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Results 1 - 50 of سياسى اور تاريخى جائزے / Catalog Record Only Collected articles chiefly on Pakistani politics and history of Islam, published in Urdu Daily. Read Urdu Books (). 0. Share. 0. Tweet . History of Celebration of the Birth of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) . The Islamic Concept of Balance and Moderation. Urdu readers can go through a primer on Usool At Tareekh by clicking here. This is one of the most comprehensive books on islamic history starting from.

After the sermon, Muhammad ordered the Muslims to pledge allegiance to Ali ; the future Sunni leaders Abu Bakr , Umar , and Uthman were among those who pledged allegiance to Ali at this event. These leaders are known as the " Rashidun " or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam. They oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests , advancing through Persia , Levant , Egypt , and North Africa.

Although the office of caliph retained an aura of religious authority, it laid no claim to prophecy. To be close to the poor, he lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the Bayt al-mal , [38] [39] [40] a welfare institution for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.

The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced child benefit for the children and pensions for the elderly.

The western parts of the Byzantine empire conquered by Arabs Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, who lived as religious minorities and were taxed while Muslims paid "Zakat" to finance the Byzantine—Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. Since the Constitution of Medina , drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws and had their own judges.

As the Arabic language is written without vowels, speakers of different Arabic dialects and other languages recited the Quran with phonetic variations that could alter the meaning of the text.

When Uthman ibn Affan became aware of this, he ordered a standard copy of the Quran to be prepared. Begun during his reign, the compilation of the Quran was finished some time between and , and copies were sent out to the different centers of the expanding Islamic empire. Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area. When Uthman was assassinated in , Ali ibn Abi Talib , a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, assumed the position of caliph and moved the capital to Kufa in Iraq.

Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria, and Marwan I demanded arrest of the culprits. Marwan I manipulated every one and created conflict, which resulted in the first civil war the "First Fitna". Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in Six months later in , in the interest of peace, Ali's son Hasan , made a peace treaty with Muawiyah I.

In the Hasan—Muawiya treaty , Hasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he would be just to the people and not establish a dynasty after his death. He was killed in the Battle of Karbala the same year, in an event still mourned by Shia on the Day of Ashura.

In , Arab armies conquered Kabul , [67] and in pushed into the Maghreb.

Although the Umayyad family came from the city of Mecca , Damascus was the capital. Muawiyah I moved his capital to Damascus from Medina , which led to profound changes in the empire.

In the same way, at a later date, the transfer of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad marked the accession of a new family to power. As the state grew, the state expenses increased.

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Additionally the Bayt al-mal and the Welfare State expenses to assist the Muslim and the non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled, increased, the Umayyads asked the new converts mawali to continue paying the poll tax. The Umayyad rule, with its wealth and luxury also seemed at odds with the Islamic message preached by Muhammad.

The Bayt al-mal, the Welfare State then continued under the Abbasids. Muawiyah beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the edge of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia.

Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post- civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslims accuse him of instigating the war, weakening the Muslim nation by dividing the Ummah , fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies [78] slandering the Prophet 's family [79] and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire.

According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali. Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines. Uqba and all his men died fighting. The Berbers attacked and drove Muslims from north Africa for a period.

Under the rule of Yazid I , some Muslims in Kufa began to think that if Husayn ibn Ali the descendent of Muhammad was their ruler, he would have been more just.

He was invited to Kufa but was later betrayed and killed.

Imam Husain's son, Imam Ali ibn Husain , was imprisoned along with Husain's sister and other ladies left in Karbala war. Due to opposition by public they were later released and allowed to go to their native place Medina. One Imam after another continued in the generation of Imam Husain but they were opposed by the Caliphs of the day as their rivals till Imam Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah came in power as first Caliph of Fatimid in North Africa when Caliphate and Imamate came to same person again after Imam Ali.

This would ease in the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan , a well-educated and capable ruler. Despite the many political problems that impeded his rule, all important records were translated into Arabic.

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In his reign, a currency for the Muslim world was minted. The Byzantines were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs. Jalaluddin medal as he performed well in Arabic. Her sister was the mother of director and music composer Khwaja Khurshid Anwar. Arnold's teachings convinced Iqbal to pursue higher education in the West, and in , he travelled to England for that purpose.

Iqbal qualified for a scholarship from Trinity College, University of Cambridge and obtained Bachelor of Arts in , and in the same year he was called to the bar as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn.

In , Iqbal moved to Germany to pursue his doctoral studies, and earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Atiya would later publish their correspondence.

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He preferred to write in this language because doing so made easier to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life. In his poetry, apart from independence ideologies, he also explores concepts of submission to Allah and following the path of Prophet Muhammad.

Academic career[ edit ] Photograph taken during Allama Iqbal's youth in Iqbal, after completing his Master of Arts degree in , began his career as a reader of Arabic at Oriental College and shortly afterwards was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had also been a student in the past.

He worked there until he left for England in In , he returned from England and joined the same college again as a professor of philosophy and English literature.

A History of Muslim Philosophy Volume 1, Book 3

Iqbal's thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centred around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the Middle East. Deeply grounded in religion since childhood, Iqbal began concentrating intensely on the study of Islam, the culture and history of Islamic civilisation and its political future, while embracing Rumi as "his guide". Iqbal denounced political divisions within and amongst Muslim nations, and frequently alluded to and spoke in terms of the global Muslim community or the Ummah.

Nicholson and A. Arberry , respectively. He used to appear before the Lahore High Court in both civil and criminal matters. There are more than reported judgments to his name. He also advocated for an independent Muslim state. Iqbal as a Barrister-at-Law Iqbal ceased practising law in and was granted a pension by the Nawab of Bhopal.

In his final years, he frequently visited the Dargah of famous Sufi Ali Hujwiri in Lahore for spiritual guidance. After suffering for months from his illness, Iqbal died in Lahore on 21 April A night view of the tomb Legacy[ edit ] Iqbal is commemorated widely in Pakistan, where he is regarded as the ideological founder of the state.

His Tarana-e-Hind is a song that is widely used in India as a patriotic song speaking of communal harmony. His birthday is annually commemorated in Pakistan as Iqbal Day. Allama Iqbal Stamps Society was established for the promotion of Iqbaliyat in philately and in other hobbies.

Javaid Manzil was Iqbal's last residence. Efforts and influences[ edit ] Further information: Pakistan Movement As Iqbal was interested in the national affairs since his youth and he had got considerable recognition after his return in from England by Punjabi elite, he was closely associated with Mian Muhammad Shafi. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress , which he regarded as dominated by Hindus , and was disappointed with the League when during the s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.

Iqbal third , Syed Zafarul Hasan sixth at Aligarh Muslim University In November , with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested the election for a seat in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a margin of 3, votes. Discontent with factional leaders like Muhammad Shafi and Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving unity and fulfilling the League's objectives of Muslim political empowerment.

Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League.

Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress: I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India.

Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India.

Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on 21 June A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are.

Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League.Where there is a clear picture this will be given; but where there are gaps, obscurities and differences of opinion, these will also be indicated. The Philosophy of Fasting Category: It was accompanied by an intensive translation project into English. The Virtues of Greetings and Salutations Category: His birthday is annually commemorated in Pakistan as Iqbal Day. This masterful history begins with the fall of the Persian and Roman empires, followed by the rise of the prophet Muhammad and five centuries of engagement between the Muslim imperium and an emerging Europe.

Following the events of the sepoy revolt in , the British removed him from the throne and he was exiled. Bedari-e-Shaoor Zaroorat-o-Ahmiyyat Category: Future Political Programme Category: Facts and Incidents Category:

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