CHESS GUIDE PDF
topic guide, but one with sufficient explanatory text and supporting material that you will not need Light, Houdini, Stockfish, Rybka, Komodo, or Chessmaster. Chess is the most intelligent game ever invented. It has a lot of things that are similar to life. It trains you to use all your resources to the maximum extent. Basic chess rules. Setting up the board: The board should be set up with the white square in the nearest row on the right, “white on the right”. If this isn't done the.
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Chess was invented long ago. the names we use for the pieces date from the Middle Chess players have agreed that a move without a letter - such as e4 - is . The purpose of this manual is to encourage the playing of chess by young people . of course this is the first edition of this manual (experimental, if you will) and. NOTE: This curriculum dates to , when I began teaching chess. It began as a list of topics to be taught in a sequence that I thought made sense. Over the.
Place the kings next to the queens, which is only fitting. Add the pawns straight across the rank in front of the other pieces. Naming Ranks and Files in Chess The chessboard is divided into ranks numbers and files letters. There are eight of each, and each is comprised of eight squares of equal size: Ranks are rows that go from side to side across the chessboard and are referred to by numbers. Each chessboard has eight ranks, which are numbered from the bottom of the board where the white pieces start on up.
Files are columns that go up and down the chessboard, and each board has eight of them. Because numbers indicate ranks, letters indicate files, which are labeled from left to right. The naming conventions for ranks and files allows you to give an identifier to every square by using what chess people call the file-first method. For example, the lower right-hand square is called h1. This name is shorthand for h-file, first rank. Knowing the Moves that Chess Pieces Can Make Before you can play a game of chess, you need to know how to move the pieces legally.
The more mobile a piece is, the more powerful it is: Pawns: Pawns can only move forward.
On their first move, they can move one or two squares. Afterwards, they can move only one square at a time. They can capture an enemy piece by moving one square forward diagonally. Bishops: Bishops can move any number of squares diagonally. Knights: Knights can move only in an L-shape, one square up and two over, or two squares over and one down, or any such combination of one-two or two-one movements in any direction.
Rooks: Rooks can move any number of squares, up and down and side to side. At the national championships in Tiblisi he managed an even score even though he missed several opportunities. The winner of the tournament, Tal, happened to meet Garry in a lightning match after the event — and the result was a tie!
There are only two other players I could name who gave such successful performances at the age of fifteen in major tournaments: Fischer and Spassky.
Before the next championship Garry was invited to a grandmaster tournament in Yugoslavia, where he outdistanced the field handily. It was a sensation: he had achieved the international master rank and the grandmaster norm in one jump. Wade echoed Tal in recalling Spassky at Bucharest in and Fischer at Zurich in — both sixteen years old at the time. This is understandable; so intense is modern chess competition that a real talent can demonstrate maturity at an early age.
How early is irrelevant. What Kasparov recognized was that he had a style by this time. Each one of us is capable of making his own discovery, so long as he is dedicated and persistent. At the Soviet championship in Minsk, , he varied his style from the swashbuckling ways expected of him, so much so that the veteran Salo Flohr compared his first and second round games with the style of Petrosian.
Finally he was expected to win, with his experience and top rating. In , in a dramatic turn of events, Kasparov split with FIDE, refusing to recognize their authority. As Kasparov relates in Unlimited Challenge, the plot against him came to his realization slowly and still mystifies him as World Champion.
It is as if the chess world is too lazy to look at the facts and too cynical to try to address blatant abuses of the reigning hierarchy.
If Kasparov had made one of several possible missteps along the way to his championship, and his defenses of it, he would have had even less sympathy. He would have been called a poor loser. Clearly the Soviet chess leadership supported its World Champion, Karpov. Just as clearly, Kasparov was considered by that leadership to be an outsider, and was not given the opportunities to make his mark as a championship candidate.
Finally, in , he began to assert himself in choosing tournaments that would establish his role as a challenger. Kasparov was eighteen years old when he journeyed to Tilburg, Holland, to compete in one of the most exclusive of grandmaster events.
The Dutch have always cherished the royal game; the late champion Dr. Max Euwe was only the most distinguished of many generations of players from this region. Thus it was symbolic that at Tilburg, , as Kasparov tried to press his claim to being on the track of the world championship, he was to be disappointed. Garry finished with an equal score, missing obvious chances against Spassky, Petrosian, and Portisch.
Though other pieces now enter the scene, this Bishop will strike the final blow in the underbelly of the King position. Rd4 Nd6 Rg4 Nf7 Ke8 Bg7 Resigns, as h7 follows. The Leningrad Grandmaster has committed the unpardonable sin of defecting, and was in a tug of war with his former country over the freedom of his wife to join him.
It was a sad commentary on the blindness of the bureaucrats that their boycott of Korchnoi was the laughing stock of the rest of the world. Again it was a last-round, back-againstthe-wall stand. He had lost earlier to Psakhis, who now was ahead of Kasparov by a half point. So Garry shared the gold medal. In this event Kasparov demonstrated, in his game against Dorfman, what would become a trademark: the deeply prepared variation, ending in fireworks.
In the Botvinnik variation against the Slav Defense, Kasparov defied analysis, going on at the tournament, in which White was supposedly lost after a speculative Knight sacrifice. After all-night study, he soon reached a position after 30 moves that was crucial. With 36 Rcl!
After Dorfman was lost and soon resigned. Even after this rise to the Soviet championship, Kasparov was told openly that the Sports Committee did not want to see a match with Karpov. In late he was invited to three world-class tournaments that would have honed his skills for the next qualifying cycle. Kasparov was turned down by the Committee for all three — and shunted to a minor event.
The threat had reached a crisis stage. To his surprise, he was allowed to enter the major tournament of Bugojno. He would never know whether it was another ploy or an honest admission of what was right. In either case, he now had a chance to meet the best in the world. It was a typically Yugoslav grand slam: two former World Champions, Spassky and Petrosian; the perennial Polugaevsky; the strong national contingent of Gligoric, Ljubojevic, Ivanovic, and Ivkov; and the best, perhaps, of the rest of the world in Huebner, Larsen, Timman, and Kavalek.
It was at Bugojno, , that Kasparov seemed to come of age in self-confidence.
He was prouder of that game than of many previous risky and flamboyant combinational triumphs. Botvinnik said, after this game, that he had to revise his timetable: Kasparov might be able to challenge Karpov now rather than in the next championship cycle.
Kasparov won six, drew seven, and lost none, finishing a point and a half ahead of the field. One tends to forget his age and broader ambitions: he was majoring in English at an Institute in Baku. Like other grandmasters before him, Kasparov was blessed with a prodigious memory. In his autobiography, he mentions the phenomenal displays of Harry Nelson Pillsbury and some anecdotes about Bobby Fischer.
Kasparov speculates that such feats may also injure the mind. Nevertheless, his depth of opening research necessarily depends not only on assiduous study but also on uncanny retentiveness.
After some shaky moments against Andersson and Tal, Kasparov began playing with supreme confidence in the Moscow Interzonal. This time with seven wins, six draws, and no losses, he again finished a point and a half ahead of the field. Then it was on to the 25th Olympiad at Lucerne, Switzerland. Here he led the Soviet team, with Karpov, of course, at first board, to a resounding victory. Again, he had not lost a game.
He finished the year unbeaten in tournament or team play. At the conclusion of the Olympiad, the first order of business was to draw the pairings for the Candidates matches. Eight players were to play four matches, followed by two matches, and then the final elimination to select the next challenger against Karpov.
All of this, of course, was to be by a chance drawing. But when the results were announced, there was general pandemonium.
The first four turned out to be the strongest-rated; Kasparov, now rated highest at , was paired against Belyavsky, and he then had to play either Korchnoi or Portisch. Though the drawing may have been fair, the players objected to not being present.
Such was the contempt of some of the contestants that Portisch walked out when he saw the pairings. Further mischief followed.
When Kasparov won from Belyavsky without trouble, and Korchnoi from Portisch, the next match was set for Pasadena. For reasons too complex to go into, this venue turned out to be impossible.
Finally, thanks to patient organizers in Yugoslavia and England, the semi-finals were scheduled for London in Former World Champion Smyslov surprised everyone by winning both his matches in the twilight of his career. Kasparov and Korchnoi armwrestled for several games before Garry broke through to win the first game in a seesaw battle.
This type of ending is full of hidden dangers due to the unusual King positions. Korchnoi played the plausible 63 d6, when 63 Rdl! The difference is that the Black King gains a move as e5 is unguarded in the variation By playing 63 Rdl first, Black has nothing better than Ke4 65 d5 Ke5, and Black is a critical move behind. Korchnoi said after the match that this game convinced him Kasparov was more than a combinational prodigy. The final match with Smyslov, in Vilnius, Lithuania in , was onesided.
Kasparov reached the necessary four wins without a loss; he had lost just one each to Belyavsky and Korchnoi. Garry was certain of his destination, at the ripe age of The La Bourdonnais-McDonnell match was also devoid of politics, intimidation, and organizers who claimed to be more important than the players.
In short, the World Championship match will go down in history as one of the great aberrations in all of sports. It all began innocently enough: the Champion would be the first player to win six games, with draws not counting. Kasparov was told to sign an agreement beforehand allowing a return match in two years in the event that he won — thus changing the previous threeyear cycle. He began to see clouds on the horizon. Every match since Spassky-Fischer had been 24 games, with total score winning and the Champion retaining the title in a drawn match.
No one could have guessed that twice that number of games would be played here — without a result.
Anatoly Karpov had demonstrated a championship style in the tournaments he eagerly contested throughout his reign. He began in superb form, winning four of the first nine games. As Kasparov later admitted, if the Champion had continued in the same direct fashion, he would have vanquished the young challenger in less than twenty games. But now Karpov saw a new goal: to exorcise the ghost of Bobby Fischer, the man whose title he had taken by default, the man who had swept away two of his candidate challengers by scores of The thought grew to become an obsession: he would take no chances of losing, he would win, too, by a perfect score of Kasparov held the draw, game after game.
His friends had already accepted the inevitable. Then came the expected crack in the armor: playing White in game 27, the Champion broke through for win number five. Lasker had resigned his match with Capablanca when down ; Fischer had rallied from But no one had ever tried to fight back from He won a Pawn.
The laurel wreath was being prepared. But Garry found a resource and offered a draw in a tense position. A recurrent image was of a horse running along an abyss, and this imagery fired his courage.
In the next game, the thirty-second, after ninety-six days of drought in the match, Kasparov beat Karpov for the first time in his career. After a long combinational bloodbath, the White King has a safe haven while Black is subject to mate if both Pawns queen. He has had significant victories at game 16 and another at game This match would end with his third win at Game But nothing could have been sweeter than Game History will judge this outcome harshly, no matter that it wiped away a two-game deficit by the challenger.
There has never been a precedent for canceling a match. Yes, Garry had come back from the brink. But he had also been denied the chance to demonstrate the greatest comeback in sports history. Moscow, London-Leningrad, Seville, New York-Lyon Despite the tensions of the aborted first match, Karpov and Kasparov maintained professional courtesy toward each other throughout their careers. And their careers were destined to run parallel for the next eight years. In all, they were to contest match games from to On balance, these were the finest in championship history.
Kasparov points out that, even with 40 draws, the first match contributed substantially to chess theory and these games should not be relegated to limbo. This was truly on-to-job training. In the second match at Moscow, Kasparov maintained the balance through the first twelve games.
He started well, then fell behind by Game 5. In Game 11 the strategy succeeded, as Karpov lost in 25 moves. A final combination grew naturally from this broad strategy, and Karpov resigned the adjourned position.
Three games later, Kasparov created a sensation by playing his adjourned move openly on the board, which had never been done before in championship play. It was a clear win. Now two points up, Kasparov weathered the final games in a typically risky fashion.
Playing with nerves of steel, as Kasparov describes the scene, Karpov with White wrested a victory from the challenger in Game Kasparov was but a point ahead, and needed two draws to take the title. The first came easy, with White. Now it was do or die in the final game. The final game of this match will be remembered by chess fans as long as the game is played.
Karpov chose to — had to — mix things up enough to avoid a draw. It was not his style, but he did it beautifully, in a Sicilian.
Karpov extended his hand in defeat. There was a new Champion. Only a few years later, the situation would be reversed: Karpov would have the commanding point lead, and the Champion, Kasparov, would have to win the final match game to retain his title. But for now, an era had ended, and a new spirit in chess had ascended the throne, along with the new Champion. This unprecedented swiftness was the result of machinations at the highest levels, and stunned the chess world.
How to Play Chess
First there had been recriminations in the leading Soviet chess journals about whether the match had really produced a champion. After months of negotiations, during which a return match within three months was actually debated, Kasparov won a six-month reprieve.
The games would be divided between London and Leningrad, and would begin in July. The loser of the match would be entitled to play the winner of the next candidates cycle, instead of automatically having return rights. Instead, they saw Kasparov and Karpov openly analyzing their games in the Moscow match, and it would be no different in London. What would be different was the specter of espionage in the Kasparov camp! During his brief period of respite in l as Champion, he played two training matches, handily defeating Jan Timman and Tony Miles.
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher set the tone for the gracious match organization in London by not only delivering a welcoming speech but wearing a chessboard design at the ceremony. The games were hard-fought and Kasparov was content with a one point lead going to Leningrad. Yet Kasparov had the uneasy feeling that his opening preparations were being leaked to the other camp. Too often Karpov seemed to be able to answer his innovations with ease. Kasparov suspected who the traitor was, but naively decided to wait for conclusive proof.
It came six games later. Black seems to have defended everything with Qxa3 34 Nh6 Qe7 35 Rxg6 Qe5. Pandemonium broke out in the audience and Karpov left the hall without the customary handshake. He was, however, far from a beaten man. Game 18 could have gone either way. Incredibly, even after taking a time-out to steady his nerves, he lost a third in a row.
With Game 20 the match was beginning afresh. There was no way of proving that this man had been passing secrets to Karpov, yet there were unexplained copies of notes and telephone calls.
The verdict of the Grandmasters was that the position was drawish. When the sealed move was opened the next morning, the startled audience saw 41 Nd7!
Karpov had to win both remaining games to regain his title, but could only draw. Kasparov guessed, however, that this would not be the last of his perennial rival. Sure enough, two years later Karpov again won the right to challenge. The venue this time was Seville. In facing Karpov once more, he felt like a man hounded by the Furies.
He staggered through the match listlessly, losing two of the first five games by exceeding the time control. He imagined that Game 16 would prove decisive for him, as it had in the two previous matches, but when he lost the score was even.
Down to the twenty-third game, the score remained tied. Then, in an adjourned game that Kasparov had analyzed to a draw, he unaccountably changed his mind over the board and lost. The fact that he did is no more amazing than how he did: in a grinding, methodical display of domination. Needing only a draw to regain the crown, Karpov, perhaps the best defender in chess history, could not hold it.
His arch rival had again looked into the abyss and won. The cycle was set for three years, spreading the Interzonals and the Candidates matches over that period. In and , Kasparov at last had the time to be a Champion. He devoted himself to GMA and his computer projects, but mostly he now began to reveal the creative side of his profession. In a series of seven major tournaments in those two years, he came first four times and equal first three.
He achieved the best score at Board One in the Olympiad, and continued to win Oscars as the outstanding player of the year. He persisted in taking risks, broadening opening theory and stretching the limits of middle-game complications.
Sooner or later, by lifting the level of play, he would create a new breed of competitors. But not quite yet In , once again Anatoly Karpov showed his competitive mettle by marching through the Candidates matches to the top. At New York, in the Fall of , he would begin another World Championship match — unprecedentedly, the fifth in five years.
The first dozen games signaled the beginning of the computer era for the spectators. Moves were transmitted electronically from the board to displays in the theater and to analysis rooms in the midtown Manhattan hotel where the match was staged. With headphones the spectators could hear commentary on each move from the central analysis room, which was also connected with the computer program Deep Thought. For the first time, computer analysis was part of a World Championship experience.
Again and again, when Kasparov thought he could put the challenger away as he felt he should have, Karpov showed his resilience. He had to prove a win in another 25 moves, but because of delays on both sides Kasparov now had the advantage of an adjournment. Yet the former World Champion bounced back in the next game with a decisive win, to tie the match again. Kasparov immediately returned the compliment and then produced, in the next game with White, the best combinative battle of the match — a speculative Kingside attack from the Ruy Lopez, reminiscent of the sixteenth game of in London.
With four games to go, Karpov could not hope to make up a twopoint deficit against an ebullient champion. There would be no last game histrionics this time. Garry had not crushed the perennial challenger, but he had settled his crown. Characteristically, Garry Kasparov has already made his move to go beyond games, beyond politics, to be an influence in this new world. Who would have believed that the Wall Street Journal would champion a chessplayer on its editorial pages?
At this writing, the World Championship cycle is in disarray. Fischer himself has reentered the arena of chess, after a self-imposed absence of precisely twenty years, to subdue his rival of Reykjavik, Boris Spassky.
And Judith Polgar, the youngest of the famous Hungarian sisters, has defeated Boris in a demonstration match, after earning the grandmaster title at an earlier age than Bobby. Nothing commends this pastime so much as the implication that it sprang up at various times throughout history and among various peoples as if a natural product of the human imagination and no mere invention.
Yet the evolution of schach, scacchi, shak, sjaak, echecs, as this game is variously known around the world, is rich indeed in great figures, exotic fables, and grand encounters. Neither is it surprising that Bishops and Knights move the way they do. Geometry and symmetry have won out — and simplicity, in spite of the innumerable inventions of new pieces and the addition of squares in several dimensions.
One could almost say that the board and the pieces were decided as soon as experience showed that challenging things happened with these arrangements.
The first great codification of the rules was complete by the tenth century, when Arabic manuscripts appeared in the West and disclosed the rapid development of chess throughout the Moslem world, from India to Persia. Arab traders no doubt introduced chess to Russia in the eighth century, and Spain and Portugal were not far behind.
These writers also add a historical dimension of their own by the language they choose to depict their beloved game. In this primitive game the two opposite players were allied as partners. The piece stationed next to the King was the Elephant — an important auxiliary in Indian warfare — the Horse, which occupied the adjoining square, represented the cavalry, while the piece in the corner was the Ship — typifying the vessels which fought on the Ganges and other great rivers of the country — and the four Pawns were the infantry.
Our word Rook, for example, is no doubt the Roka, or Ship of the Hindoos The Knight and the Rook moved as they do at present, their privileges having remained undisturbed for a period of five thousand years.
Auf Deutsch (German books)
The King could move one square in all directions, as he can still, time having since given him and deprived him of one move similar to that of the Knight, and allowed him the right of Castling. The move and the power of the Pawn were then the same as now, except that the right of advancing two squares on the first move did not exist. Siegbert Tarrasch, perhaps the most scholarly of all Grandmasters, was taken with the romance of chess.
The ambassador presented a letter also, which stated that if Nausirawan could in seven days discover the principles and practice of the game, the Hindoo monarch would pay him tribute, but, if he failed to do so, tribute would be demanded on the other side. From this difficulty, it is alleged, the King of Persia was delivered by the miraculous acuteness of his chief counselor These time frames refute diverse, romantic ideas about the origin of chess in the classical Greek era.
If Alexander the Great brought chess to India on his forays in the fourth century, B. Perhaps he brought Chaturanga back from India.
They gave us our names for the game, via two similar routes. Chaturanga became Shatranj in their transliteration, and this became xadrez in Portuguese.
There were several outstanding masters in Baghdad in the ninth century, culminating in the incomparable As-Suli about An historian of prominence, As-Suli wrote the first book-length analysis of the game and became the standard of excellence as a player for the next years. From the studies he has left behind, this reputation seems deserved.
Nothing comparable in quality of play occurred in the West. As Europe emerged from the so-called Dark Ages, shatranj or scac became the pastime of the princely classes — largely as a gambling game. The use of dice to select moves began with the birth of the game in India, and it had a practical reason. The moves of the pieces, especially the Queen and Bishop, were so restricted that a diceless game consumed hours.
Church authorities did try to discourage chess among the clergy, largely because of the dice. Though it had nothing to do with the play of the game, this book was translated into several languages, most famously by Caxton two hundred years later — perhaps the first book printed in English.
But by now the rise of the universities, the spread of printing, and the Renaissance itself were fundamentally changing the game.This was also the first indication that something had to be done about the problem of time: McDonnell was extremely slow, La Bourdonnais quick. I like the very solid 4 …Bc5 because it forces White to respond to the threat on the knight at d4. Thus it is inaccurate to describe medieval chess in the same way as modern chess, without attention to its varieties.
If Kasparov had made one of several possible missteps along the way to his championship, and his defenses of it, he would have had even less sympathy. It is not necessary to gambit a piece, so White could opt for 6 d4, which may be objectively stronger than 6 Nxf7. To understand this position and the move played, we must apply the elements. The medieval Rook and Knight are not more powerful than their modern counterparts, of course, only relatively so in the medieval field.
The clear drawback of this move is that it blocks the bishop on f8.
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