REVISTA GLOBO RURAL PDF
Editora Globo S.A. (Globo Editors) is a Brazilian publishing house, property of Fundação Globo Rural · Marie Claire · Pequenas Empresas & Grandes Negócios · Quem · Revista Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Issue Cover Globo Rural Dezembro de O super frango. Globo Rural Dezembro de Subscribe. You may be required to install the. Src.: Revista Globo Rural. AGROCONSULT ESTIMATES SOYABEAN HARVEST AT. MILLION TONS. Brazil should harvest million.
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Fact Sheet: Second pillar of the CAP: Rural development policy. Tackling climate change through livestock. myavr.info FAO, 29 December. myavr.info /12/. Src.: Revista Globo Rural. SOYABEAN PRICES REMAIN SUSTAINED IN BRAZIL . Soyabean prices in the Brazilian market have been. 13/12/ Como fazer o carneiro hidráulico - Globo Rural | Vida na Fazenda. myavr.info myavr.info 4/15 . myavr.info Uploaded by.
Campos Fernandes Filho, J. These contributions are significant to the Brazilian agricultural establishment and most importantly to what is known as family agriculture. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate by analyzing available information pertinent to rural cottage industry, in other words rural activity that is not agricultural.
This exploratory study has shown that activities pertaining to rural cottage industry are important in supplying the internal market when some products that are clearly present on the agricultural production units, specifically those relying on family production.
It should also be noted that on the average, these activities create jobs and income for the families involved and provides significantly higher income than activities in traditional agriculture. The data show that stimulating rural cottage industry can contribute significantly in developing the Brazilian rural area.
Key words: Brazil; rural cottage industry; rural area development. I - Introduction In recent years, rural areas have felt the impact of structural changes in the economy primarily related to the process of incipient free trade agreement and the economic integration of South American countries Mercosul. This decline in the price of agricultural goods has in turn affected the income of production units, specifically family based units, thus worsening the crisis in the area 1.
This crisis can also be linked to economic stability occurring between July and January , leading to a discernible enhancement of the exchange rates. This resulted in price reductions of imported goods in the internal market, increased interest rates and increased production costs.
The subsequent decrease of the conditions of sustainability of these production units, caused by their diminished revenue 2 , is another facet of this crisis. Researchers studying the issue of development, segments of civil society and different levels of government are looking for ways in which to assist in the recovery of sustainability of these family units.
One alternative proposed is to stimulate the development of rural non agricultural activities in these production units by encouraging activities such as improvement and transformation of traditional agriculture also known as rural cottage industry.
The discussion will also include an analysis of the ways in which support for this industry will affect overall development of the country. It should also be made clear that this study in discussing the importance and the role of rural cottage industry, will also contribute to the debate on development of rural areas of the country in that this issue is rarely brought into question in the Brazilian literature that discusses the problem of rural development.
To begin this analysis it will be cogent to study the relationship that exists in the literature in terms of rural development and capitalism in agriculture. Subsequently, an analysis will be carried out of the relationship between rural industry and the rural area, specifically family based production units, present in the literature and in development programs implemented by official structure.
Based on the available data, the analysis will examine the recent development in rural cottage industry in Brazil, indicating the main products and their importance in generating financial resources, regional and statewide distribution and their importance in supplying markets.
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The IBGE defines rural industry as being " The concept of rural industry as proposed by authors such as Marx , Kautsky and Lenin is more comprehensive than the definition used in this paper.
These authors understand rural industry as encompassing all manufacturing activities carried out in rural production units and subsequently, with the process of social division of labor intensified, these activities became part of the activities carried out in cities.
Marx , suggests that the destruction of natural rural economy and consequently its economy began with the agricultural revolution -in the last quarter of the XVth century and most of the XVIth - and is completed when the of the capitalist mode of production is introduced.
The destruction of rural industry resulted in the separation of city and rural areas - manufacturing processes were developed in cities and only activities pertaining to plant and animal production remained in the rural areas. Thus, the separation between agriculture and manufacturing occurs. This separation, therefore, begins with the manufacturing process and is completed with capital production.
It is thus possible to say that when capitalism is introduced in agriculture, it lead to the destruction of rural industry. Silva a , in his analysis of the process of development of capitalism in Brazilian agriculture, suggests that in this case also, this process brought about the separation of cities and the rural areas, given the continuous dislocation of manufacturing activity.
Previously, these activities were hand made in the agricultural production units that were part of rural areas and subsequently sent to the cities. In addition, this author points out that the development of capitalism in Brazilian agriculture was slow.
Thus, the development of capitalism in Brazilian agriculture also contributed to the destruction of rural industry as understood by the classical authors. Nonetheless, in Brazil, the development of capitalism in Brazilian agriculture cannot be seen as developing on the same magnitude and intensity as proposed by Marx , in that rural industry and its related activities were not completely destroyed, particularly those activities that transformed and improved the quality of plant and animal derivatives.
It is relevant to note that even today in many rural areas of the country, as the data analyzed will show, there is still a significant rural industry in terms of the number of agricultural production units that develop these activities as well as the furnishing employment and income to the local population.
III - Rural Industry and Rural Development in Brazil In recent years, Abramovay , Campos, Fernandes Filho and Oliveira , Carneiro , Carvalho , Centeno , Graziano da Silva , Navarro and Wilkinson , have pointed out the role that non agricultural development activities such as crafts, rural tourism, rural industry, have in the development of rural areas in Brazil. Graziano da Silva , for example, notes that non agricultural activities are relevant in the dynamics of rural employment.
Thus, the expansion of rural employment cannot be explained simply by the expansion of traditional activities carried out in rural areas.
The authors mentioned above suggest that the rural area is no longer defined exclusively by agricultural activity. Most rural producers can no longer be defined as farmers or cattlemen in that more and more they seek to complement and diversify their income by working with agricultural and non agricultural activities, the latter demonstrating a significant degree of dynamism.
The quest, on the part of farmers, to develop non agricultural activities in rural areas can be explained by the crises of reduced profits that traditional agriculture is facing. This crisis has contributed to a significant reduction in employment in rural areas as well as reduction of the area cultivated. On the other hand, the development of these non agricultural activities is enhanced by the fact that in many regions of the country farming no longer requires intensive manual labor and also in that technology has been incorporated into the productive process.
Thus, more time can be dedicated by the farmer and family to the development of non agricultural related activities Campos, Fernandes Filho and Oliveira, Another factor that enhances the development of non agricultural activity is the seasonal nature of production.
Because of its specific nature, an important characteristic in assisting rural industry is that it is a non agricultural activity which is influential in developing rural areas.
In providing assistance for these activities also provides a stimulus for traditional farming practices such as milk production, raising sugar cane, manioc, fruit, corn production and raising hogs, in that the value of these products will be significantly increased and modified by rural industry.
Maluf and Bilbao , suggest that an important aspect of these activities of increasing the value and modifying these products is that generally work techniques are uncomplicated and intensive. By this it is meant that manual dexterity and knowledge of the product are essential elements in developing these activities. Vieira , stresses the fact that technology used in the production of these goods is provided by members of the producers family.
Thus, in addition to creating jobs and income, the knowledge of these producers contributes in improving self-esteem and enhancing the rural area. Vieira , suggests that the producer is motivated to develop activities linked to rural industry. This author points out that rural industry uses the surplus goods that are not absorbed by traditional markets in that at times these goods are not up to the standards required by the market or do not meet quality control requirements.
Another factor is that by increasing the value of surplus goods the farmer is able to withstand price fluctuation of farm products. Vieira, nonetheless, emphasizes that in general farmers pay little or no attention to quality, packaging or marketing their product. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from September All stub articles.
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These products are present in Some activities presented on the Census list will be excluded from the analysis and this list will be analyzed with the intent to establish the number farms that are involved in rural industry. Census data, however, do not make it possible to calculate percentages in that the data provided do not discriminate among establishments that are involved in only one cottage industry and those that are involved in more than one activity.
It is clear that the percentages will, at the very least, be similar to percentages obtained for manioc flour It may be possible to obtain an approximation of the percentage by using the formula for weighted average,by determining the activity with the highest percentage of these activities in each state. In other words, taking into account farms with the largest production for each state and weighting these percentages by the total number of establishments in the state, based on the formula below.
Weighted average. Using the above formula it is possible to note that activities linked to rural industry are present in at least This percentage approximates the observation made when all the activities listed in the census, It is relevant to point out that even though a given activity is not specifically represented at the national level it does not imply that it may not exist at a regional, state or even within regions of a given state, thus making it possible and relevant in providing income and jobs in that specific area of the country.
An analysis of regional spatial distribution of rural industrial activity cottage industry of larger regions, indicates that products of the cottage industry are not uniformly present in larger regions or among the States. Exceptions are cheese and cream cheese, manioc flour and refined manioc flour.
These products are present in almost every State. The distribution, however, is not uniform either among States or within the individual States. Research conducted in the State of Minas Gerais and that does not appear in the data, shows high individual percentages for the existence of cottage industries. Within this type of activity - the largest is the production of cheese and cream cheese at Data indicate that farms providing information and that were actively involved in rural industry are also clustered in mid regions of the North of Minas Gerais and Jequitinhonha valley.
In these regions, agro-environmental conditions are not amenable to traditional agriculture such as raising corn, rice and beans and these areas also present the lowest levels of development Campos, Fernandes Filho and Oliveira, In this context, support for rural non agricultural activities is perhaps the only alternative. Thus, even in States that have a low level of concentration of activity in this area, specific regions may show significant levels of these activities.
In terms of the larger regions, almost all present index of rural industry in the farms participating in the census, with percentages above 10 percent.
In the North for example, manioc flour showed a production of In the Northeast, An exception to this trend is to be found in the southeast where cheese and cream cheese at 8. Proceeding with the regional analysis it is possible to state that the region which presents the least diversity of rural agricultural products is the North and the region that presents the greatest variety of products is the South.
Nonetheless, there is enormous wealth in terms of alternative activities related to rural industry and these activities would benefit from development policies aimed at rural areas. At State levels the data indicate that most States have at least one rural agricultural industry at or above 10 percent and nine States present levels of 20 percent.
The existence of these activities in agricultural establishments was analyzed in the previous section. Manioc flour 1, In terms of the worth of the revenue, the principal products are: Thus, either in terms of quantity of production, in terms of revenue, or in terms of the worth of production the numbers obtained from rural agricultural production are significant.
The analysis calculates the average contribution of the rural agricultural activities to the income of the establishment. The following procedures were adopted in order to calculate revenue from these activities. Given that the interest of this research is to see the potential of these activities particularly in terms of development of the weakest agricultural sectors and consequently these were the ones most affected by the current crisis in agriculture - the analysis will be limited to establishments of up to hectares.
In general, the products of rural agricultural industry that contributed to the income of farm families are those with the largest percentage of produce marketed.
To give a better idea of the importance of these activities in generating revenue for these establishments a comparison will be made between the revenue from the cottage industry and traditional agriculture. Only farms of up to hectares will be considered.
REVISTA GLOBO RURAL EM PDF
Table 1 also presents column 6 , the market to which the production will be sent. It is possible to note that of the 41 products listed, 21 will be commercialized in domestic markets and the domestic market is important for a major part of rural industry.
In terms supplying the internal market an analysis of the data indicate that rural industry makes an important contribution. Other products such as raw brown sugar and tobacco the percentages tend to be higher but it was not possible to make an estimate due to the lack of information in terms of the total quantity of these products produced and consumed nationally. So as to have an idea of the economic importance of these products, an estimate was calculated of the percentages of two unprocessed goods that were processed in the rural cottage industry Thus, it is clear that support of rural industry also implies support of traditional agriculture and creates jobs and income.
In sum, the economic importance of activities linked to rural industry is significant in terms of the total quantity produced, its contribution to family income, the percentage of unprocessed goods that is processed, the percentage of the market that is supplied by rural cottage industry. However, it should be noted that the importance of this industry will vary from region to region.
The importance of activities related to rural cottage industry in terms of its social relevance is, for example, resides in the fact that this industry generates direct and indirect jobs in rural areas.
In addition, only unprocessed goods destined to be marketed were included in the account. It was impossible to obtain an estimate as to the number of jobs created in activities related to processing agricultural products due to the lack of guidelines.
Perhaps with the exception of milk, corn, leather, beef and pork, that are processed the year round, it is possible to state that other unprocessed agricultural products are processed at certain times of the year.
Harvesting sugar cane and cassava, for example, can only be accomplished during the dry season, when the requirements of workers who participate in the harvest of traditional crops, such as corn, beans and rice, are significantly less. This occurs because many of these activities, such as preserves, cheese, leather, do not occupy all members of the families involved all the time, making it possible to accomplish other jobs as well, in the course of a day.
Therefore, what characterizes rural agricultural industry as being labor intensive, is not negative but is an indicator of the contribution that it can make in terms of creating jobs in these establishments.
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This is an important contribution to making these production units social and economically viable. It indicated for example that there is a significant contribution of rural agricultural industry in creating jobs and income in agricultural establishments of up to hectares. There is also evidence that these establishments absorb unprocessed goods produced by these farms and supply internal markets with several products.
This indicates that although there was reduction of establishments that gave information in terms of the activities presented between and , rural cottage industry increased its importance in terms of creating jobs and income in agriculture. Thus, the study shows that in Brazilian agricultural establishments there are many instances in which the development of activities related to processing of agricultural products, designed to increase the value of these products, that could be given incentives with the intention of developing rural areas.This work presents the shapes, types, classes and the discourse of advertising in the magazine that contribute for representations of the rural world built by its ads.
Within this type of activity - the largest is the production of cheese and cream cheese at In , the economic approach was also the most frequent, with However, it should be noted that the importance of this industry will vary from region to region. Therefore, advertising profits decreased and only big advertisers divulged.
Thus, either in terms of quantity of production, in terms of revenue, or in terms of the worth of production the numbers obtained from rural agricultural production are significant. Our books are released in print and digital formats. Urethanes are antenatally entangling withe unemphatic disenchantment.