ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BASICS PDF
PDF | On Nov 26, , Sana Jamshaid and others published Basic concepts of Organic Chemistry. separate branch of chemistry called organic chemistry. This unit incorporates some basic principles and techniques of analysis required for understanding the. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon with the exception of simple.
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Basic Concepts from Organic Chemistry (PDF p). This note covers the following topics: Aliphatic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, Aldehydes And . Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, second edition. Roberts PDF (Chapter 1 ) - Published Version PDF (Chapter 2) - Published Version. N o period in the history of organic chemistry has been as dynamic and produc simple short text can suffice, any more than the old-fashioned grocery store can.
Word Root for Carbon Chain www. Select the principal functional group from the preference series : Functional group other than the principal functional group are called substituents. Rule 3. Naming the prefixes and suffixes Prefix represents the substituent and suffix is used for principal functional group.
Primary prefixes are cycle, bicycle, di, tri, tetra, tries.
Secondary prefixes are tabulated below : www. Secondary suffixes are tabulated below : Hence. Homolytic Fission In this, one of the electrons of the shared pair in a covalent bond goes with each of the bonded atoms.
The neutral chemical species thus formed, is called free radical. Generally, homolytic fission takes place in non-polar, covalent molecules in the presence of sunlight or high temperature. Free radicals are highly reactive.
Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, second edition
Heterolytic Fission In this, the bond breaks in such a fashion that the shared pair of electrons goes with one of the fragments. Heterolytic fission generally takes place in polar covalent molecules but in non-polar molecules, it takes place in the presence of catalyst like AiCI3 anhy.
Attacking Reagent These are of two types : 1. Electrophiles or Electrophilic Reagents These are electron deficient species i. The following species behave as electrophiles : i All non-metal cations and metal cations which have vacant d- orbitals. Nucleophiles or Nucleophilic Reagents These are electron rich species i. These attack at electron deficient area. The following species behave as nucleophiles : www. Organic compounds containing a multiple bond between carbon and a more electronegative atom can act as amphiphiles, e.
These are short lived and highly reactive.
Free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes are important reactions intermediates. These are the product of homolysis and contain an odd electron. These are highly reactive planar species with Sp2 hybridisation.
Their order of stability is www.
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Carbocations These are the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing positive charge. These are electron deficient species.
Carbocations contain six electrons in the valence shell. These are also planar chemical species i. Carbanions These are also the product of heterolysis and contain a carbon bearing negative charge and 8 electrons in its valence shell These have pyramidal shape with Sp3 hybridised carbon having one lone pair The order of stability of carbanions is 4.
Carbenes These are divalent carbon species having two non-bonding electrons along WIth two bond pairs. These are obtained by photolysis or pyrolysis. These are of two types: i Singlet carbene In it, the C-atom is Sp2 hybridised. Then Hybridised orbitals contain no electrons and a hybridised orbital contains two electrons : Singlet carbene has bent structure and is less stable than triplet carbene. The order of stability of singlet carbenes is ii Triplet carbene In it, the central C-atom is sp-hybridised.
The sp hybridised orbitals contain 1 electron each. Triplet carbene has linear geometry. Nitrene These are neutral monovalent nitrogen species in which N atom has two unshared pair of electrons with a monovalent atom or group attached. Arynes It contains a formal carbon-carbon triple bond in aromatic molecule. The additional bond is formed between two neighbouring C-atoms by sideways overlapping of two Sp2orbitals.
The new bond lies along with side of the ring and has little interaction with the 1t electron cloud lying above and below the ring.
The sideways overlapping is weak and thus, makes the benzene more reactive. Inductive Effect It is just like shifting of shared pair of electrons in polar covalent molecules.
If shared pair is more shifted towards the more electronegative atom, the less electronegative atom acquires slight positive charge and more electronegative atom acquires partial negative charge, e.
Atoms or groups having greater electron affinity than hydrogen. Order of groups producing I effect is www. Reactivity of carbonyl compound is increased by I showing groups.
Electromeric Effect It is defined as the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as a reagent approaches it. In the presence of attacking reagent, the two electrons are completely transferred to any of the one atom.
This effect is temporary. This effect is also called no bond formation or Baker Nathan effect. Applications of Hyperconjugation i Stability of alkenes More the number of a-hydrogen atoms, more stable is the alkene.
Resonance Effect When all the properties of a molecule cannot be shown by a single structure and two or more structures are required to show all the properties of that molecule, then the structures are called resonating structures or canonical forms and the molecule is referred as resonance hybrid.
This phenomenon is called resonance. The arrangement of atoms must be identical in all the formulae. The energy content of all the canonical forms must be nearly same. Each canonical form must have the same number of unpaired electrons.
It involves delocalisation of 1t electrons. They activate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic SUbstitution reactions except halogens.
Halogens slightly deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. More the E. Negative Resonance Effect -R Electron withdrawing groups with respect to conjugate system show R effect.
Central atom of functional groups should be less electronegative than surrounding atoms or groups to show R effect. Electron withdrawing group E. They deactivate the benzene ring towards the electrophilic substitution reaction. G, more is the acidic nature. Number of bonds contributing structures resonance energy stability.
Stability of Canonical Forms It can be judged by the following rules : 1. Non-polar structure is more stable than the polar structure. Among polar structures, structure with maximum number of covalent bonds is most stable. The structure with maximum charge separation is more stable. Structure with positive charge on more electropositive element and negative charge on more electronegative element is more stable. There are two main types of isomerism i. Structural Isomerism In this type of isomerism, compounds have same molecular formula but different structures.
It can further be of following types: i Chain Isomerism It arises when two or more compounds have similar molecular formula but different carbon skeletons, e.
Stereoisomerism The compounds having same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of atoms or groups are called stereoisomers and the phenomenon is called stereoisomerism.
Stereoisomerism is of three types : optical isomerism, geometrical isomerism and conformations. Compounds having similar physical and chemical properties but.
Generally asymmetric or chiral compounds show optical isomerism Chiral compounds are those which contain chiral centre i. Instead, we intend to provide a broad enough range of topics to accommodate almost any desired emphasis or approach to the subject. More on our objectives with regard to different possible approaches to the study of organic chemistry is given in the latter part of Section p.
This book makes a substantial break with tradition in the matter of organic nomenclature. It was difficult to decide to do this because changes in this area are very hard to achieve, perhaps for the reason that they threaten the viability of what already is published and, indeed, even our customary forms of verbal communication. One of the authors remembers vividly the protests of his thesis supervisor to the idea of acquiescing to the admonition of a manuscript reviewer who felt that "crotyl chloride" and "methylvinylcarbinyl chloride" represented just too much of a mixing of nomenclature systems for isomeric compounds.
Use of systematic nomenclature is a bit like energy conservation - we all recognize it is necessary, but we would just as soon the start be made after we are dead.
The phenomenal growth of organic chemistry during the past decade and the switch by the indexes of Chemical Abstracts to use much more systematic nomenclature suggests that the right time is now.
The approach we will take in this book to the nomenclature problem is described in more detail in Chapter 3 pp. As in the earlier edition, considerable attention is given to the application of the principles of thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, kinetics, and spectroscopy to understanding and correlating the myriad of seemingly unrelated facts of organic chemistry.
Much of this material could be appropriately categorized as belonging to a "Department of Fuller Explanation," and rightly so because it represents a real attempt to achieve a genuine understanding of difficult points of fact and theory.
Examples include rather detailed discussions of the properties of solvents, the differences between resonance and molecular-orbital treatments of valence, ionization strengths of acids, the origin of spin-spin splitting and kinetic effects in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, reaction mechanisms, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, peptide-sequence determinations and peptide syntheses, enzyme action, and reactions of transition-metal compounds. It will not be possible to cover many of these topics in the usual one-year course, but many options are possible, as well as opportunities for individual studies.
Many individuals contributed to the progress and content of this edition. Special thanks are due for the suggestions of the reviewers, in particular to Professor George E. Hall of Mount Holyoke College, who read and commented not only on the whole of the first draft but also a much-revised second draft.
Helpful suggestions also were received from Professors Robert E. Ireland, Robert G. Bergman, W. Kaiser of the University of Chicago, J. Guillet of the University of Toronto, and Dr. John Thirtle of Eastman Kodak.
Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles And Techniques Class 11 Notes - Chapter 12
The students at both Caltech and the University of California at Irvine participated in class-testing the first draft and contributed significantly to the final draft. We owe them much for their patience and helpful suggestions. Over the years, many teachers and students have taken time to send us their comments regarding the first edition, and many of these suggestions have been very helpful in preparing the second edition.
Also, we are indebted to our respective colleagues for providing the encouragement that makes an endeavor of this kind possible. The revised drafts were prepared in part while one of us was on leave at Stanford University and the other at the University of Hawaii.
We are very appreciative of the substantial assistance and hospitality provided by these universities. The manuscript and its interminable revisions were typed with skill and patience by Ms.It was difficult to decide to do this because changes in this area are very hard to achieve, perhaps for the reason that they threaten the viability of what already is published and, indeed, even our customary forms of verbal communication.
Organic Chemistry Info and Notes This note covers the following topics: Instead, we intend to provide a broad enough range of topics to accommodate almost any desired emphasis or approach to the subject.
Skills require practice, which requires doing practice problems. Carbenes These are divalent carbon species having two non-bonding electrons along WIth two bond pairs. Similar Books. Bergman, W. Generally, homolytic fission takes place in non-polar, covalent molecules in the presence of sunlight or high temperature. Biewer This note is designed to provide a unified overview of fundamental organic chemistry for science majors.
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