ULTIMATE VISUAL DICTIONARY PDF
Ultimate Visual myavr.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Ultimate Visual Dictionary is a comprehensive, annotated visual dictionary of more than commonly researched places and things, from the origins of the . Ultimate Visual Dictionary presents a huge range of information from a unique perspective, providing instant understanding of even the most complex of subjects.
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This genre of reference books has been improving over the years. The concept remains steady. A com- pact illustration is crammed with labels that give the. The Ultimate Visual Dictionary (Catalogue essay for the exhibition, The Ultimate Visual Dictionary by Milenko Prvacki, ) And what does the dictionary say. DK - Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science - dokument [*.pdf] ULTIMATE VISUALDICTIONARY OF SCIENCESpeech Sensory area WIOEBA OCEAN CURRENTS.
Electronics and computer science All electronic devices are made up of simple electronic components, such as transistors, connected together to form electronic circuits. This section examines the main types of components and electronic circuits and outlines the function of the modern computer. The information contained in this section reinforces and extends the information found in the main body of the book.
Science is both the systematic method by which human beings attempt to discover truth about the world, and the theories that result from this method. The main "natural sciences" are physics, chemistry, life sciences biology , earth sciences, and astronomy. All of these - except life sciences - are called physical sciences.
Subjects such as anatomy and medicine - and usually ecology - are considered parts of life science. Mathematics is not strictly a natural science, because it does not deal with matter and energy directly; it examines more abstract concepts, such as numbers. However, mathematics is important because it is used to describe the behavior of matter and energy in all the sciences.
It may be as simple as a quadrat - a rigid square thrown at random in a field in order to take a representative sample and estimate populations of plants or animals. Or it may be very complex, such as a supercomputer that applies statistics to millions of collisions taking place in particle accelerators. The relationship between science and technology works the other way, too. The design of a car's transmission, for example, requires a good understanding of the physics of simple machines.
Despite this close relationship, science and technology are not the same thing. Unlike science, technology is not a quest for understanding - it is the application of understanding to a particular problem or situation.
To discover the true nature of science, we need to briefly outline the history of scientific thought.
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Creation myths which attempted to explain the origin of the universe were common, for example. Most myths were probably never intended to be believed. However, in the absence of other explanations, they often were.
The roots of the scientific approach to understanding the world are generally thought to be in ancient Greece, where natural philosophers began to reject the mythical worldview and replace it with logical reasoning. Like others of his time, Aristotle used. An example of this comes from Aristotle's Physics. It was assumed that some types of matter, such as smoke, have the quality of "lightness," while others, such as stone, have the quality of "heaviness.
Applying logic to this assumption, it seemed to Aristotle that all matter naturally moves either upward or downward. He therefore claimed that any matter that neither falls nor rises upward, such as the stars and the planets, must be made of something fundamentally different from matter on Earth. The problem with this deductive process was that flawed assumptions led to incorrect conclusions.
Aristotle and his contemporaries saw no need to test their assumptions, or explanations, and this is what sets the process of deduction apart from true science.
The curve shown here is a graph of the probability of an electron being located at different distances from an atomic nucleus. In Renaissance Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, there was a reawakening of the spirit of curiosity shown by the ancient Greeks. People began to question many of the untested ideas of the ancients, because new observations of the world were at odds with them.
For example, Aristotle and his contemporaries had reasoned that the Earth lies at the center of the universe. During the Renaissance, several astronomers showed that this idea was not consistent with the observed motions of the planets and the Moon and the Sun.
A new idea - that the Earth is in orbit around the Sun - was put forward in by Xicolaus Copernicus - There were also several other major challenges to the accepted ideas of the time. It was a period of rapid discovery, a scientific revolution. Another is the testing of suggested explanations by performing experiments. An experiment is an observation under carefully controlled conditions. So, for example, the hypothesis idea that all objects on the Earth fall at the same rate in the absence of air, can be tested by setting up suitable apparatus and observing the results.
The proof of this hypothesis would support the current theory about how objects fall.
A theory is a general explanation of a group of related phenomena. Examples are the theory of gravitation and the theory of evolution. The more evidence in favor of a particular Uieory, the more strongly it is held onto. Theories can be refined or completely replaced in the light of observations that do not support them. A law is a mathematical relationship that describes how something behaves. The law of conservation of mass states that no mass is lost or gained during a chemical reaction.
It is derived from painstaking measurements and other observations, and a theory may be formulated to explain the observed law. In the case of the conversion of mass, one plausible theory is that matter consists of particles that join in particular ways, and a chemical reaction is simply a change in the arrangement of the particles.
Discovering the laws of nature and formulating theories to account for them can explain, in ever greater detail, only how - but not why - things happen. However, the methodical efforts of the scientific community - together with the inspirational work of many individuals - have led to a deep understanding of the natural world.
If this process is repeated for steeper or shallower slopes, a relationship between the force and the angle of the slope arises. A law can be formulated from this, and a theory to explain the law may follow.
The proportion of the population engaged in scientific or technological activity has increased dramatically since that time, too. The number of regularly published scientific journals in the world stood at about 10 in By , there were about 10,, and there are now over 40, Saturn has more than 60 known moons.
Storms and eddies. It is a and 40 minutes gas giant almost as big as Jupiter. Astronomers believe that such co-orbital moons may have originated from a single satellite that broke up. Saturn has an extremely thin but wide system of rings that is about half a mile 1 km thick but extends outward to about Stratosphere ammonia crystals and water vapor Clouds form belts dark. Its atmosphere contains traces of methane. It is thought to Orbital consist of a dense mixture of different types of plane South Pole ice and gas around a solid core.
Uranus is encircled by main rings that consist of rocks interspersed with dust lanes and two distant outer rings made of dust. Uranus rolls and 14 minutes on its side along its orbital path around the Sun. Uranus is North One rotation unique among the planets in that its axis of rotation lies close to its Pole takes 17 hours orbital plane.
As a result of its strongly tilted rotational axis. Uranus is the most rotation featureless planet to have been closely observed: There are 27 known Uranian moons. The 13 inner moons are small and dark. Neptune is the smallest of the Pole giant planets and is thought to consist of a small rocky core surrounded by a mixture of liquids and gases. Neptune has six tenuous takes 16 hours and 7 minutes rings and 13 known moons. One rotation The Scooter was a large area of cirrus cloud.
Pluto was the first object discovered beyond Neptune and was considered a planet until the dwarf planet category was introduced in It is made of rock and ice Small Dark Spot and is 1. The Kuiper Belt objects are a mix of rock and ice. Unlike most moons in the solar system. They make a doughnut- shaped belt called the Kuiper Belt. Triton is the largest Neptunian moon and the coldest object in the solar system.
The larger dwarf planets. It has three known moons. One rotation possibly. Most meteoroids Low-intensity burn up in the atmosphere.
Meteor showers occur when the Earth passes through the trail of dust particles left by a comet. As the comet approaches the Sun. Meteoroids range in size from tiny dust particles to objects tens of meters across. Most of them orbit the Sun in the asteroid belt. Meteoroids are small chunks of stone or stone and iron. Broad curved Dust particles methane. The Earth itself is continually changing. Earth types of algae Ichthyostega formed Vertebrates appeared Coral reefs appeared e.. Since then.
Dense minerals sank to appeared e. Climate is also subject to change: Dinosaurs the first known life-forms—bacteria and blue-green algae—did became not appear until about Crusafontia the center while lighter ones formed a thin rocky crust.
Archaeopteryx Dinosaurs flourished Marine reptiles appeared e. The crust and the topmost layer of the mantle Potassium 2. Plates may also slide past each other—along the San Andreas fault. In mid-ocean. Crustal movement on continents may result in earthquakes. The lithosphere consists of semirigid plates Calcium 3.
When plates move toward each other. In addition to faults and folds. A fault is a fracture in a rock along which plunge there is movement of one side relative to the other. Folds occur in elastic rocks. Faults develop when rocks are subjected to compression or tension. They tend to occur in hard. The smallest faults occur in single mineral crystals and are microscopically small.
The two main types of fold are anticlines upfolds and angle from synclines downfolds. The movement can be vertical. Folds vary in size from a few millimeters long to horizontal folded mountain ranges hundreds of miles long. Asia There are three main types of mountains: This is how folded mountain ranges.
The continental crust is buckled by the impact. Fold mountains are formed sediment and where plates push together and part of the oceanic crust cause the rock to buckle upward. The lava and debris may have built up to form a buckling of dome around the vent of a volcano. The build up of oxygen began to form a shield of ozone South around the Earth.
One large supercontinent. Agnostidae Group: Phacopidae Group: Olenellidae Group: Ptychopariidae Length: The first primitive life-forms emerged around 3. Ptyctodontidae Group: Pteraspidae Group: Coccosteidae Group: Bothriolepididae Length: Acanthodidae Group: Asterolepididae Group: Cheirolepidae Group: Cephalaspidae Length: Glaciers smothered much of the southern Antarctica Africa Antarctica hemisphere during the Permian period — million years ago.
As a result of these conditions. America Australia mass of Pangaea. Away from the poles. Marattiaceae Group: Medullosaceae Group: Lyginopteridales Group: Medullosaceae Height: The humid climate across northern and equatorial continents throughout Carboniferous times produced the first dense plant cover on Earth. Toward the end of Carboniferous times. Lepidodendron sp. During the early part of this period.
Lepidodendraceae Group: Cordaitacea Group: Glossopteridaceae Group: By the end of the Triassic period. Dinosaurs first appeared about million years ago. During this period. This landmass experienced extremes of climate. Melanorosauridae Group: Sauropodomorpha Group: Herrerasauridae Group: Ornithischia Length: The only forms of plant life were nonflowering plants.
Cycas sp. Early herbivorous plant-eating Africa dinosaurs first appeared in Late Triassic times and included Plateosaurus Australia Antarctica and Technosaurus. The principal forms of animal life included diverse. Among the earliest dinosaurs South were the carnivorous flesh-eating herrerasaurids.
Plateosauridae Group: Ornithischia Group: Coelophysidae Group: Herrerasauridae Length: Diplodocus and stegosaurs e. The abundance of plant food coincided with the proliferation of herbivorous plant-eating dinosaurs. Plants such as ginkgos. Carnivorous flesheating dinosaurs. During Jurassic America Asia times. The Jurassic climate was warm and moist.
Further Jurassic animals included shrewlike South mammals. Diplodocidae Group: Iguanodontia Group: Dryosauridae Length: Allosauroidea Group: Thyreophora Group: Stegosauridae Length: Dinosaurs evolved into a wide variety of species during Cretaceous times.
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Saltasauridae Group: Ceratopsidae Group: Ornithopoda Length: At the end of the Cretaceous period. Flowering plants. The climate remained mild and moist but the seasons became more marked.
Animal species became more varied. Gondwana and Asia Laurasia were breaking up into smaller landmasses that more closely resembled the modern continents.
Tyrannosauridae Group: Dromaeosauridae Group: Iguanodontia Length: Hyaenodontidae Group: Pliohyracidae Group: Phorusrhacidae Group: Giraffidae Length: Repeated cool periods throughout the Tertiary period established the Antarctic as an icy island continent. By the beginning of the Tertiary period.
One of these included the first hominid see pp. The Tethys Sea. Palmoxylon sp. America Africa During the middle part of the Tertiary period. Mammutidae Group: Gomphotheriidae Length: Only the specialized ice age mammals such as Mammuthus and Coelodonta. The cold environments in North America and Eurasia. The America Africa Australia end of the last ice age and the climatic changes that occurred India about Modern humans.
Humans developed throughout the Pleistocene period 1. During cold periods. Macropodidae Group: Diprotodontidae Group: Toxodontidae Group: Elephantidae Length: Homo sapiens.
Deinotheriidae Group: Rhinocerotidae Group: Hominidae Length: A thousand million years later. Layered by algae retaining cuticle. Alternate developed during the Cambrian period — million layers of mud and years ago. Soft-bodied jellyfish. About million years ago. Glabella Eye Long. The first simple. Limestone although they probably still returned to the water to lay their soft eggs. By the time the first reptiles and synapsids appeared late in the Carboniferous.
Reptiles include the dinosaurs. Their limbs may have evolved from the muscular fins of lungfishlike creatures. While amphibians see pp. Evolving from amphibians. The development of the amniotic egg. In the case of most saurischians.
Pubis Ilio-ischial joint egg-laying reptiles by an important feature: Dinosaurs are categorized into two groups A saurischian dinosaur according to the structure of their pelvis: They appeared some million years ago and were distinguished from other scaly.
A present-day reptile This enabled them to keep their Ischium bodies well above the ground.
Fibula muscle Archaeopteryx. Many Femur theropods may have been warm-blooded. Theropods ranged from animals no larger than a chicken to huge creatures. Theropods spanned the Femoro-tibial age of most dinosaurs —65 million years ago and beyond.
The group also included ostrichlike omnivores muscle Ambiens and herbivores with toothless beaks. Birds are dinosaurs and evolved from muscle Femoro- tibial within a group of tetanuran theropods called maniraptorans.
Spinosauridae Curved Length: Sinraptoridae Length: Megalosauridae Chevron Length: Paroccipital and Brachiosaurus. Mandible Infratemporal sauropods had replaced prosauropods and spread worldwide. Prosauropods lived from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic times — million years ago and included beasts such as the small Anchisaurus and one of the first very large dinosaurs.
Many of these dinosaurs moved in herds. Sauropods persisted to the end of the Cretaceous shaped tooth process period 65 million years ago. Sauropodomorphs have often been split into two groups: A suborder of the Saurischia.
By Middle Jurassic times about million years ago. They fenestra included the heaviest and longest land animals ever. Riojasauridae Length: Melanorosauridae Thigh Claw Length: Massospondylidae claw Length: Massospondylidae Length: Cetisauridae Length: Eusauropoda Group: Saltasauridae Length: Diplodocidae Metacarpal Length: Up to 30 ft 9 m long, with a small head and small cheek Group: Stegosaurs, such as Stegosaurus and Kentrosaurus, replaced these older forms.
The earliest stegosaur remains come mainly from China. Several genera of stegosaurs survived into the Early Cretaceous period — million years ago.
Ankylosaurs, with a combination of beak and teeth in close proximity, and cheek teeth adapted for cropping vegetation, appeared at the same time as stegosaurs. They originated in the Late Jurassic period million years ago and in North America survived until 65 million years ago.
Huayangosauridae Group: Stegosauridae Group: Flank Dorsal Hind spike scute limb Dermal armour Scaly skin. Ankylosauridae Length: Ankylosauria Length: Broad, flat snout. Polacanthidae Caudal vertebra Length: Lateral caudal musculature Tail club. These Mandible Cervical vertebra bipedal and quadrupedal herbivores had a Cervical rib horny beak, plant-cutting or grinding cheek teeth, and a pelvic and tail region stiffened by Scapula Dorsal vertebra bony tendons.
Some ornithopods were no larger than a dog, Ulna Caudal Prepubic vertebra while others were immense creatures up to 49 ft 15 m long.
Iguanodon and some other iguanodonts had large Tibia thumb-spikes that were strong enough to stab attackers. Foot Predentary Dentary Mandible bone bone Hooflike nail.
Camptosauridae Length: Hadrosauroidea Length: Radius Wrist joint Ulna. Marginocephalians were probably descended from the same ancestor as the ornithopods and lived in what are now North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe during the Cretaceous period —65 million years ago.
They were divided Cervical into two groups: Ceratopsians Phalanges were among the most abundant herbivorous dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous period 97—65 million years ago. Pachycephalosauria Group: Pachycephalosauria Length: Shoulder Tail. Marginocephalians 2 Parietosquamosal. Epoccipital bone frill Nose horn. Thick, scaly Parietal fenestra Epoccipital bone skin Parietosquamosal frill Thigh. Protoceratopsidae Finger Length: Centrosaurinae Parietosquamosal Tail Length: Chasmosaurinae Length: Nose horn core Cervical rib Naris.
Centrosaurinae Jugal bone Length: Leptoceratopsidae Length: For example. This class includes terrestrial. Cervical Today. In Australia and South America.
Mammals had several features that differed from those of their ancestors: Since the end of the Mesozoic era 65 million years ago. Smaller-toothed than Homo habilis. Homo sapiens had become dominant and the Neanderthals had died out.
Classification of Homo sapiens in relation to its ancestors is enormously problematic: Homo habilis. Homo ergaster first appeared in Africa about 1. Micrasterias sp. They show a wide diversity of forms and life-styles. This diversity reflects the adaptations of plants to survive in a wide range of habitats. Despite their diversity.
This is seen most clearly in the flowering plants phylum Angiospermophyta.
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Of the six types of lichens. Most fungi are multicellular. Lichens are a symbiotic partnership between algae and fungi. Most fungi feed on dead or decaying matter.
A few fungi obtain their food from plants or algae. Some lichens e. This kingdom includes not only the familiar spore-bearing stipe stalk beech tree mushrooms. Cladonia floerkeana are a combination of types. Like plants. Rhodophyta red algae. Volvox sp.
Apical notch Acetabularia sp. Apical notch Most algae can reproduce sexually. Thalassiosira sp. Some of the 10 phyla of algae are notch exclusively unicellular single-celled. In stage one. In stage two. The sporophyte produces spores. With no outer. Bryophytes do not have true stems.
Clubmosses phylum Lycopodophyta typically have small leaves arranged spirally around the stem. Horsetails phylum Male fern Sphenophyta have erect. Lycopodium sp. Selaginella sp. Their life-cycles involve two stages. The four grain Ovule gymnosperm phyla are the conifers phylum Coniferophyta. Pollen grain in micropyle Ovuliferous female cones produce megaspores in which female gametes develop. Cone Ovuliferous scale gymnosperms are woody.
Pinus sp. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Dicotyledons have seeds with two cotyledons. Crab apple Malus sp. Many herbaceous plants live for only one or two years. Annuals e. Lateral Stipule dying back in the fall. In the first year.. Petiole stalk of young leaf producing shoots and flowers in spring. Biennials e. Some herbaceous plants e. Young plant which produce leaves and store food in underground storage organs. In the second year.
They grow back year after year. Evergreen compound entire woody plants e. Deciduous woody plants e. They have one or more permanent stems above ground. Woody flowering plants may be shrubs.
Outside the woody core is a layer of tough. Acer pseudoplatanus Polygonum baldschuanicum This arrangement helps the roots resist the forces of compression as they grow through the soil. In addition. Roots have an outer epidermis covering a cortex of parenchyma packing tissue. The vascular tissue of such stems tissue is arranged in bundles.
Epidermis and sclerenchyma strengthening tissue. Herbaceous non-woody epidermis and vascular tissue stems have an outer protective epidermis covering a cortex that consists mainly of parenchyma packing tissue but also has some Vascular collenchyma supporting tissue. Inside the bark is a ring of secondary phloem. Young which surrounds an inner core of secondary xylem.
Woody stems have an outer Pith outer layer protective layer of tough bark. Stems bear leaves organs of photosynthesis. Rosa sp. Juncus sp. Compound leaves may be pinnate. Leaves can be classified further by the overall shape of the lamina.
Leaves can be classified as simple. A typical leaf consists of a thin. Laburnum x watereri Thalictrum delavayi Leaves are the main sites of photosynthesis. During photosynthesis. The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll. It takes place inside special structures in leaf cells called chloroplasts. Its broad. The petals surround the male Anther and female reproductive structures androecium and gynoecium.
Some flowers e. The gynoecium has one or more carpels female organs. The petals collectively called the corolla are typically large and brightly colored. Filament The sepals collectively called the calyx are outermost.
In monocotyledonous flowers see pp. Part of male inflorescence Petiole catkin stalk In most plants. Pollination may occur within the same Female flower self-pollination. Bract wind Filament leaflike pollination birds.
Stamen Wind-pollinated flowers are Filament generally small. Dehisced grain and then transfer the pollen split open pollen sac Anther to the next flower they visit. Endothecium These features attract insects. Less commonly. Two male gametes. The other Endocarp seed Remains of male gamete fuses with two polar nuclei to style inner layer of produce the endosperm.
To enable the gametes to meet. Fertilization Mesocarp also initiates other changes: Petal Following pollination see pp. One gamete fuses with the ovum to produce a zygote that Abortive will develop into an embryo plant. The exocarp Vesicle wall pericarp of a succulent fruit Oil juice has three layers: Some fruits. Simple attachment Theobroma cacao succulent fruits include berries. Dehiscent dry seed to placenta fruits include capsules e. Dry fruits are divided into three types: Indehiscent dry fruits include nuts Goosegrass e.They are given out yearly in six areas of human achievement, three of which are sciences physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine.
Creation myths which attempted to explain the origin of the universe were common, for example. The kinetic energy transfers to potential, or stored energy. The usual unit of force is the newton N , and can be measured using a newton meter see pp. The newton meter - twice as far from the pivot - measures 5 N, the upward force needed to stop the beam turning.
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