Business Buku Etika Bisnis Pdf


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buku yang berjudul “Etika Ekonomi dan Bisnis: Perspektif Agama-agama di Indonesia”. Buku ini merupakan penerbitan ketiga hasil kerjasama antara. Download as PDF · Download Pengantar Download as Postscript. Print Pengantar etika bisnis / K. Bertens Send to Email Pengantar etika bisnis / K. Bertens. Etika Bisnis book. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Buku teks ini menjadi pengantar yang komprehensif dan mudah dimengerti.

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This is not the real description of medical ethics in Islam, especially if Islam is interpreted as a cultural force, not confined to religion Manfred Ullmann. In the case of medical ethics, we may also attribute the term Islamic to the philosophical and medical traditions that were developed in the medieval Islamic world, in addition to associating Islamic with Islamic legal prescriptions.

In order to have a fuller understanding of medical ethics, I provide an account of the principles, the reasoning, and the norms of both sharia-based medical ethics i.

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Islamic medical ethics will appropriately include ethical concepts developed by philosophers and physicians in the Islamic world, in addition to those ethics derived from Islamic legal principles and stipulations. Keywords Islamic bioethics, sharia, ethics.

This is probably due to the dearth of a serious engagement of contemporary scholars of Islam in this field, although some scholars of Islam have already dealt with medical ethics for centuries. Rispler-chaim, 2. Their ideas are not properly appreciated. Instead of developing the tradition of medical ethics that comes from the Galenic-Islamic tradition, contemporary scholars of Islam largely discuss Islamic medical ethics under the umbrella of Islamic law.

Therefore, the discourse of medical ethics in contemporary Islam is more about Islamic legal rulings and principles issued by religious scholars than the discussion of medical ethics by physicians or philosophers. For example, Vardit Rispler-Chaim, the author of Islamic Medical Ethics in the Twentienth Century , discusses biomedical ethics through an analysis of Islamic scholars legal rulings on medicalcontroversial topics. Farhat Moazam, who wrote Bioethics and Organ Transplantation in Muslim World , relies more on the rulings of Islamic scholars when she discusses Islamic values in the context of organ transplantation.

Even Abdulaziz Sachedina, the leading expert on Islamic medical ethics, who wrote Islamic Biomedical Ethics , bases his arguments on religious sources ranging from the sacred texts to the legal principles deduced by Islamic jurists when he studies Islamic biomedical ethics. In other words, the above scholars are knowledgeable in modern medical ethics, but when they come to the discussion of Islamic medical ethics, they refer only to religious text-based ethics and exclude the medical ethics that was alive and developed in medieval Islamic scholarship.

One may perceive that Islamic medical ethics results from Sharia-based reasoning per se. In fact, this is not the real description of medical ethics in Islam, especially if the term Islam or Islamic is interpreted as what Manfred Ullmann ix calls a cultural force, not confined to the religion of Islam Pormann and Savage-Smith, 2. Accordingly, in the case of medical ethics, we may also attribute the term Islamic to the philosophical and medical traditions that were developed in the medieval Islamic world, in addition to associating Islamic with Islamic legal prescriptions.

Furthermore, medical ethics is more comprehensively discussed in the medical and philosophical texts in the medieval age of Islam Farag in Brockopp and Eich, In order to have a fuller understanding of medical ethics, therefore, this paper provides an account not only of the principles, the reasoning, and the norms of sharia-based medical ethics i.

Etika Bisnis Dan Profesi

Biomedical Ethics Before we discuss the notion of Islamic medical ethics in detail, let us survey some basic concepts of contemporary biomedical ethics. This will clarify the context of our discussion. According to the two prominent scholars of biomedical ethics, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress, there are two general approaches to ethics: first, normative ethics, second, non-normative ethics.

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Normative ethics deals with the general moral norms for the guidance and evaluation of conduct, whose dimensions are both theoretical and practical. The theoretical dimension 19 18 Etika Islam of normative ethics attempts to identify and justify the norms, which are often called principles; while the practical dimension attempts to interpret general norms in addressing particular problems and contexts Beauchamp and Childress, Non-normative ethics deals not with the norms of what ethically ought to be the case or what is ethically valuable but with what factually or conceptually is the case.

Factual investigation of moral beliefs and conducts, as when anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, or historians study the phenomena of ethics, results in descriptive ethics; whereas the conceptual analysis of the language, concepts, and methods of reasoning in normative ethics, usually a product of philosophical, epistemological, and theoretical investigation, is called meta-ethics Ibid.

These ethical approaches are applied by Beauchamp and Childress to the realm of medical ethics.

They attempt to establish on what principles of contemporary biomedical ethics ethical decisions and judgments are supposedly made. For them, there are four principles of biomedical ethics: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. By establishing these principles, they consciously work in the area of normative ethics, not non-normative ethics. In the context of Islam, ethicists generally work in normative ethics as well, either theoretically or practically. There are two main ethical schools of thought in Islam.

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First is a group of ethicists who base their ethical thought primarily on religious texts, such as Islamic legal scholars and jurists, theologians, and some mystical groups.

Compared to theologians and mystics, however, Islamic legal scholars and jurists are more obliged to refer to religious texts. Second is a group of ethicists who base their ethical thought mainly on philosophical-medical sources, such as physicians and philosophers.

In this paper, we will focus on examining the ethical thought of these Islamic legal scholars-jurists and physicians-philosophers. They not only provide principles of legal reasoning, based on which one can derive legal opinions, but also generate ready for use legal stipulations. Such legal principles and rulings are produced to guide Muslims to behave in certain way and to justify a course of action in the terms associated with Islamic jurisprudence.

Inspired by John Kelsey, who employs the term sharia reasoning to denote the reasoning based on Islamic jurisprudence Kelsey, 3 , we will call the ethical thought generated by Islamic legal scholars-jurists as sharia-based ethics. Another Islamic scholarship tradition that engenders ethical thought is the philosophical-medical tradition. Some philosophers-physicians may discuss metaethics, but most of their medical and philosophical works on ethics are written in the context of normative ethics.

They are written to establish certain norms, ideals, or virtues that should be cultivated with the aim of creating a good, healthy person.

Since this ethical thought is grounded in the Greek philosophical tradition, whose notion of ethics is known as virtue ethics, we shall call the ethical thought developed by medieval Islamic philosophers-physicians Islamic virtue ethics, or simply virtue ethics.

In the paragraphs that follow, we shall discuss the following questions: Where are Islamic legal principles derived from? What are the common Islamic legal principles? How do they operate and generate legal rulings in the biomedical context?

What are virtue ethics in the Islamic tradition and how do they operate in Islamic medical tradition? Legal reasoning and principles are crucial, especially when a judgment from the Qur an and the Hadith is metaphorical, ambiguous, or even absent. Islamic jurists will then employ such legal-moral reasoning and principles to determine whether certain cases are considered obligatory, prohibited, recommended, reprehended, or permitted.

In the case of the matters in which the judicial judgment of text revelation is absent, Islamic jurists seek an analogous case, a precedent, in which revelation has a clear verdict.

Analogy in Islamic law, according to Nabil Shehaby , has two forms. First, the analogy that is based on ma na reason shared by two cases.

God or Prophet may prohibit or allow something for a ma na, a reason. If we find the same ma na in another case that is not treated in the legal sources, the judicial judgment covering the first can be extended and applied to the second Shehaby, For example, there is no explicit legal judgment made by revelation regarding using marijuana.

The text only says that khamr a kind of wine is prohibited because it renders intoxication. In other words, the reason ma na for the prohibition is intoxication. The legal judgment of the khamr can be applied and extended to marijuana based on the ma na reason that both have a similar effect, i.

Thus, if drinking a wine is prohibited, consuming marijuana is also forbidden because both of them cause intoxication.

This is employed when the case that is not treated in the 22 Islamic Bioethics 21 authoritative legal sources resembles other cases that are treated by either the Qur an or the Hadith. In this situation, the case under examination acquires the judicial judgment of the case that is the most similar to it Ibid. It is plausible reasoning because it is founded upon an important principle derived from the directive of circumventing hardship stated in the Qur an: God intends facility for you, and He does not want to put you in hardship 2: This directive is also further reinforced by the tradition Hadith that states: The best of your law is that which brings ease to the people Sachedina in Guinn, Islamic jurists can choose one of those legal considerations based on their preference in issuing certain religious rulings.

Therefore, when the text does not 23 22 Etika Islam provide an explicit legal opinion on certain cases, the main consideration for issuing religious legal opinions is what is the good for the public. However, what are the things that are called as the good for the public? Other Islamic scholars such as Shihab ad-din al Qarafi d.

These objectives are in fact extracted by Islamic jurists through reflection on all sayings by the Lawgiver and the dynamics of human experiences in certain sociocultural contexts. For Islamic legal scholars, the intent of the Lawgiver in commands and prohibitions is clear, that is: to promote good and to benefit human beings and to protect them from evil, from harm, and from subsequent suffering Ramadan, This term literally means companionship.

In the same vein, acts of worshipping such as fasting and prayers are prohibited except if the sacred text or the prophetic tradition indicates that they are commanded, recommended, permitted, or reprehended.

From these moral-legal modes of reasoning, Islamic jurists then generate moral principles. These moral principles in turn operate as guidance for Islamic jurists in issuing religious legal recommendations and opinions. Based on these principles, Islamic jurists are expected to respond to the situations that arise in medical practices or other cases in which the scriptural source is silent.

These principles function as a guide and basis for Muslims when they have to make certain legal-moral decisions, including medicalethical decisions. For example, in the case of organ donation, some legal principles are used before they come to a conclusive decision. Muslim legal scholars cite various principles for issuing a legal ruling on this issue.

Some refer to the principle of No harm, no harassment ; some invoke the principle of necessity makes lawful that which is prohibited ; and some of them use the principle of preventing or removing harm has priority over promoting good. Vardit Rispler- Chaim 31 records that Muslim scholars, compelled by the desire to prevent harm to the party awaiting a donation and to protect the public benefit, rendered organ donation permitted and permissible.

In addition, although some scholars use various legal principles, according to Abdulaziz Sachedina, the most widely cited principle in resolving the ethics of organ donation is the principle No harm. For instance, if donating an organ would cause the donor s death, the donation would be forbidden regardless of the benefits to the recipient.

Conversely, if a person were to donate an organ without causing harm or death to himself, and if that act could save the life of a patient dying of organ failure, the donation would be regarded as permissible by the sharia Sachedina, That is how sharia-based ethics works in 26 Islamic Bioethics 25 the realm of medicine.

The main purpose of this ethical approach is to determine whether a certain action is right or wrong, permissible or prohibited, or to specify other values of human actions. Virtue-Based Biomedical Ethics The Islamic ethicists who come from philosophical and medical backgrounds work quite differently from these Islamic legal scholars and jurists.

Their main concern is not to determine, evaluate, or justify whether a course of action is obligatory, recommended, permissible, reprehended, or prohibited. Rather, they are concerned with the bodily and spiritual health, the cultivation of human character, and the formation of a virtuous person.

The preservation of bodily health is the main purpose of the art of medicine. So, if the health of human body is being lost, it is the task of medicine to restore it Sina, 9.

Physicians in the Islamic medieval period generally maintain that the health of human body is signified by the balance of elements, temperaments, and humours within human body.

If there is an imbalance in humours, the human body will be infected by sickness, which is indicated by a disturbance of bodily functions Ibid. The imbalance in elements, temperaments, or humours is generally caused by a kind of deficiency or excess. Insufficient food consumption, sleep, or bodily regimen leads to sickness, as well as too much food, sleep, or bodily exercise.

The ideal is that one has everything in the right proportion, namely moderation in food consumption, sleeping activity, and physical exercise. This moderation generates the balance of elements, temperaments, and humours, which in turn maintains the health of the human body. For example, food is transformed into humours i. If one has a bad diet, one of the humours i. Having a good diet therefore is necessary to maintain the balance of the humours. In 27 26 Etika Islam this regard, the lack or excessiveness of food consumption is considered bad and moderation is good.

The ethics of balance and moderation is not only applied in preserving bodily health.

It is also used in achieving spiritual health and the cultivation of virtue in human character. Ibn Miskawayh, one of the greatest Islamic ethicists, argues that the purpose of the medicine of souls is similar to that of the medicine of bodies, namely the preservation of spiritual health and the restoration of spiritual health when it is missing The difference between the two is only in the context of their subject matter.

The subject matter of the spiritual health is soul whereas the subject matter of the bodily health is body. According to Ibn Miskawayh, the spiritual health is signified by the absence of two extremes.

One of the extremes of every mean is an excess while the other is a deficiency Ibid. If the human soul falls in one of the two extremes, the soul becomes sick and its health needs to be restored. Conversely, if the human soul is in the middle between the two extremes, the soul is healthy because it possesses virtuous characters.

Ibn Miskawayh, following his Greek predecessors, defines virtue as a mean, an intermediation, or moderation. The mean lies between two vices, deficiency and excess Ibid. For him, four means, or four virtues, are considered cardinal in virtue ethics: 1 wisdom: a mean between impudence and stupidity; 2 temperance: a mean between two vices: profligacy and frigidity; 3 courage: a mean between cowardice and recklessness; and 4 justice: a mean between doing injustice and suffering injustice Ibid.

These four represent the principal virtues from which other means or virtues can be derived. From the virtue of wisdom, we can generate the virtues of intelligence, retention, rationality, quickness and soundness of understanding, clarity of mind, and capacity for learning easily. From the virtue of temperance, we can derive the virtues of modesty, sedateness, self-control, liberality, integrity, sobriety, benignity, self- 28 Islamic Bioethics 27 discipline, good disposition, mildness, staidness, and piety.

From the virtue of courage, some virtues can also be generated: greatness of spirit, intrepidity, composure, fortitude, magnanimity, self-possession, manliness, and endurance.

From the virtue of justice, some virtues can be further derived: friendship, concord, family fellowship, recompense, fair play, honest dealing, amiability, and piety Ibid. Some of the above virtues are related to the perfection of morality i.

Islamic philosophers-ethicists, who are mostly influenced and inspired by Greek philosophers, believe that the moral virtues are not a natural disposition Fakhry, They are not intrinsically built into the human character nor divinely given. They should be cultivated through a continuous practice of the virtues.

In this regard, the will of the individual or human volition also plays an important role in the success of the cultivation of the self.

People will be virtuous if they willingly accustom themselves to exercising and practising virtues, and they will be vicious if they let themselves be occupied with the vices. In other words, the health of human soul i. If the perfection of human character can be achieved through directing the will and the disposition towards moral virtues, the perfection of human intellect can be acquired not only through nourishing human cognition with intellectual virtues but also through the conjunction of human cognition with the active intellect Ibid.

This kind of intellectual conjunction is believed to be the highest intellectual perfection that leads human beings to achieve their chief goal, which is happiness Levey, All other kinds of perfections, like technical and moral perfections, serve simply as preparations to this intellectual conjunction Fachry, This ethical tradition is generally concerned with establishing mores, etiquettes, and norms in order to form a virtuous person, whether as a physician, patient, caregiver, or human being in general.

When Islamic physicians discuss, their main topics will be how to be a good physician, how to be a good patient, and what is the ideal relation between physician and patient. Al-Ruhawi states that a virtuous physician is unlike a philosopher who may deal only with the improvement of the soul.

The virtuous physician should deal with the improvement of both spirit and body.

Demikian pula, seorang pelanggan dapat merasa tidak puas dengan pelayanan yang dijumpainya dan masih menganggap keseluruhan kualitasnya baik. Hal ini terjadi bila sebuah pelayanan dinilai sangat tinggi dan transaksinya tidak begitu penting. Jadi model ini melihat pada kekuatan hubungan bisnis.

Model ini mengusulkan bahwa kekuatan ini ditentukan oleh tingkat kepuasan dengan pengalaman yang mutakhir, persepsi keseluruhan terhadap kualitas, komitmen pelanggan terhadap hubungan itu, dan ikatan antara pihak-pihak yang terlibat. Para pelanggan dikatakan mempunyai suatu "zona toleransi" yang setara dengan tingkat kualitas pelayanan antara "nyaris memadai" dan "luar biasa".

Sebuah pengalaman yang mengecewakan mungkin tidak secara berarti mengurangi kekuatan hubungan bisnis bila persepsei menyeluruh si pelanggan terhadap kualitasnya tetap tinggi, bila ongkos perpindahannya mahal, bila hanya ada sedikit alternatif yang memuaskan, bila mereka mempunyai komitmen terhadap hubungan itu, dan bila ada ikatan-ikatan yang mempertahankan mereka di dalam hubungan tersebut. Keberadaan ikatan-ikatan ini bertindak sebagai penghalang orang untuk keluar dari kesetiaan ini.

Ada beberapa jenis ikatan, termasuk: ikatan hukum kontrak , ikatan teknologis teknologi bersama , ikatan ekonomi ketergantungan , ikatan pengetahuan, ikatan sosial, ikatan budaya atau etnis, ikatan ideologis, ikatan psikologis, ikatan geografis, ikatan waktu, dan ikatan perencanaan.

Jadi model ini mengkaji ikatan antara kekuatan hubungan dengan kesetiaan pelanggan. Kesetiaan pelanggan ditentukan oleh tiga faktor: kekuatan hubungan, alternatif yang dipersesepsikan dan kejadian-kejadian kritis. Hubungan dapat berakhir bila: si pelanggan pindah dari daerah pelayanan perusahaan pelanggan tidak lagi membutuhkan produk atau pelayanan perusahaan penyedia alternatif yang cocok kini tersedia kekuatan hubungan telah melemah, atau perusahaan menangani kejadian kritis dengan buruk.

Kaitan terakhir dalam model ini ialah dampak kesetiaan pelanggan pada keuntungan.

Asumsi dasar dari semua model kesetiaan ialah bahwa upaya mempertahankan pelanggan yang ada sekarang itu lebih murah daripada upaya mendapatkan pelanggan yang baru.

Namun, Carrol dan Reichheld membantah perhitungan ini, dan mengklaim bahwa semuanya didapatkan dari analisis lintas seksi yang keliru. Menurut Buchanan dan Gilles , keuntungan yang meningkat yang teriat dengan upaya untuk mempertahankan pelanggan terjadi karena: Biaya akuisisi terjadi hanya pada permulaan hubungan: semakin lama hubungan berlangsung, semakin rendah biaya pembayaran kembali.

Biaya memelihara rekening menurun sementara sebagai persentase dari keseluruhan biaya atau sebagai persentase dari pendapatan. Pelanggan lama cenderung untuk tidak berpindah dan juga cenderung untuk tidak begitu sensitif terhadap harga. Ini dapat menghasilkan volume penjualan satuan yang stabil dan peningkatan dalam hasil penjualan.

Pelanggan lama dapat memulai promosi secara gratis dari mulut ke mulut dan merujuk orang lain kepada bisnis ini. Pelanggan lama lebih besar kemungkinannya untuk membeli produk-produk ancillary dan produk-produk tambahan dengan marjin keuntungan yang tinggi.

Pelanggan lama cenderung merasa puas dalam hubungan mereka dengan perusahaan dan lebih sedikit kemungkinannya untuk beralih kepada para pesaing, sehingga mempersulit perusahaan lain untuk masuk ke pasar atau memperoleh keuntungan dalam pangsa pasar. Pelanggan biasa cenderung lebih murah untuk dilayani karena mereka sudah mengenal baik prosesnya, membutuhkan lebih sedikit "pendidikan", dan konsisten dalam pesanannya.

Upaya mempertahankan pelanggan dan kesetiaan yang meningkat membuat pekerjaan pegawai lebih mudah dan lebih memuaskan.Aktivitas bisnis dilihat tidak lagi dari aspek horizontal tetapi dilihat dari aspek vertikal. A job may bring task that perceived as interesting to some people while other ir- - I perceived it as a boring job.

Sebuah pengalaman yang mengecewakan mungkin tidak secara berarti mengurangi kekuatan hubungan bisnis bila persepsei menyeluruh si pelanggan terhadap kualitasnya tetap tinggi, bila ongkos perpindahannya mahal, bila hanya ada sedikit alternatif yang memuaskan, bila mereka mempunyai komitmen terhadap hubungan itu, dan bila ada ikatan-ikatan yang mempertahankan mereka di dalam hubungan tersebut.

Mungkin inilah yang dimaksud oleh John Naisbit dan Patricia Aburdene dalam Megatrend yang salah satu trend dimaksud adalah kebangkitan agama milenium Ketiga. They want the human to work within the firm's norms and regulations. Employee will be satisfied with their work relationship if they can productively help each other. Suci rated it it was ok Apr 24, Books by K.

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