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Thiagarajan Viswanathan. Page 2. Rs. TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS by Thiagaran Viswanathan. Viswanathan, Thiagarajan. URI: myavr.info Date: Chapter pdf. Size: Mb. Format: PDF. View/Open · Icon. Name: 3. TELECOMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS. By THIAGARAJAN VISWANATHAN, MANAV BHATNAGAR.


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Telecommunication Switching system myavr.info Uploaded by Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by by Thiagarajan Viswanathan. Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by by Thiagarajan Viswanathan - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Textbook. □ 《Telecommunication Switching. Systems and Networks》. □ 《现代 电信交换与网络-英文版》. □ Author: Thiagarajan Viswanathan. □ 出版:电子工业 .

Test Telecommunications Switching Equipment. Switching Systems and Networks 2nd Ed.

Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by by Thiagarajan Viswanathan

Program at TSTC offers free tutoring and.. Telecommunication Switching Systems. Viswanathan and. How do we move traffic from one part of the network to another?

Connect end-systems to switches,. Hierarchy in telecom networks Switching Systems. Telecommunication network hierarchy ITU-T has specified a world wide hierarchy for the telecom network.. Telecommunication switching systems and. Viswanathan pdf networks by t switching.. Data Communication and Computer Network.

Network Applications Computer systems and peripherals are connected to. Fiber Optic Communication. How are switching systems classified? In what way is stored program control superior to hard-wired control?

Ans: Switching systems are classified as follows: 1. New facilities can be added to SPC program by changing control parameters but it is virtually impossible to modify the hard-wired subsystems to provide new functionalities. Hard-wired subsystems have limited capacity, but SPC has higher capacity. In SPC control functions are performed by the computer or processor rather than hardware. Estimate the bandwidth requirements of a single satellite that is to support 20 million telephone conversations simultaneously.

Ans: Each telephone conversation takes 64 kbps bandwidth. An electrical communication system uses a channel that has 20 dB loss. Estimatethe received power if transmitted power is 1 watt. If the signal input to an amplifier is 0 dBm, what is the power output in mW if the gain of the amplifier is 20 dB?

The channel interfaces in a point-to-point communication system attenuate the signal by 3 dB each. The channel has a loss of 30 dB.

If the received signal is to be amplified such that the overall loss is limited to 20 dB, estimate the amplifier gain. If the noise power in a channel is 0. Ans: 0. What is the significance of SNR being -3 dB? For a carbon granule microphone, determine a suitable value for m, if the contribution from each of the higher order terms is to be less than 0.

Ans: For each of the higher order terms is to be less than 0. What is the importance of a steady current flowing through a carbon microphone? Is the harmonic distortion affected by a change in the energizing current?

Ans: The carbon granule microphone acts as a modulator of direct current I0 which is analogues to the carrier wave in AM systems. The quantity m is equivalent to the modulation index in AM. The higher order terms, represents harmonic distortions and hence it is essential that the value of m be kept sufficiently low.

Hence the flow of steady current through the microphone is essential and the current is known as energizing current. Why it is necessary to keep the magnetic diaphragm in an earphone displaced from its unstressed position?

How is this achieved?

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Ans: The voice frequency current in the microphone causes variations in the force exerted by the electromagnet, thus vibrating the diaphragm and producing sound waves. Faithful reproduction of the signals by the receiver requires that the magnetic diaphragm be displaced in one direction from its unstressed position. The quiescent current provides this bias. In some circuits, a permanent magnet is used to provide the necessary displacement instead of the quiescent current.

What is the significance of side tone in a telephone conversation?

Ans: The audio signal, heard at the generating end, is called sidetone. A certain amount of sidetone is useful, or even essential. Human speech and hearing system is a feedback system in which the volume of speech is automatically adjusted, based on the sidetone heard by the ear.

If no side tone is present, the person tends to shout, and if too much of side tone is present, there is a tendency to reduce the speech to a very low level. In the circuit of Fig. If the number of turns in the coil P is , determine the number of turns in the coil Q and the secondary winding in the earphone circuit. Assume that Zb is exactly matched to the line impedance on the exchange side. In a line folded network, how many switching elements are required for nonblocking operation?

A line exchange is partly folded and partly nonfolded. If the ratio of local to external traffic is , estimate the number of trunk lines required. A central battery exchange is powered with a 48 V battery. The carbon microphone requires a minimum of 24 mA as energizing current.

All resistances are in series. A manual switchboard system needs to support subscribers, numbered — Average peak hour traffic is calls. An operator is capable of handling 30 simultaneous calls. Suggest a suitable manual switchboard system design that minimizes the total number of terminations at the switchboards and employ the minimum number of operators.

Estimate the number of terminations in your design. Crossbar Switching 1. Numbering plan in a telephone network must be independent of call routing.

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Ans: Consider a multi exchange network as shown below: If a subscriber in exchange A wants to call a subscriber in exchange F, the call has to be routed via at least 3 exchanges and there are two routes possible. A-B-C-J-F and A-I-H-G-F And the outlets are assigned as sown below: Let be the subscriber to be called in exchange F and can be reached by calling the following numbers of sequence: Difficulties with this type of network are as follows; 1.

Identification number of a subscriber is route dependent. The user must have the knowledge of the topology of the network and outlet assignment in each exchange.

Depending upon from which exchange the call originates, the number and its size vary for the same called subscriber. These difficulties can be overcome by the following: 1. Let exchange the routing. Uniform numbering scheme as far as user is concerned.

A number with two parts: An exchange identifier and subscriber line identifier. Thus the numbering plan in a telephone network must be independent of call routing. What are the differences between common control and direct control? Common Control Direct Control Control subsystems are outside of switching system Control subsystems are integral part of switching system Ex.

Strowger exchange Ex. Stored program control Hard wired control subsystems Computer or processor control susbsystems Limited capability High capability Impossible to add new features Easy to add new features by changing control program 3. List 6 events that may occur in a telephone system and the corresponding actions to be taken by the common control system.

Ans: The six events are: 1. Event sensing 3. Register finding 4. Choosing appropriate register 5. Initial translator 6. Final translator The occurrence of events is signaled by operating relay which initiate control action. Line units handle the call request and call release signals. These line units themselves may initiate control actions on the occurrence of certain line events.

When a subscriber goes off hook, the event is sensed; the calling location is determined and marked for dial tone. The register finder is activated to seize a free register. Identity of the calling line is used to determine line category and the class of service to which the subscriber belongs.

A register appropriate to the line category is chosen, which then sends out the dial tone to the subscriber, in readiness to receive the dialing information. As soon as the initial digits usually are received in the register, they are passed on to the initial translator for processing.

The initial translator determines the route for the call through the network and decides whether a call should be put through or not.

It also determines the charging method and the rates applicable to the subscriber. Such decisions are based on the class of service information of the subscriber which specifies details such as the following: Call barring, Call priority, Call charging, Origin based routing, No dialing calls 6.

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If a call is destined to number in an exchange other than the present one processing the digits, the initial translator generates the required routing digits and passes them on to the register sender. Register sender uses appropriate signaling technique, depending on the requirements of the destination exchange.For a full duplex unidirectional links, total number of links required is: Human speech and hearing system is a feedback system in which the volume of speech is automatically adjusted, based on the sidetone heard by the ear.

Is the harmonic distortion affected by a change in the energizing current? No in this situation none of the vehicles have a chance to move either ways, thus deadlock occurs. Uniform numbering scheme as far as user is concerned. Determine the design parameters of a three-stage switch with inlet utilization of 0. Human speech and hearing system is a feedback system in which the volume of speech is automatically adjusted, based on the sidetone heard by the ear.

Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks by by Thiagarajan Viswanathan

The book gives a detailed discussion on topics such as fibre optic communication systems and networks, time division switching systems, data networks, isdn, and voice data integration schemes. Common Control Direct Control Control subsystems are outside of switching system Control subsystems are integral part of switching system Ex. Procedure: It is a part of the code written in a larger program which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code.

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