VITA DI GALILEO BERTOLT BRECHT PDF
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They either assert that science and religion are in They either assert that science and religion are in unavoidable conflict, or that science and religion— understood correctly—are distinct but complementary aspects of human culture. For those who assert that science and religion must conflict, the most frequently cited proof of such conflict is the Galileo affair. In the popular interpretation of that unfortunate event, the famous physicist, inventor, and astronomer Galileo Galilei was sentenced to lifelong house arrest by the Catholic Church for asserting that the earth orbited the sun.
The ecclesiastical authorities also forced him to recant his heliocentric sun-centered theory and promise not to advance it any longer. For conflict theorists, those who believe that science and religion are incompatible, this event provides one powerful example of the darkness of religion relative to the brilliance of science.
The only solution, they propose, is to reject all religious belief and usher in a new age of unshackled reason, scientific investigation, and technological advance. Alas, the truth is not so simple. Gianfrancesco Sagredo e Galilei, "Galilaeana", 13 , pp. The article analyses a new book on the scientific friendship between Galilei and the Venetian patrician Gianfrancesco Sagredo questioning the approach adopted by the author. Galileo fue capaz de dialogar con todos. Life of Galileo: Berthold Brecht and the Advance of Scientific Pragmatism.
By the development of modernity, the two disciplines of literature and science have suffered fragmentation and a widening gap. One of the roles that literature has taken in recent times has been to explore the cultural implications of One of the roles that literature has taken in recent times has been to explore the cultural implications of scientific ideas to help bridge the gap between these two discourses.
In like manner, a recourse to German literary canon offers works that suggest that both literature and science not only contribute to but are also influenced by the socio-historical context. Reflecting the news of atomic bombs poured over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in his revised play, The Life of Galileo, Berthold Brecht not only urges the need for an ideological interference in the development of science, but he also concentrates on science as the integral part of the social and historical context.
In , four hundred years ago, a panel of theologians at the Holy Office decreed the Copernican heliocentric system to be contradictory to the Holy Scripture and heretical.
This marked the official beginning of an excruciating dispute This marked the official beginning of an excruciating dispute between the Catholic Church and science.
Less than two decades later Galileo was tried and sentenced to life house arrest, a condemnation that burdened the Church for centuries. What happened? What was the scientific and theological background to the decree? Was it legitimate in its contemporary context? It is the clash itself and the position of Galileo as a character in its dialectic relationship with the conflict to determine the representation of historical Galileo.
Life Of Galileo Bertolt Brecht Pdf
He had become a figure reflecting more the issues of the twentieth centu- ry than those of his times. Again, the Galileo we are presented is more a mythological figure than the scientist portrayed by historians. Cavani herself was a supporter of the movement of dissident Catholics, who advocated the full implementation of the principles and the stances expressed by the Council, open to modernity and the challenges of the new times.
The elements of the life of St Francis that connect his figure to the new ide- ologies, the poverty, his conflict with the officialdom resisting any kind of change, are predictably overemphasized. Her revolt against institutional stagnation is retold through the Galileo affair.
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His encounter with Bruno in Venice offers the opportunity to Cavani to reveal her cinematic strategies, which find—and not only in this com- plex sequence—their most visible element in geometrical composition: Throughout the film, Galileo represents symmetry and logical clarity, as is emphasized by the straight geometrical barrenness of his envi- ronment.
When the scientist appears, the camera follows him with slow, intense and deep movements, alluding at the very nature of the clash between him and the others. Furthermore, the contrast between Bruno and Galileo sheds an additional light on the meaning attributed to figure of Galileo, if we consider the intentions of the filmmaker herself: For Galileo he is perhaps the first secular rebel theology is one thing and science another. The contrast between the characters of Bruno the visionary and Galileo the scientist dramatizes the first part of the film and allowsCavani to reiterate her political stance.
Cavani does not focus on such a dialectic conflict, certainly on purpose, because her film is—in her open intentions, testi- fied by numerous statements—a contemporary work where factual history and mythology should blend harmoniously. Brecht and Losey, however, rather than being in a master-pupil relationship, shared the same inspirations and sources in their vision of a revolutionary theatre: Piscator and Meyerhold above all, as observed by Colin Gardner: This reading is not completely accurate.
The key theoretical figures here are Vsevolod Meyerhold and nikolai Pavlovic okhlopkov.
Along with Erwin Piscator, these are the same influences that Brecht also acknowl- edged, suggesting that he and Losey were simultaneously tapping into identical sources, laying a common foundation for their own col- laboration twelve years later.
The film, due to several and complex circumstances, was made much later almost three decades and Losey is both a different man and a different director, whose experiences both on stage and on the set have radically changed his life: The original play was produced in Hollywood at the dawn of the nuclear age under the dark cloud of HUAC [Home Unamerican Activities Committee], and the Cold War, and was directed by a 38 year-old American veteran of the Stalinist old Left with little or nofilm experience.
Significantly, all these three films deal with characters forced to renounce or suppress their creative and impulsive instincts while detained under a restric- tive and claustrophobic form of house arrest. I also had to find an equivalent cinema style to his theatrical style which I did perhaps successfully by having Galileo sometimes talk directly to the camera in very big close-ups which means talking directly to the audience. Joseph Losey seems very much at ease with his representation of the scientist as the epitome of an entire age.
In both films, therefore, the conflict between Galileo and the Church as the symbol of the Authority is the narrative basis for the unfolding of the plot, filling it with a strong ethical connotation. The extra-textual discourse prevails, mainly because it is transformed into a discourse on contemporaneity.
The gaze of Liliana Cavani is—no doubt—a critical one, but it is still anchored to a historical snapshot: The result, even today, is a work both thought-provoking and emotionally intense. In both cases, however, there remains very little of the historical Galileo, sacrificed in the name of a much more poignant reference to the ethical and political issues of the s.
It has been observed that the representation of Galileo on the silver screen has been influenced by the writings addressed to non-spe- cialists rather than by the large number of scholarly works on the Italian scientist. During the historical epochs in which they worked, both Cavani and Losey viewed Galileo retrospectively, attributing new meanings to him and drawing deep and significant analogies to their contempo- rary cultures.
Ideology, therefore, not history, seems to have been the primary inspiration for those film directors, and thanks to the enormous power of communication of film they were able to present their images of Galileo to the public at large. It is in this perspective that I want to conclude by making reference to another text, a written one, not a film, but a short story that tells us the story of another Italian scientist, whose commit- ment and awareness is astonishingly close to the issues raised by Brecht in his Life of Galileo.
Ettore Majorana was a mathematician and physicist, who collabo- ated with Fermi, Segre and others in the s Italy. Majorana allegedly died during a boat trip between Palermo and naples on March 27, and his body was never found. Leonardo Sciascia, a Sicilian writer and intellectual wrote La scomparsa di Majorana in , where he puts forth the hypothesis that Majorana did not commit suicide the obvious offi- cial version of the incident , but retired in a convent. Sciascia tries to imagine a reason for his disguising a disappearance as a suicide.
I had written it [The Disappearance of Majorana] out of the memories I had about his disappearance, and on the basis of documents I had obtained from Prof.
It all came after I had heard a physicist talking with satisfaction—and even with enthusiasm—about his own contribution to the making of the bombs that had destroyed Hiroshima and nagasaki. The Life of Galileo. Methuen, Brunetta, Gianpiero. Guida alla storia del cinema italiano.
Einaudi, Conversations with Losey. London-new York: The Crime of Galileo. Drake, Stillman. Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography. The U of Chicago P, Gardner, Colin. Joseph Losey. Manchester-new York: Manchester UP, Geymonat, Ludovico.
Galileo Galilei. Koestler, Arthur. The Sleepwalkers: McMillan, Marrone, Gaetana. The Gaze and the Labyrinth: Physics in Perspective.
Sciascia, Leonardo. A cura di Claude Ambroise.
The life of galileo
Volume secondo. Bompiani, Volume terzo. Luigi Maggi. Arrigo Frusta. Umberto Mozzato.
Ambrosio Film, Liliana Cavani. Liliana Cavani, Tullio Pinelli. Fenice Cinematografica, Rizzoli Film, Kinozenter, Fiddler on the Roof. Chaim Topol, norma Crane, Leonard Frey.The simultaneous dialogue in German and Spanish created a somewhat comical scene, which again had the opposite effect from Verfremdung. Other editions. You won't win against dogma by using their means and their rhetoric, thus turning into the evil you want to fight.
Maybe we sometimes have to be heroes. I could go on and on about this play, which left me shaken and confused all three times I read it in high school, with my students, and on my own. Want to Read saving…. I had to do something with my time. Brecht's Galileo claims that he is afraid of physical pain.
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