Biography Real Estate Valuation Pdf


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PDF | The valuation of real estate is a central tenet for all businesses. Land and property are factors of production and, as with any other asset. PDF | Although people often talk as if theory and practice are This grounds real estate valuation more firmly in modern economics and. suring real estate price risk is the valuation of residential real estate assets. standard normal p.d.f. and the explanatory variables are set to fixed values.

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research-backed theory of valuation, that is one that explains the .. research that links neoclassical economic theory with real estate valuations, (Lancaster. Real estate is a unique asset whose valuation is critical to its management and It is suggested that the optimal value of a property or a real estate equates. Theory for Real Estate Valuation: An Alternative. Way to Teach Real Estate Price Estimation Methods. Max Kummerow. Department of Property Studies.

In this document, which is addressed to the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament, the Commission proposes that all listed EU companies prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with IAS International Accounting Standards at the latest in The standards to be applied by listed companies will be introduced into the European legal environment through an endorsement mechanism to be set up at EU level.

Real estate valuers in Estonia have used mostly International Valuation Standards as they have been translated into Estonian. The main aim of this non- profit organization is to coordinate and develop the activities of real estate valuers.

The main activities of the Association are the following: Organizing different types of training session for valuers courses, seminars, discussions etc. Participating in the development of real estate legislation in Estonia. Translation and promotion of the International and European Valuation Standards.

Cooperation with related professional associations in Estonia. Advising the development of university course programmes in the field of real estate.

Preparing the certification system of Real Estate Valuers.

Real Estate Market Valuation and Analysis.pdf

Implementation of certification and control over the activities of the certified valuers through committees approved by association. Participate in developing real estate related curricula and course programmes that would be mutually recognized on the international level in co-operation with TEGoVA education committee.

As of 1. The fact that the majority of real estate valuers in Estonia have joined this association provides an important precondition for the successful development of real estate valuation activities in Estonia. The aim of common standard-setting is to provide clients with the creadible measure of competence and professionalism so as to provide confidence that valuations are prepared by individuals who have achieved defined levels of knowledge, skills and understanding. In the TEGoVA members decided that valuer certification in accordance with Euro norm was the appropriate system to reduce the lack of transparency that characterises the market in which European real estate valuers operate.

Additional requirement sets that the accreditation body must be a member of the Multilateral Agreement Certification EA. Certification examination - a written examination of at least 4 hours during which at least one complete valuation is being prepared - an oral examination of at least 30 minutes 3.

Examination curriculum must cover a specified list of subjects. The certification body must oblige its certified valuers to observe and comply with professional ethics that must cover the following - valuers are obliged to treat all documents and information with discretion and use the information exclusively for the valuation that is being prepared - valuers are obliged to prepare valuations in an unbiased and objective manner to the best of their knowledge and belief - valuers must be impartial and independent in their valuations - valuers are obliged to accept only those instructions for which they have the required technical skills, competence, and experience.

Obligation to undergo continual professional development - 3 days 21 hours per year 6. Maximum validity of issued certificates - 5 years.

Brussels, In Estonia real estate valuers may obtain two types of certificates: As of 52 real estate valuers have received certificates in Estonia, among them 23 general valuers and 29 residential property valuers. The importance of valuers with general certificate among the total number of valuers is low in Estonia. Standard-setting in European education. Harmonization of different education systems in Europe. Client protection guarantee with high quality valuation standards.

Preparation of valuers for cross-boarder valuation. Conclusions The harmonization of real estate valuation must be carried out in co-operation with international valuation organizations. This is to be achieved by establishing common valuation standards, harmonized and mutually recognized educational programmes and a common certification system of valuers.

The activities of IVSC involve only the harmonization of valuation standards. References 1.

Real Estate Market Valuation and Analysis.pdf

Adair, A. European Valuation Practice: Theory and Tecniques. Downie, M. European Valuation Standards. Materials of international conference. Hordijk, A.

Will investors standardize appraisal practices in the European Union? Pan European Certification of Valuers.

Once the legally permitted uses are understood, the physically possible uses are then considered, within the bounds of the zoning ordinances. This takes into account the physical limitations of the property such as topography, size, layout, etc. Finally, the financial feasibility is considered for all of the uses that are legally permissible and physically possible. The financially feasible use that produces the highest financial return is the highest and best use.

Once the highest an best use is determined, the appraiser can then determine market value. Appraisers may use three basic approaches to estimate market value: the sales comparison approach, the cost approach, and the income approach, using either the Direct Capitalization Method or the Discounted Cash Flow Model.

Sales Comparison Approach The sales comparison approach links the value of a property to prices that recent buyers have paid for similar properties. In reality no two properties are exactly alike, but this approach can provide a reasonable estimation of value when there is a large quantity of recently sold comparable transactions.

Income Capitalization Approach The income based approach to market value derives property value from the income it produces. The two methods used to value a property based on income are the direct capitalization method and the discounted cash flow valuation method. Cost Approach The cost approach bases value on the cost of reproducing a property, less any accrued depreciation.

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Accrued depreciation can come from three sources: physical deterioration, functional obsolescence, and external obsolescence. Once the replacement cost is determined and the accrued depreciation is netted out, the cost is added to the value of the land to determined an appropriate value based on cost. Reconciliation of Value In a full appraisal the above values are typically reconciled by using a weighted average to determine the final value estimate.

For example, it may be determined that a higher weight should be given to the income approach because the available comparable sales data is weak, and as such this would be reflected in the final reconciled market value.

Approaches to Investment Value While the market value process is usually used in appraisals for loan underwriting purposes, when deciding how much to pay for a property, investors also consider how much a property is worth. As such, different investors can apply the same valuation methods and still come up with different investment values.

Investors can choose from a variety of valuation methods when determining investment value, unlike appraisers who have to adhere to strict procedural guidelines. The following are the most common measures of investment value: Comparable Sales Comps — This is the same sales comparison approach mentioned above that is used by appraisers.

Typically investors will compare similar properties on a per square foot or per unit basis. Gross Rent Multiplier — This is a simple ratio that measures investment value by multiplying the gross rents a property produces in a year by the market based Gross Rent Multiplier GRM. The gross rent multiplier is usually derived from comparable properties within the same submarket.

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Cash on Cash Return — The cash on cash return is another simple ratio used to determine investment value. Capitalizing the income stream of a property is a very common and simple way to determine both market and investment value for a commercial property. While the simple ratios above are quick and easy, they do come with several built-in limitation that are solved by a discounted cash flow analysis. In other words, this is an above market transaction where the investment value is higher than the market value.

Does it still make sense to do the deal? So, does it make sense to do the deal?Since comparable sales are not identical to the subject property, adjustments may be made for date of sale, location, style, amenities, square footage, site size, etc. You will need to make adjustments for the differences if any.

The activities of IVSC involve only the harmonization of valuation standards. This is an important point to remember when trying to understand the value of a commercial real estate property.

An exception to the general rule of using the replacement cost is for some insurance value appraisals. They might be right, but as the saying goes, trust but verify. Overview of valuation organizations and their role as valuation standard setters Several international associations have been formed with various objectives, including stan- dardizing concepts and definition of value, setting international practice standards and improving communication across borders.

In these cases think carefully before getting distracted by something that might not make sense. Their relative importance varies from one country to another and from time to time.

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