SURGERY MNEMONICS PDF
MNEMONICS AND TACTICS IN SURGERY AND MEDICINE Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below to. Print Friendly, PDF & Email. General Surgery Mnemonics. The best gen surgery mnemonics for medical student finals, OSCEs and MRCP. 7. ENDOCRINOLOGY. 8. ETHICS. 9. GASTROENTEROLOGY. GENERAL SURGERY. GYNECOLOGY. HEMEATOLOGY.
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Memory and Medical Mnemonics Rise and Fall of Mnemonics . Surgery. Malignancy. Autoimmune. Scorpion sting. Hypercalcemia. ERCP. Rapid Series Mnemonic in list 1. The surgical procedures follow the six subheadings in list 2. We hope that this textbook will consolidate your personal and. Name, Posted by, Posted on, Rating, Views. treatment in soft-tissue injuries, avijit69, Feb, , "TESTIS", DEEPAKMB, Sep, ,
Common mnemonics for mbbs final year pdf
Orthopaedics 7. Miscellaneous Index show more. Rating details.
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Ankle Block – Landmarks and Nerve Stimulator Technique
Reported to be the second most common cause of mortality. Acronym utilized as a mnemonic device. Items 1 - 30 of Add to Cart.
Add to Wishlist Add to Compare. PDF version print quality. Patients who underwent CT evaluation were included in the final analysis. In fact, a common surgical treatment for ptosis involves shortening the levator tendon to open up the eye. Ill be using this mnemonicmetaphore many times throughout this book to. Publishing Year, This book some key features are: i Molecular basis of common hematological disorders.
In order of decreasing importance the eight best predicting factors proved to be: Localized tenderness on the right lower quadrant, leukocytosis, migration of pain, shift to the left, temperature elevation, nausea and vomiting, anorexia or acetone in the urine and direct rebound pain. I assigned a value of 2 to each of the two of the more important factors tenderness and leukocytosis , and a value of 1 to each one of the others, for a possible total score of A score of 5 or 6 is compatible with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, a score of 7 or 8 indicates a probable appendicitis, and a score of 9 or 10 indicates a very probable appendicitis.
To this score the clinician could subtract 2 points if the patient complains of headache because this symptom is very rare in cases of acute appendicitis. In this particular situation the patient may need further investigation to rule out a different disorder.
When the score is three or four, the clinician has two options: This could represent a very early stage of an acute appendicitis so the clinician could keep the patient under observation and repeat the tests, or even more, order additional tests such as an US or CT scan if they are available in that particular setting.
If the score remains the same or increases after this evaluation, the patient may need surgery. As we can see the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is a dynamic process that go hand to hand with the pathological changes of the disease. As we all know, medicine is a combination of science and art, both of them equally important in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, so we cannot discard one of them in favor of the other.
It is for this reason that we cannot depend on the technological advances only but we should use our common sense and clinical experience to arrive to a correct diagnosis. When you get to seven, the probability of appendicitis raises dramatically so you may want to operate especially if the patient is a young male. If the patient is a woman, additional investigations may be required to rule out gynecological disorders.
This particular situation was validated in a meta-analysis study of adult and pediatric patients which proved that an Alvarado score below four to five rules out the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children, and in adults, an Alvarado score of eight to nine or higher rules in the diagnosis.
The Pediatric Appendicitis Score PAS did not identify clinically useful low- or high-risk groups at typical pretest probabilities [ 8 ]. Then, several hours later, there is an increase of the whole number of leucocytes and you will find a leukocytosis of more than A urinalysis is useful to determine if there is acetone which indicates a fasting state related to anorexia, and also it may show a few red blood cells due to an inflammatory process around the appendix.
If the urine shows too many red cells it may point to a ureteral calculus and further investigation should be done.
The C-reactive protein test is not enclosed in my score because it is a non-specific test that detects an inflammatory process only and is not diagnostic for any particular condition. Besides this, it would be a redundancy because the shift to the left and leukocytosis are doing the same thing.
Diagnostic laparoscopy Diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis is recommended for young women, the elderly, or other patients with unclear pathology because of its broader diagnostic ability and for obese patients due to its improved technical use.
In other study [ 10 ], using the LAPP score the authors found that this score has a high positive and negative predictive value so it can be used by surgeons to evaluate the appendix during diagnostic laparoscopy.
Ultrasonography Ultrasound is a widely used technique in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, however its utilization still remains controversial.
In another study [ 12 ], radiologist-operated ultrasound had inferior sensitivity and inferior positive predictive values when compared with a CT scan, though it was significant faster to perform, and avoided the administration of contras materials. In another study, [ 13 ] it was found that clinical evaluation is still paramount to the management of patients with suspected acute appendicitis before considering medical imaging like ultrasonography and computed tomography.
Nevertheless, in cases of clinical doubt, ultrasonography may improve the diagnosis and reduces the negative laparotomy rate, and can also be helpful in detecting peri-appendicular abscesses or gynecological diseases [ 14 ].
Computed tomography Now these days, routine use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is highly controversial due to concerns related to the hazards of ionizing radiation and also about its overutilization in clear-cut clinical presentations. The use of CT scans of the abdomen exposes the patients to high doses of radiation which may be the equivalent of chest X rays [ 15 ], and this certainly will increase the risk for development of cancer or leukemia.
One study suggested that a large proportion of patients who undergo abdominal and pelvic CT scanning receive medically unnecessary multiphase examinations, resulting in substantial excessive radiation exposal. Approximately 3 million scans were performed annually in the United States in , and by , that number had grown to 67 million [ 16 ].
This study suggested that a large proportion of patients undergoing abdominal and pelvic CT scanning receive unindicated additional phases that add substantial excess radiation dose with no associated clinical benefit. In another study [ 19 ], it was found that neither CT nor US improves the diagnostic accuracy or the negative appendectomy rate, in fact, they may delay surgical consultation and appendectomy.
Mnemonics for Surgery
In atypical cases, one should consider the selective use of diagnostic laparoscopy instead. In a study using the Alvarado score to decide the need to perform a CT scan in cases of suspected acute appendicitis in an ED setting [ 20 ], it was found that with a score of 4 to 6 an adjunctive CT scan would be recommended to confirm the diagnosis. If the Alvarado score is 7 or higher, a surgical consultation should be obtained.
A computed tomography would not be necessary in patients with an Alvarado score of three or lower.
Recently, a prospective comparison of the Alvarado score and CT scan in the evaluation of suspected appendicitis [ 21 ] revealed that CT scans are unnecessary in those patients with an AS of 9 and 10 and recommended that an evaluation by CT scan is of value mainly in patients with an Alvarado score of six or less in males, and eight or less in females. Unenhanced MRI Unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in a group of 85 patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis [ 22 ] and the results were similar to the Alvarado score but with a lower Sensitivity and lower Negative Predictive Value.
However, this test could increase the diagnostic accuracy but it is not available in many hospital settings.
This approach is applicable in a great number of developing countries where the technical and economical resources are scarce, but in most of the western and developed countries laparoscopic appendectomy has become the Gold Standard of treatment.CT scan in patients with suspected appendicitis: clinical implications for the acute care surgeon.
Accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in adult patients: review of the literature.
A 69 year old lady has been referred to clinic with a history. Maxm round Maxillary nerve passes through fossa, fissure and foramen Foramen Foramen rotundum Fissure inferior orbital fissure Fossa pterygopalatine fossa Mnemonic: Intrinsic pathway Mnemonic: Preferred in adults. However, it is often a perplexing problem especially during the early stages of the disease that in some cases could delay the diagnosis and could contribute to the persistent rate of morbidity and mortality.
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