GENERATION DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY EBOOK
Generation, Distribution and Utilization of Electrical Energy. Front Cover · C. L. Wadhwa. New Age International, - Electric power distribution - pages. Title, Generation, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy. Author, C. L. Wadhwa. Publisher, Wiley, Original from, the University of Virginia. Digitized. Various non-conventional and conventional methods of generating electric energy have been myavr.infoics of generation, starting with the load survey.
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Title, Generation,Distribution And Utilization Of Electrical Energy. Author, C. L. Wadhwa. Edition, 3. Publisher, New Age International Publishers Limited, Generation and Utilization of Electrical Energy. Front Cover · S. Sivanagaraju. Pearson Education India, - Electric power distribution · 8 Reviews. The book provides a clear, systematic and exhaustive exposition of various aspects of Generation Distribution and Utilization of Electrical.
Global energy demand is rapidly growing, and, presently, the worldwide concern is on how to satisfy the future energy demand. Long-term projections indicate that the energy demand will rapidly increase worldwide. To supply this energy demand, fossil fuels have been used as primary energy sources. Fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases that highly affect the environment and the future generation [ 1 — 6 ]. The emissions largely depend on the emission factor of primary energy sources i.
Among all energy sources, the emission factor of fossil fuels i. All these push towards an increase of the economic benefits for participants willing to take active roles in local energy markets. The LSO carries out a joint optimisation of energy flexibility loads as an aggregator , energy planning as a retailer and intermediary , energy storage scheduling as an energy storage manager and scheduling of electrical vehicles as an electrical vehicle operator to provide services to the local power grid and to the local energy community.
Additionally, the LSO can also provide technical and value-added services through a complementary services platform where third-party suppliers are given access to see Figure 1 — E-REGIO local market design. For this purpose, the local market participants are being engaged in the market platform and associated local trade by means of innovative business concepts that offer attractive contract designs with well accommodated remuneration terms, community and sustainability benefits and options to make use of complementary services.
More specifically, the contracts are divided in various categories: e.
The platform allows the LSO to exercise its multiple roles — aggregator, intermediary towards the central market, local energy retailer, manager of local storage, facilitator of local services and electric vehicles operator. The platform builds upon experiences gathered from the H projects EMPOWER and INVADE to provide a fully replicable solution for local energy trade that can be customised according to the existing local grid needs, available energy and flexibility assets and valid regulations.
The platform incorporates mobile apps and websites with user-friendly interfaces to allow local market participants to easily and seamlessly engage in local trade. Scalable pilot sites at energy sector players to verify the solution E-REGIO signifies the possibility for economically efficient flexibility management.
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In particular, the project demonstrates the local energy market with a community electricity storage hub model in operational environments. It further investigates the implication of storage technologies that can support local asset management.
The two pilots demonstrate how the E-REGIO platform can be used in different environments to engage end-users and effectively provide grid and community services. European-wide knowledge sharing E-REGIO contributes with best-practice guidelines that are truly replicable across different regions by taking into account regional energy regulations and different electricity market models.
Further, the project contributes to the diffusion of the market design concept and the best-practice implementation guidelines through uncovering critical motivations and frustrations of stakeholder adoption.
Efficiency of energy storage hydrogen, flywheel, etc. For hydrogen: electrolysis efficiency and fuel cell efficiency 2. For flywheel: bearing losses Efficiency of utilization Efficiency of system coupling Silicon SolarCell Technology The PV industry has been very good at reducing costs; however, it is going to run up against a barrier in the cost of the silicon feedstock used to make solar cells.
Low-cost, low-energy technologies must be developed that can take the raw material quartz and refine it into solar-grade silicon. Techniques are being developed to grow thin layers of silicon on various substrates to minimize the amount of silicon used in the manufacture of solar cells. Research is needed to determine ways to make thin-film silicon perform at high efficiencies and, in particular, how to mitigate the effect of grain boundaries.
Thin-Film Solar Cell Technology For production in the range of about 30 GW per year the material availability with current technologies—particularly for the elements indium, gallium, tellurium, and germanium—would cause supply issues. Research is needed for the discovery and development of new thin-film semiconductors that will reduce or eliminate the necessary amount of these materials.
Research is needed for the discovery and development of new thin-film semiconductors that will replace current toxic and heavy metals cadmium, tellurium, lead with nontoxic materials. In the meantime, in case they cannot be eliminated, research is needed on the recovery and recycling of these toxic materials.
Work is needed on the replacement of toxic or explosive feedstock gases that are used in the manufacture of thin-film systems. Multijunction thin-film systems have to be developed for increased solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency.
Continued work is necessary on the fundamental mechanism for the degradation of amorphous silicon devices. There may also be some stability issues with the other thin-film technologies.
Wind Technical issues for improved turbine performance and lower costs include aerodynamics, structures and fatigue, advanced components, and wind characteristics. Research in computational fluid dynamics CFD , which is a group of methods that deal with simulating airflows around, for example, rotor blades for wind turbines, is also needed. Materials engineering is needed for advanced components to improve performance and reduce hardware costs.
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Research into innovative generators and advanced controls, including power electronics, is needed. Other activities that must be conducted include developing an updated, comprehensive national database for utility and industry access and improving resource assessment and mapping techniques and wind forecasting.
Solar-Thermal Research issues related to increasing the efficiency and decreasing the costs of solar-thermal technology include the following: Optical materials—durability, flexibility easily applied to compound curvature surfaces , high reflectivity, easy cleanability, low cost Concentrators heliostats and dishes —low-cost drives, lightweight structures, high optical accuracy, flexible control systems, low-cost, innovative system concepts.
Receivers—high-efficiency volumetric reactors, secondary concentrators Storage—high-temperature, low-cost storage concepts Electrolyzers and Fuel Cells—PEM Systems One cannot emphasize enough the necessity for increased research in electrocatalysts.
Electrical energy, its generation, transmission, and utilization
Hydrogen will be one of the main components of a renewable energy infrastructure, and the major conversion technologies for hydrogen, namely electrolyzers and fuel cells, both involve electrocatalysts. Catalysts will be needed for the oxygen reaction for both water oxidation and oxygen reduction.
Other research that is needed for electrolyzers and PEM fuel cells includes the following: More reactive catalysts for direct methanol and perhaps ethanol fuel cells must be developed.
Ways are needed to reduce or better substitute for platinum g per system now for a kW e fuel cell.
Better manufacturability of fuel cells is necessary; including. To estimate the land area needed for photovoltaic panels, the following information was used from R. Hulstrom, National Renewable Energy Laboratory internal report : Flatplate photovoltaic PV collector modules are typically placed such that they cover one-half of the available land; 1 m2 of PV requires 2 m2 of available land.
Total U. Therefore the total area needed is which equals 2. Alsema, E. Energy Policy 28 14 : Oliver, M. Bolton, J.
Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security
Strickler, and J. Nature Kurtz, S.
Faine, and J. Price and D.It remains to see how fast local market establishments will spread around Europe, but undoubtedly, and as proved within the E-REGIO project, the benefits for both grid operators, end-users and third parties are on place, thus pushing the energy sector towards a more local, socially responsible and sustainable future.
Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: In Malaysia, fossil fuels i. To estimate the land area needed for photovoltaic panels, the following information was used from R. It should be recognized that with this approach, the consumer is purchasing most of her or his fuel up-front, with reoccurring charges from the electricity used to power the electrolyzer.