindergarten students develop the ability to read and write.
He noticed that in some kindergarten classrooms, literate behaviors reading and writing seemed to emerge without formalized, systematic instruction. The purpose of his research was to understand this emergent literacy process and discover what might account for these behaviors. Introduction to Educational Psychology - 5 variety of kindergarten classrooms in which these behaviors emerged.
Then he spent several months observing, taking notes, talking with students, and talking with teachers. Finally, he reviewed his data looking for patterns and commonalities. Based on his inquiry he discovered that students in these classrooms were immersed in authentic literacy experiences.
That is, they were encouraged to read and write for real purposes first; then given small bits of instruction as they were are ready for it. This was different from traditional classrooms where students were asked to master a set of literacy sub-skills, read very structured texts, and write only in very limited ways.
So which research method is the best? Different kinds of questions call for different kinds of research design. One of the big ideas to take from this chapter is that research should be used to inform your teaching practice.
As stated above, educational research is used to create theories. Theories help to organize relevant empirical facts in order to create a context for understanding phenomena empirical means they can be observed or measured.
Theories are then used as the basis for designing educational programs, policies, and practices. A theory is a way to explain a set of facts. Put another way, if reality were a dot-to-dot picture, a theory would be a way to connect a set of data dots see Figure 1. However, varying theories connect different data dots in different ways resulting in a wide variety of pictures and practices.
Thus, different theoretical perspectives can advocate different practices or practical notions even though each is based on a set of empirical data.
An example of this would be behavioral learning theory and cognitive learning theory, both of which are based on solid empirical evidence and can be used to inform your teaching practice. Theories connecting data dots. Educational psychology: Search for essence throughout a century of influence.
Winne Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.
Creswell, J. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc. DeCarvalho, R. The humanistic paradigm in education. The Humanistic Psychologist 19 , Eisner, E. The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Fraenkel, J. How to design and evaluate research in education 5th ed.
New York, NY: Gutek, G. Philosophical and ideological voices in education. Boston, MA: For example, other factors such as modeling as described by the social cognitive theory of morality are required to explain bullying.
Rudolf Steiner 's model of child development interrelates physical, emotional, cognitive, and moral development  in developmental stages similar to those later described by Piaget. Developmental theories are sometimes presented not as shifts between qualitatively different stages, but as gradual increments on separate dimensions.
Development of epistemological beliefs beliefs about knowledge have been described in terms of gradual changes in people's belief in: People develop more sophisticated beliefs about knowledge as they gain in education and maturity.
Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior. Motivation can have several impacting effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter: Educational psychology research on motivation is concerned with the volition or will that students bring to a task, their level of interest and intrinsic motivation , the personally held goals that guide their behavior, and their belief about the causes of their success or failure. As intrinsic motivation deals with activities that act as their own rewards, extrinsic motivation deals with motivations that are brought on by consequences or punishments.
A form of attribution theory developed by Bernard Weiner  describes how students' beliefs about the causes of academic success or failure affect their emotions and motivations.
For example, when students attribute failure to lack of ability, and ability is perceived as uncontrollable, they experience the emotions of shame and embarrassment and consequently decrease effort and show poorer performance.
In contrast, when students attribute failure to lack of effort, and effort is perceived as controllable, they experience the emotion of guilt and consequently increase effort and show improved performance. SDT focuses on the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in driving human behavior and posits inherent growth and development tendencies.
It emphasizes the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. When applied to the realm of education, the self-determination theory is concerned primarily with promoting in students an interest in learning, a value of education, and a confidence in their own capacities and attributes.
Motivational theories also explain how learners' goals affect the way they engage with academic tasks. Those who have performance approach goals strive for high grades and seek opportunities to demonstrate their abilities.
Those who have performance avoidance goals are driven by fear of failure and avoid situations where their abilities are exposed. Research has found that mastery goals are associated with many positive outcomes such as persistence in the face of failure, preference for challenging tasks, creativity and intrinsic motivation. Performance avoidance goals are associated with negative outcomes such as poor concentration while studying, disorganized studying, less self-regulation, shallow information processing and test anxiety.
Performance approach goals are associated with positive outcomes, and some negative outcomes such as an unwillingness to seek help and shallow information processing.
Locus of control is a salient factor in the successful academic performance of students. During the s and '80s, Cassandra B. Whyte did significant educational research studying locus of control as related to the academic achievement of students pursuing higher education coursework.
Much of her educational research and publications focused upon the theories of Julian B.
Educational Psychology Service
Rotter in regard to the importance of internal control and successful academic performance. Therefore, it is important to provide education and counseling in this regard. Instructional design , the systematic design of materials, activities and interactive environments for learning, is broadly informed by educational psychology theories and research.
For example, in defining learning goals or objectives, instructional designers often use a taxonomy of educational objectives created by Benjamin Bloom and colleagues. Bloom  discovered that a combination of mastery learning with one-to-one tutoring is highly effective, producing learning outcomes far exceeding those normally achieved in classroom instruction. The following list of technological resources incorporate computer-aided instruction and intelligence for educational psychologists and their students:.
Technology is essential to the field of educational psychology, not only for the psychologist themselves as far as testing, organization, and resources, but also for students. Educational Psychologists whom reside in the K- 12 setting focus the majority of their time with Special Education students. It has been found that students with disabilities learning through technology such as IPad applications and videos are more engaged and motivated to learn in the classroom setting.
Liu et al. The authors explain that learning technology also allows for students with social- emotional disabilities to participate in distance learning. Research on classroom management and pedagogy is conducted to guide teaching practice and form a foundation for teacher education programs. The goals of classroom management are to create an environment conducive to learning and to develop students' self-management skills.
More specifically, classroom management strives to create positive teacher—student and peer relationships, manage student groups to sustain on-task behavior, and use counseling and other psychological methods to aid students who present persistent psychosocial problems. Introductory educational psychology is a commonly required area of study in most North American teacher education programs.
When taught in that context, its content varies, but it typically emphasizes learning theories especially cognitively oriented ones , issues about motivation, assessment of students' learning, and classroom management. A developing Wikibook about educational psychology gives more detail about the educational psychology topics that are typically presented in preservice teacher education.
In order to become an educational psychologist, students can complete an undergraduate degree in their choice. Most students today are also receiving their doctorate degrees in order to hold the "psychologist" title. Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings. Some work in university settings where they carry out research on the cognitive and social processes of human development, learning and education.
Educational psychologists may also work as consultants in designing and creating educational materials, classroom programs and online courses.
Educational psychologists who work in k—12 school settings closely related are school psychologists in the US and Canada are trained at the master's and doctoral levels.
In addition to conducting assessments, school psychologists provide services such as academic and behavioral intervention, counseling, teacher consultation, and crisis intervention. However, school psychologists are generally more individual-oriented towards students. Many colleges and high schools are starting to teach students how to teach students in the classroom. In colleges educational psychology is starting to be a general education requirement.
One in four psychologists are employed in educational settings. In recent decades the participation of women as professional researchers in North American educational psychology has risen dramatically. Educational psychology, as much as any other field of psychology heavily relies on a balance of pure observation and quantitative methods in psychology.
The study of education generally combines the studies of history , sociology , and ethics with theoretical approaches. Smeyers and Depaepe explain that historically, the study of education and child rearing have been associated with the interests of policymakers and practitioners within the educational field, however, the recent shift to sociology and psychology has opened the door for new findings in education as a social science.
Now being its own academic discipline, educational psychology has proven to be helpful for social science researchers.
Quantitative research is the backing to most observable phenomena in psychology. This involves observing, creating, and understanding a distribution of data based upon the studies subject matter. Researchers use particular variables to interpret their data distributions from their research and employ statistics as a way of creating data tables and analyzing their data. Psychology has moved from the "common sense" reputations initially posed by Thomas Reid to the methodology approach comparing independent and dependent variables through natural observation , experiments , or combinations of the two.
Though results are still, with statistical methods, objectively true based upon significance variables or p- values. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Applied psychology. Main article: Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development. For broader coverage of this topic, see Educational technology.
Education portal Psychology portal. Educational Psychology: The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Educational Psychology , 25, — School psychology: Learning lessons from history and moving forward. School Psychology International, 31 6 , Retrieved May 5, Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Mahwah, NJ, US: On education: The University Press.
Juan Luis Vives on the soul and its relation to the body". Schooling as a means of popular education: Pestalozzi's method as a popular education experiment. An introduction to the history of psychology. Belmont, CA: Talks to teachers on psychology and to students on some of life's ideals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. A first book.
New York: How we think. New York D. Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains. Retrieved from http: School Psychology Quarterly , 15, — Journal of School Psychology , 39, — Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the "overjustification" hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 28, — Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology , 97, — A summary of the effects of reward contingencies on interest and performance.
The Behavior Analyst Today , 3, — Multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Massed versus distributed repeated reading: A case of forgetting helping recall? Journal of Educational Psychology , 82, — Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice.
Educational Psychology Review , 1, — Fading mnemonic memories: Here's looking anew, again! Contemporary Educational Psychology , 25, — When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology , 93, — Educational Psychology 3rd Canadian ed. Toronto, Canada: American Journal of Psychology , 15, — The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
Psychological Corp. Hope uniquely predicts objective academic achievement above intelligence, personality, and previous academic achievement.Lawrence Erlbaum.
Constructivism is a category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process. Early childhood education Primary education Secondary education Tertiary education. Causal—comparative research. This comprehension text was the dependent variable used to compare the two groups after the treatment.
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