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MICROGRID SEMINAR REPORT PDF

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Microgrid Report - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering SEMINAR REPORT ON. Explore MicroGrid with Free Download of Seminar Report and PPT in PDF and DOC Format. Also Explore the Seminar Topics Paper on. This is a project report from the Power Systems Engineering Research Center ( PSERC). system to isolate the microgrid's load from the disturbance (and thereby maintaining high level Energy myavr.info


Microgrid Seminar Report Pdf

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ΙΕΑ Seminar “DISTRIBUTED GENERATION: KEY ISSUES, CHALLENGES, ROLES”, Paris, 1st March Microgrids – A Possible Future. Energy. A SEMINAR REPORT ON MICROGRID SUBMITTED BY Akshata. A. S Madhuri. S Harshada. V. H Mandasmita. R. K Department of Electrical. PSERC Tele-Seminar. Presentation. Paolo Piagi. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Published on Apr View Download S Madhuri. S Harshada. H Mandasmita. DIntroduction to Microgrid. Microgrid Operating Modes. The Need of Microgrid. Interconnected Microgrids Power Parks. Environmental Aspects. Conventional Grid versus Microgrid. Future Directions on Microgrid Research. Generally these sources are not synchronized with the grid power supply though, but rather cut in when the primary supply is interrupted.

With the role of distributed generation changing from backup to primary energy supply, more flexible connection strategies are required.

To realize the emerging potential of distributed generation a system approach is to be taken which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a microgrid. The concept of Micro Grid has grown out of this desire for truly interconnected operation of distributed generation. It is envisioned that this microgrid concept will prove to be an ideal solution to rural electrification besides its very well use in industrial parks, commercial and institutional campuses and many other situations requiring improved reliability and power quality.

A micro grid enables small communities to take control of their energy use and reduce their carbon footprint through a new and innovative way of generating and managing electricity. The generators in the microgrid may be microturbines, fuel cells, reciprocating engines, or any of a number of alternate power sources.

A microgrid may take the form of shopping center, industrial park or college campus. To the utility, a microgrid is an electrical load that can be controlled in magnitude.

The load could be constant, or the load could increase at night when electricity is cheaper, or the load could be held at zero during times of system stress A microgrid combined with power electronic interface is a completely self-sufficient network, with preferably autonomous control, communication and protection.

It is capable of providing capacity support to the transmission grid while in grid-connected mode, and with capacity in excess of coincident peak demand. So, the Micro grids comprise low voltage LV distribution systems with integration of Diverse Energy Resources DER such as photovoltaic, wind, bio-mass, bio fuel and fuel cell together with Distributed storage DS like flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries and Controllable Loads that behave as a coordinated entity networked by employing advanced power electronic conversion and control capabilities The MicroGrid assumes three critical functions that are unique to this architecture: Microsource Controller regulate power flow on a feeder as loads on that feeder change their operating points regulate the voltage at the interface of each microsource as loads on the system change Insure that each microsource rapidly picks up its share of the load when the system islands.

Microgrid Report

It responds in milliseconds and uses locally measured voltages and currents to control the microsource during all system or grid events. Protection The protection coordinator must respond to both system and MicroGrid faults.

For a fault on the grid, the desired response may be to isolate the critical load portion of the MicroGrid from the grid as rapidly as is necessary to protect these loads. Operating modes of Microgrid Operating modes of Microgrid are: Grid connected 2. Island connected Basic Microgrid architecture is shown below. This consists of a group of radial feeders, which could be part of a distribution system or a buildings electrical system.

There is single Point of connection to the utility called as point of common coupling. Some feeders feeders A-C have sensitive loads, which require common generation. The non-critical load feeders do not have any local generation. In our example this is feeder Feeders A-C can island from the grid using static switch which can separate in less the cycle.

In this case, there are four micro sources at nodes 8, 11, 16 and 22 which control the operation using only local voltages and currents measurements.

There is a problem with utility supply. The static switch will open, isolating the sensitive loads from the power grid. If it is assumed that there is sufficient generation to meet the loads demands. When the micro grids are grid connected power from the local generation can be directed to feeder D.

Static switch is closed and utility grid is active. Static switch is open.

Smart Grid Seminar Report with PPT and PDF

Feeder A, B, C is being supplied by micro sources and feeder D is dead. Expected Microgrid featuresAutonomy: Microgrids include generation, storage, and loads, and can operate autonomously in grid-connected and islanded mode.

In the first case, a Microgrid can independently optimize its own power production and consumption under the consideration of system economics such as buy or sell decisions. In islanded mode the system is capable of balancing generation and load and can keep system voltage and frequency in defined limits with adequate controls.

Independent local control of generators, batteries, and loads of Microgrids are based on frequency droops and voltage levels at the terminal of each device. This means that a Microgrid can operate in a stable manner during nominal operating conditions and during transient events, no matter whether the larger grid is up or down. Microgrids can simply grow through the additional installation of generators, storage, and loads.

Such an extension usually requires an incremental new planning of the Microgrid and can be performed in a parallel and modular manner in order to scale up to higher power production and consumption levels. Centralized as well as distributed Microgrid supervisory controller structures can optimize the utilization of generators, manages charging and discharging energy storage units,and manages consumption.

Peer-to-peer model: Microgrids can support a true peer-to-peer model for operation, control, and energy trade. In addition, interactive energy transactions with the centralized utility grid are also possible with this model.

The proposed concept does not dictate the size, scale, and number of peers and the growth rate of the Microgrid. Interconnected Microgrids Local interconnection standards vary considerably from one bulk power provider to the next.

This standard rests on certain assumptions about the contribution of DER to power quality and System reliability. The standard applies at the point where a Microgrid connects to the grid and is related to the aggregate DER rating within the Microgrid.

In a large complex, loads could be divided into many controllable units e.

Each unit Could be supplied by one or more Microgrids connected through a distribution system. The advantages of this system are that the Microgrid structure insures greater stability and controllability, Allows for a distributed command and control system, and provides redundancy to insure greater power supply reliability for the power park.

Environmental aspects Growing environmental awareness and government directives have set the stage for an increase in the fraction of electricity supplied using renewable sources. Renewable generation could appear in microgrids,especially those interconnected though power electronic devices, such PV systems or some wind turbines. Biofueled micro turbines are also a possibility. Environmentally, fuel cells and most renewable sources are a major improvement over conventional combustion engines.

A microgrid is located in a geographically limited area. This control flexibility allows the MicroGrid to present itself to the bulk power system as a single controlled unit, have plug-and-play simplicity for each microsource, and meet the customers' local needs. These needs include increased local reliability and security.

The figure shows the basic Microgrid Architecture. The electrical system has 3 feeders A, B and C. At the end of feeder there is collection of loads. This system is connected to the distribution system through separation device usually a static switch. The feeder voltage at the load are usually V or less. In Feeder A, there are several microsources such as PV photovoltaic , microturbine which use renewable energy and fuel sources as it input and one microsource, which provides combined heat and power.

Each feeder has a circuit breaker and power flow controller.

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Power flow controller regulates feeder power flow at a level prescribed by energy manager. As load down stream changes, the local microsources increase or decrease their power output to hold the power flow constant.

Feeders A and C are assumed to have a critical load and feeder B to have non-critical load. When there are power quality problems on the distribution system, the MicroGrid can island isolate itself by using the separation device.

The non-critical feeder can be dropped using the breaker at B. Technologies: The key feature that makes the MicroGrid possible is the power electronics, control, and communications capabilities that permit a MicroGrid to function as a semiautonomous power system.

The power electronics are the critical distinguishing feature of the MicroGrid, and they are discussed in detail below. This section describes some of the other technologies whose development will shape MicroGrids. Microturbines, currently in the kW range, although larger ones are under development, may ultimately be mass-produced at low cost.

These are mechanically simple, single shaft devices, using high-speed 50,, rpm typically with airfoil bearings. Despite their mechanical simplicity, microturbines rely on power electronics to interface with loads.

Microturbines should also be acceptably clean running. Their primary fuel is natural gas, although they may also burn propane or liquid fuels in some applications, which permits clean combustion, notably with low particulates.

Fuel cells are also well suited for distributed generation applications. They offer high efficiency and low emissions but are currently expensive. Phosphoric acid cells are commercially available in the kW range, and high temperature solid-oxide and molten- carbonate cells have been demonstrated and are particularly promising for MicroGrid application.

A major development effort by automotive companies has focused on the possibility of using on-board reforming of gasoline or other common fuels to hydrogen, to be used in low temperature proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells.

Fuel cell engine designs are attractive because they promise high efficiency without the significant polluting emissions associated with internal combustion engines. Renewable generation could appear in MicroGrids, especially those interconnected through power electronic devices, such PV systems or some wind turbines. Biofueled microturbines are also a possibility.Microgrid protection is one of the most important challenges facing the implementation of Microgrids.

Resynchronization with utility grid is difficult. Thanks for sharing.

Microgrid Report

References A. There is single Point of connection to the utility called as point of common coupling. Protection The protection coordinator must respond to both system and MicroGrid faults.

A major development effort by automotive companies has focused on the possibility of using on-board reforming of gasoline or other common fuels to hydrogen, to be used in low temperature proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells.

This means that a Microgrid can operate in a stable manner during nominal operating conditions and during transient events.

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