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Twilight: Twilight, Book 1 (Twilight Saga) (English Edition) eBook: Stephenie Meyer: Ich selbst habe die Bücher deswegen zuerst auf Deutsch und danach auf. Twilight Midnight Sun: Edward's Version of The Twilight Saga (A Parody) ( English Edition) eBook: E. Cullen: myavr.info: Kindle-Shop. Twilight Midnight Sun: Edward's Version of The Twilight Saga (A Parody) ( German Edition) (Deutsch Auflage) - Kindle edition by E. Cullen. Download it once.

The extreme identification with Edward leads her further away from her autonomy as a subject, while regressing to a state of childlike dependence. Later, we see Bella oscillating between Edward, Jacob and her father, who all try to protect her like a precious object against exterior dangers. Being transformed into a vampire stays, for her, the only option to find a way out of her limited existence, and a way of becoming equal to her god-like lover. Later, we will see that even after her transformation, the question of her subjectivity remains problematic.

They determine how Bella defines herself as a subject in society by confining her to pre-defined gender roles, while Bella sees her attachment to men as the only way to transcend precisely these limitations.

In order to compensate for this unbearable void she turns to someone who seems more her equal: the werewolf Jacob Black. This move throws Bella into a severe dilemma, which can only be fully comprehended if we see it as the representation of a fracture line running through her own ego.

In the dream that Bella has in the night following her first long conversation with Jacob, which introduces her to the mythological world of the Twilight Saga, the inner split that corresponds with the outer enmity between vampires and werewolves becomes apparent for the first time.

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I opened my eyes to a familiar place. I could hear the waves crashing against the rocks somewhere nearby. I was trying to follow the sound, but then Jacob Black was there, tugging on my hand, pulling me back toward the blackest part of the forest. And then Edward stepped out from the trees, his skin faintly glowing, his eyes black and dangerous. Jacob is here associated with a force that keeps pulling Bella back into the sheltering darkness of the forest, while Edward is a light coming towards her from the beach, tempting her to step out into the open space where she would finally find the sun.

Jacob, on the other hand, acts as her protector, and Bella feels safe in the familiarity of his world which is closer to her own, but he is also associated with the comforting, confined spaces Bella longs to escape. Bella soon starts to believe that by transforming her into a vampire, Edward could give her access to a new world that would imply unlimited freedom to realize herself as an autonomous subject in a reciprocal love relation.

Opposed to this, her old friend Jacob does not offer this kind of transcendence, but he is himself limited to a body that is not fully under his control. His transformation into a werewolf that coincides with puberty seems a great burden for him at the beginning, and we get the impression that his whole existence is biologically determined. Taking this as a starting point, and looking at what Beauvoir writes about the female experience of puberty, I want to explain why Bella feels so strongly linked to Jacob.

When Jacob changes into a werewolf the transformation comes upon him like an illness that determines his destiny by unalterably defining his purpose in life. Due to his bodily constitution he has to commit himself forever to the protection of humans against vampires.

Beauvoir claims that the young girl goes through similar experiences during puberty. She writes: It is a strange experience for an individual who feels himself to be an autonomous and transcendent subject, an absolute, to discover inferiority in himself as a fixed and preordained essence: it is a strange experience for whoever regards himself as the One to be revealed to himself as otherness, alterity.

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This is what happens to the little girl [ They both feel themselves limited by and trapped in social structures, which force them to subordinate themselves to a pre-defined order that is presented as natural. Beauvoir describes this experience of submission as one that is specific to women in patriarchal culture: The young boy, [ Beauvoir I am aware that The Second Sex was first published in , and that after the socio-political changes that Second Wave Feminism brought about in the s, the situation of women has improved considerably, at least in Western democratic societies.

As we will see later, her future is defined in exactly these traditional terms of marriage and motherhood, leaving only little room for her to develop as an autonomous individual. His pain had always been and would always be my pain - now his joy was my joy.

I felt joy, too, and yet his happiness was somehow also pain. Almost tangible - it burned against my skin like acid, a slow torture. She is determined to share her future with Edward, who would not only give her a prestigious place in the social order, but would also transform her into a superior being freed from all physical limitations.

The Twilight Saga - Twilight

Jacob represents everything Bella has to sacrifice in order to gain this new freedom. He is associated with the body, nature and all uncontrollable passions and emotions that are rooted in the physical domain. Jacob can even be seen as a link to the animal world. In his wolf-form he is completely detached from his human mind, while instincts and drives have a great influence on his perceptions and judgements.

And I was alone. So much better. Feel nothing but speed, nothing but the pull of muscle, sinew, and bone, working together in harmony as the miles disappeared behind me[ It is also worth mentioning that imprinting works only on the male side, which means that women are the objects that male werewolves imprint on. But I will go into more detail concerning this topic in the chapter on Quileute legends.

It can be claimed that in order to achieve equality with Edward, Bella has to repress everything that Jacob represents.

During this time he finds himself in the situation of a child that has not yet been initiated into the social structures that determine his later role in life. He is presented as innocent and carefree. When she is with him Bella feels equally freed from social pressures. As we walked, I felt myself settling into another version of myself, the self I had been with Jacob.

A little younger, a little less responsible Someone who might, on occasion, do something really stupid for no good reason. Bella is forced to leave the maternal space behind in order to find her place in the symbolic order, which ultimately causes a split from her own ego. The self she was before patriarchal structures formed her into a woman, and burdened her with all expectations that are implied in this role.

Considering this double identification with Jacob, it is not surprising that the separation from him is a painful experience for Bella that makes her question her entire existence. In the beginning, she turns to him because she tries to hold on to her free childlike self, and later Jacob becomes a fellow sufferer in an equally aporetic situation.

The following passage shows this quite clearly: I loved him, much more than I should, and yet, still nowhere near enough. I have already pointed out that Edward is constructed as the binary opposite of Jacob. As lies in the nature of all binary constructions, one term is always elevated over the other, while its opposite is devalued in the process.

From the very beginning of the novel it is clear that Edward is the one who is presented as more powerful, in his social status as well as in his super-human abilities that even include the defiance of death. What I want to point out is that this outer contrast of physical appearances corresponds to an underlying symbolism of contrasting mental and psychological qualities. It is clear that this mental strength has been instilled in him by his family, or more specifically by his father Carlisle, who is constructed as the embodiment of Christian ideals.

Edward is constantly concerned with what his family might think of him, and how they might condemn him according to their high moral standards. This attitude of constant restraint and renunciation is a factor that also has a great influence on the way Bella sees herself.

Once again, Bella is presented as limited or even burdened by her body.

This time it is not her clumsiness, but her sexual feelings that make her struggle with her physical limitations. While Jacob represents the body, animal-drives and uncontrollable emotions, Edward stands for the mind, spiritual and moral values, and everything that is associated with transcendence of the physical. In her attempt to achieve equal status with these morally, socially and physically superior beings, Bella is forced to make many sacrifices.

These sacrifices are symbolically represented in the narrative by her separation from Jacob. By leaving Jacob behind, she irrevocably turns her back on the carefree self of her childhood, and she agrees to repress her physical impulses in exchange for a presumably superior existence. It is worth mentioning that she finally chooses the death of her human body in order to gain equality with her lover.

My aim is to take those discussions as a starting point and to go deeper into the psychological set-up of the characters by taking up psychoanalytical and feminist theories. The two men represent two separate worlds and two mutually exclusive modes of life. Jacob, on the other hand, represents everything she has to leave behind in order to be transformed into a superior being. Furthermore, I will show that similar patterns can be found in the stories of other female characters in the saga, and that these stories are interweaved with various patriarchal myths.

Wilson reads the saga as a product of the current socio-political situation in the US seeing the Cullen vampires as idealized representations of patriarchal capitalism. In her book the focus lies on the depiction of norms concerning body image and physical attractiveness, the impact of anti-feminist and conservative messages on the largely female fandom, and the religiously motivated abstinence message.

Only when taking a closer look at Renesmee and her relationship to Jacob, can it be argued that she represents a possible solution to the conflict that Bella could not solve. Instead of seeing the saga as an ambiguous mixture of controversial and conservative messages, I want to suggest that Twilight is a conservative love story that brings in a subtle criticism of its own values in the form of characters like Renesmee.

Being a monster? I want to draw attention to the fact that her initial situation - lacking a positive self-image and feeling socially placeless - already points to the problematic status of her subjectivity.

A special focus will be put on the second phase, which starts when she enters into the love relation with Edward Cullen. Paradoxically, it is precisely this love relation, characterised by her total identification with Edward that almost reaches the point of fusion, which endangers her status as autonomous subject.

Table of Contents

Once again Bella finds herself in a marginal position, setting up Jacob as her new centre. The problematic conflicts that her relationship to Jacob and her unaltered attachment to Edward bring along will be discussed in further detail in the following chapter.

Looking at the first chapter of Twilight it is striking how little information the author gives about Bella, who is not only the central female character, but also the only narrator in the first three parts of the saga. The first decision that we see Bella make in the novel is one of selfless sacrifice.

She leaves her mother, who seems to care more for her new husband than for her daughter, behind and goes to live with her father who is almost a stranger to her. This decision is not easy for Bella, who seems to feel an exceptionally strong attachment to her mother.

The situation can be seen as paradigmatic for the violent split in the mother-daughter relation that, according to french feminist theory, is imposed on women by patriarchal culture. It is exactly this first step into the unknown that forms a preliminary condition for the following adventures Bella is about to experience, in the attempt to find her place in a culture that does not seem to hold many options for her.

Nothing about her plans for the future, her interests, her hopes, dreams and fears in life is mentioned. Bella feels herself limited through her body that never lets her run fast enough, in addition to that she finds herself silenced without a voice that would make him turn around and become aware of her as a subject. Not only in her dreams, but also in real life, Bella seems to experience her body as a limiting factor that leaves her in constant need of protection from her own clumsiness, as well as from all kinds of exterior dangers.

First, Edward stops a car with his bare hands to save Bella from being squashed. All these incidents show that instead of finding herself as an autonomous being, Bella regresses to a childlike status in her relationship with Edward. This becomes even more apparent at later points in the narrative, especially in Eclipse, when Bella seems to have become a precious object divided among various people, who all try to protect her against other predators.

Instead of keeping a save distance, she is fascinated by the vampire world, and she instantly senses that a possible transformation would give her access to a world of infinite freedom and transcendence, something that will never be accessible for her in the human world.

As Beauvoir writes about the Woman in Love: There is no other way out for her than to lose herself, body and soul, in him who is represented to her as the absolute, as the essential. A religion that requires of her to sacrifice herself like a lamb to the lion T. Having gone through a period of extreme identification with her lover, Bella feels her whole existence shaken by his words.

When she finally resurfaces, after months of total numbness, she shows clear symptoms of melancholia. The nightmare that haunts her continually best expresses the inner void she experiences when Edward is absent. There was nothing really. Only nothing. Just the endless maze of moss-covered trees, so quiet that the silence was an uncomfortable pressure against my eardrums. When I realized that there was nothing to search for, and nothing to find.

That there never had been anything more than this empty, dreary wood, and there never would be anything more for menothing but nothing N. But it is a loss she cannot actually mourn because she identifies her whole being with this lost object.

She remembers that there is something she has lost, and she keeps searching frantically for it, but she cannot recall what it is.

The hole in her chest shows that Bella has internalised the lost object. By fusing her subjectivity with Edward, who is not only absent but in a way inexistent, she feels a split from her own ego. Knowing that these delusions are generated by her unconscious, which has split from her conscious mind, she still tries to trigger them for the sense of wholeness she experiences in these moments.

For that brief moment, when his voice came from some other part of me than my conscious memory, when his voice was perfect and honey smooth rather than the pale echoes my memories usually produced, I was able to remember without pain N. But Bella soon finds another way of minimizing the pain of her loss by turning to Jacob Black. It does not take a long time until Bella begins to arrange her life more and more around her friendship with Jacob.

It is worth mentioning here that Bella seems to receive her sense of self exclusively from her relations to other people, or more precisely from her attachment to male characters. She never seems to define herself without reference to either Edward, Jacob or her father. Once again Bella sees the expectations of others as her priority, even as concerns her own mental well-being.

The following passage shows that her friendship with Jacob can do nothing to change her initial melancholia, as Edward is still the absent centre of her life: I was like a lost moon - my planet destroyed in some cataclysmic, disaster movie scenario of desolation - that continued nevertheless, to circle in a tight little orbit around the empty space left behind, ignoring the laws of gravity N.

This might seem to imply a contradiction at first glance. How can Bella be a lost moon circling around an empty space, while Jacob becomes her personal sun? To solve this dilemma, I want to suggest that the nature of her relationship to Jacob is fundamentally different from the idolatrous love she feels for Edward.

In the following chapter I will explain this notion in more detail. To sum up the main points of this section, it has to be emphasized that Bella Swan lives in a constant state of self-alienation. After the separation from her mother, which symbolizes the split from a positive self-image through the loss of a female identificatory figure, she tries to transcend her limited self in ideal love.

The extreme identification with Edward leads her further away from her autonomy as a subject, while regressing to a state of childlike dependence. Later, we see Bella oscillating between Edward, Jacob and her father, who all try to protect her like a precious object against exterior dangers. Being transformed into a vampire stays, for her, the only option to find a way out of her limited existence, and a way of becoming equal to her god-like lover.

Later, we will see that even after her transformation, the question of her subjectivity remains problematic. They determine how Bella defines herself as a subject in society by confining her to pre-defined gender roles, while Bella sees her attachment to men as the only way to transcend precisely these limitations.

In order to compensate for this unbearable void she turns to someone who seems more her equal: the werewolf Jacob Black.

This move throws Bella into a severe dilemma, which can only be fully comprehended if we see it as the representation of a fracture line running through her own ego. In the dream that Bella has in the night following her first long conversation with Jacob, which introduces her to the mythological world of the Twilight Saga, the inner split that corresponds with the outer enmity between vampires and werewolves becomes apparent for the first time.

I opened my eyes to a familiar place. I could hear the waves crashing against the rocks somewhere nearby.Over the next few missions, he realizes the best way for him to honor the Captain is to command the company. The governor, the Captain, and Namir travel to meet with high command on Hoth. I have already pointed out that Edward is constructed as the binary opposite of Jacob. Skip this list.

Beauvoir describes this experience of submission as one that is specific to women in patriarchal culture: The young boy, [ This is what happens to the little girl [

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