OPTICAL SYSTEM DESIGN FISCHER PDF
Tadic-Galeb has 30 years of experience as an Optical Systems Engineer with spe- Optical System. Design. Robert E. Fischer. CEO, OPTICS 1, Incorporated. Optical System. Design. Robert E. Fischer. CEO, OPTICS 1, Incorporated. Biljana Tadic-Galeb. Panavision. Paul R. Yoder. Consultant. With contributions by. Optical System Design, Second Edition. by: Robert Fischer, Biljana Tadic-Galeb, Paul Yoder. Abstract: This classic resource provides a clear, well-illustrated.
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[Robert E Fischer; Biljana Tadic-Galeb; Paul R Yoder, Jr.] -- "Honed for more than 20 years in an renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition Notes: Title from PDF title page (viewed Feb. Optical System Design, Second Edition [Robert F. Fischer] on myavr.info * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Publisher's Note: Products purchased from. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Robert Fischer is the president of Optics 1, Inc., and a past president of SPIE. Biljana Tadic-Galeb (Westlake Village, CA) is.
In the early stage of the design examples, we divide the aperture into 16 angles of different polar directions and we pick 7 pupil coordinates along each polar direction. After defining the location of the image plane and the effective focal length of the system, the ideal target points for the feature rays were calculated. Then, some structure constraints were established.
As shown in Figure 5b , the marked distances L1 to L4 have to be controlled to eliminate light obscuration or to avoid surface interference. Figure 5 Design process of Example 1. Full size image Next, the automated design process started using the initial planar system as the design input. The feature light rays were approximately redirected to their image points on the image plane in the system after the first CI process. However, this system was not yet ready for imaging because the image quality was far from the diffraction limit.
The system designed by the first CI process was taken as the first base system BaseS 1. In the following SFS steps, only the iteration process was repeated for each perturbed system. The construction process was not used.
In total, 14 SFS steps were used in the process. All seven DOFs were used in sequence in steps 1—7. However, the design result after step 7 was not good. Therefore, the above search process was repeated using the same seven DOFs for another round to find a satisfactory result, starting from BaseS 8, which means the same seven DOFs were used again in sequence from search steps 8 to Here, the result of search step 0 in Figure 5c denotes the result of BaseS 1.
The three mirrors used the fifth-order XY polynomial freeform surface in the early stage of the design and were then increased to sixth order in the later stage. A larger entrance pupil size was used during the early stage of the automated design process.
The HPIQ mode was activated during search steps 7— Figure 6a shows the final design result. Figure 6b shows the RMS wavefront error of the system. The maximum absolute distortion was The distortion grid is shown in Figure 6c.
These results show that the final system had a high performance. The total elapsed time for this design was 2. The final design data of Example 1 are given in Supplementary Information including the surface shape data and locations.
Figure 6 Final design result of Example 1. Full size image The initial planar system was extremely different from the final design result; thus, the traditional design process, which starts from a planar system, is very difficult. We tried to directly optimize this example in Code V starting from the same initial system with planes.
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To obtain a fair comparison, the structure constraints used in the optimization were the same as those used in the point-by-point design. The distortion was constrained using the real-ray-trace data of the chief rays. The variables were the curvatures, conic constants, all the coefficients of the sixth-order XY polynomials including only even items of x of the freeform surfaces, and the decenter and tilt values of all surfaces, including the image plane.
However, the optimization process both the standard and global optimization could hardly continue and was unable to export useful and effective solutions. Nevertheless, experienced designers may be able to achieve good or even better design results in less time using software optimization with other design strategies when starting from an initial planar system.
Optical system design
However, this approach requires considerable design experience. The point-by-point design framework proposed in this paper can realize the design of high-performance systems starting from simple planes. This strategy is different from the traditional design method based on the software optimization of surface coefficients, which start from a starting point with a certain optical power.
The dependence on existing starting points is significantly reduced. In addition, the proposed design process reduces the amount of human effort required and does not rely on advanced design skills and experience. The time duration of the proposed method can be further reduced by using advanced search or optimization methods and advanced programming techniques.
The second example is a freeform reflective system with a special spherical package. A similar system was first designed by Fuerschbach et al using software optimization based on Nodal Aberration Theory 6.
This is a very good and compact design result.
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The system works under the long-wave-infrared spectral band with a 30 mm entrance pupil diameter and an F-number of 1. First, an initial system using simple planes was established as the input for the design, as shown in Figure 7a. The secondary mirror M2 was taken as the aperture stop.
The method for sampling the rays was the same as that used in Example 1. The structure constraints used in this design are shown in Figure 7b. It should be noted that the constraints added in this example as well as in Example 1 were structure constraints, which were used to eliminate the light obscuration.
In fact, all kinds of constraints can be employed in the proposed automated design process. Figure 7 Design process of Example 2. Full size image Next, the automated design process was started. After the first CI process, the feature light rays were approximately redirected to their image points on the image plane in the system. This system was taken as the first base system BaseS 1.
Optical System Design
Only the iteration process was repeated for each perturbed system during the SFS process. In total, 20 search steps were used in the SFS process. All the useful DOFs were employed once in search steps 1— Search steps 11—20 represented a second search round that involved the same DOFs as used in steps 1—10 to find a satisfactory result. All the freeform surfaces used fourth-order XY polynomials in the entire design process. The HPIQ mode was activated during search steps 12— Figure 8a shows the final design result.
Figure 8b shows the RMS wavefront error of the system.
Figure 8c shows the distortion grid. The total elapsed time for this design was 3. This time duration can be further reduced by using advanced search or optimization methods and advanced programming techniques. From the two design examples, we can also see that the locations of the initial planes are not exactly the same as those of the final design, but the whole folding geometry type is the same.
Figure 8 Final design result of Example 2. Full size image Conclusions We demonstrate that the automated design of high-performance freeform imaging systems can be achieved by using a novel point-by-point design framework.
The freeform surfaces are not obtained via the traditional optimization of surface coefficients using optical design software. We instead use a point-by-point construction-iteration process. The entire design process is mostly automated and significantly reduces the amount of human effort.
The designers only need to provide the initial planar system based on the configuration requirements or their prior knowledge. In this way, the dependence on existing starting points is also significantly reduced.
Two design examples with high performance in the long-wave-infrared band are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design framework. This point-by-point design framework opens up new possibilities for automated optical design and may also be extended to optical design in many other areas.
To improve the design efficiency and generate better solutions, some other powerful techniques can be applied to the algorithm and the program, which are summarized as follows. Currently, the positions and tilts of the freeform surfaces are altered via a single-freedom-search SFS process to achieve better design results.
In fact, a search or optimization process using multiple degrees of freedom with smaller step sizes would be a better choice for generating good solutions. Therefore, advanced and fast optimization methods are needed. The Concept of Optical Path Difference 5.
Glass Selection Including Plastics 7. Spherical and Aspheric Surfaces 8. Design Forms 9. The Optical Design Process Computer Performance Evaluation Gaussian Beam Imagery Diffractive Optics Design of Illumination Systems Performance Evaluation and Optical Testing Fischer, Optical System Design , Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design.
This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision.
No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design , Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanical design, systems analysis, and stray-light suppression New chapter on polarization including lots of really useful information New and expanded chapter on diffractive optics Techniques for getting rid of geometrical aberrations Testing, tolerancing, and manufacturing guidance Intelligent use of aspheric surfaces in optical design Pointers on using off-the-shelf optics Basic optical principles and solutions for common and advanced design problems Architecture Nonfiction Publication Details Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education Imprint: McGraw-Hill Professional Edition:The final design data of Example 1 are given in Supplementary Information including the surface shape data and locations.
Robert Fischer Presentations Bob's technical interests are in optical system design and engineering, in particular lens design. He holds five patents with others pending. The second example is a freeform reflective system with a special spherical package. Here, the object—image relationships are primarily constrained by controlling the target points of the feature light rays using the point-by-point freeform surface design process, described in the following sections.
Figure 7 Design process of Example 2.
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