LITERATURE TEXTBOOK PDF
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About this Textbook. Literature, the Humanities, and Humanity attempts to make the study of literature more than simply another school subject that students. Conversation: Transforming Traditions of Teaching and Learning; Literature in the . to the development of textbook series in language arts, social studies. textbooks used literature and literary texts, and I have examined the used in context with the rest of the chapter or the textbook, and also in the number of texts .
Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society". Summarizing the variable definitions of the novella, William Giraldi concludes "[it is a form] whose identity seems destined to be disputed into perpetuity".
Edgar Allan Poe , or the clearly modern short story writers e. Anton Chekhov. Natural science[ edit ] As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries.
Now, science appears mostly in journals. Scientific works of Aristotle , Copernicus , and Newton still exhibit great value, but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction. Yet, they remain too technical to sit well in most programs of literary study.
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Outside of " history of science " programs, students rarely read such works. More of its practitioners lament this situation than occurs with the sciences; nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. Major philosophers through history— Plato , Aristotle , Socrates , Augustine , Descartes , Kierkegaard , Nietzsche —have become as canonical as any writers.
Philosophical writing spans from humanistic prose to formal logic , the latter having become extremely technical to a degree similar to that of mathematics. However, these areas have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result, the writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, although it often and in its better moments has that quality.
Major "literary" historians include Herodotus , Thucydides and Procopius , all of whom count as canonical literary figures. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle , the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon , or even the early parts of the Bible could be seen as legal literature.
Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature. The founding documents of many countries, including Constitutions and Law Codes , can count as literature. A play is a subset of this form, referring to the written dramatic work of a playwright that is intended for performance in a theater; it comprises chiefly dialogue between characters , and usually aims at dramatic or theatrical performance rather than at reading.
A closet drama , by contrast, refers to a play written to be read rather than to be performed; hence, it is intended that the meaning of such a work can be realized fully on the page. Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have substantial knowledge.
Tragedy , as a dramatic genre , developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals , typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes.
Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of newer technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form. War of the Worlds radio in saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television.
Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media. Other narrative forms[ edit ] Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works that originate in digital environments. Films , videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction.
Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text. Main article: list of narrative techniques Literary technique and literary device are used by authors to produce specific effects.
Literary techniques encompass a wide range of approaches: examples for fiction are, whether a work is narrated in first-person , or from another perspective; whether a traditional linear narrative or a nonlinear narrative is used; the literary genre that is chosen. Literary devices involves specific elements within the work that make it effective.
Examples include metaphor , simile , ellipsis , narrative motifs , and allegory. Even simple word play functions as a literary device. What two things are like Homer himself. Suddenly he finds himself listening to the story of being compared in this the fall of Troy and of his own part in it. Notice the epic simile that is epic simile? In the boxed lines, thebook :from 8 The Songs of the Harper wife cries first for her dying husband, then for And Odysseus herself.
What on the lost field where he has gone down fighting might the epic hero be 5 the day of wrath that came upon his children. At sight of the man panting and dying there, she slips down to enfold him, crying out; then feels the spears, prodding her back and shoulders, and goes bound into slavery and grief.
One epithet of Zeus is Odysseus. Reminding Zeus of sacrifices made to him during the Trojan boxed. Find another. War, she begs him to let Odysseus return home. What epithet does Zeus use to refer to Odysseus? O Zeus, what do you hold against him now? Could I forget that kingly man, Odysseus?
There is no mortal half so wise; no mortal gave so much to the lords of open sky. Use the following strategies to help you make the most of yourjourney through the epic. Who is telling the story at any given point? Consider how the different narrators deepen Athena goddess Poseidon god your understanding of characters and events.
What does each do to either help or harm him? Follow the punctuation, and remember that the end of a line does not always mean the end of a thought. How are these religious beliefs apparent in the epic? Describe son, Telemachus, calls an assembly to discuss the situation. Note the two speakers. They squander everything.
Identify two examples 5 We have no strong Odysseus to defend us, of sound devices in the and as to putting up a fight ourselves— boxed text. Expel them, yes, if I only had the power; 4.
It is a shroud I weave for Lord Laertes,25 when cold death comes to lay him on his bier. The country wives would hold me in dishonor if he, with all his fortune, lay unshrouded. So every day she wove on the great loom—30 but every night by torchlight she unwove it; and so for three years she deceived the Achaeans. The first person he approaches is Eumaeus, his head swineherd.
Welcoming the unknown beggar in the name of his missing lord, Eumaeus gives him a hot meal, a drink, and a place to sleep. To test the faithful swineherd and to try to keep warm in the frigid cold, the disguised Odysseus devises a story.
Through the story, he hopes to encourage Eumaeus to give him—a supposed stranger—the cloak off his back. Through his plan of vaporing wine, that makes a serious man action, what traits does 5 break down and sing, kick up his heels and clown, he display? Reread the boxed text and visualize the imagery Would god I felt used to describe the the hot blood in me that I had at Troy! What does Laying an ambush near the walls one time, the imagery serve to10 Odysseus and Menelaus were commanders emphasize?
I went at their request. We worked in toward the bluffs and battlements 3.
What epithets does the and, circling the town, got into canebrakes, soldier use to address thick and high, a marsh where we took cover, Odysseus in the story? The northwind dropped, and night came black and wintry.
A fine sleet descending whitened the cane like hoarfrost, and clear ice grew dense upon our shields. The other men, all wrapt in blanket cloaks as well as tunics,20 rested well, in shields up to their shoulders, but I had left my cloak with friends in camp, foolhardy as I was. No chance of freezing hard, I thought, so I wore kilts and a shield only.
Some god Text Analysis Workshopinveigled me to come without a cloak. No help for it now; too late. What quality does Next thing I knew Odysseus attribute to he had a scheme all ready in his mind— himself in telling this35 and what a man he was for schemes and battles!
Cite specific details Speaking under his breath to me, he murmured: to support your answer. Reread lines 31—33 and 39— What do you Then, learn about how the ancient Greeks perceivedpropping his head on his forearm, he said: their gods and ominous dreams?
Someone should volunteer character like Eumaeus. At this, text analysis workshop Thoas jumped up, the young son of Andraemon,45 put down his crimson cloak and headed off, running shoreward. I wish I had that sap and fiber in me now! However, in the morning, you must go flapping in the same old clothes.
Shirts and cloaks are few here; every man has one change only. When our prince arrives, the son of Odysseus, he will make you gifts—60 cloak, tunic, everything—and grant you passage wherever you care to go. Odysseus lay down. His host threw over him65 a heavy blanket cloak, his own reserve against the winter wind when it came wild. RL 5 Analyze how When you hear the word hero, who comes to mind?
RL 6 Analyze a Western literature—Odysseus, a man with many heroic traits as wellparticular point of view or cultural as human faults.
Discuss theL 4 Determine or clarify the heroic qualities of each person. Which qualities seem essentialmeaning of unknown or multiple to every hero? The poet introduces Odysseus, a successful Alternately aided and blocked by the gods, he carries the fate warrior who, after conquering the city of Troy, of his people on his shoulders. The epic hero is an archetypal has wandered the seas for many years.
Now character—one found in works across time and cultures. Every epic hero embodies the values of his culture. What does this tell you about his character? What Odysseus has met King Alcinous and begins do his character traits tell you about what the ancient Greeks telling him of his adventures since leaving found admirable?
He relates the tale of the Lotus Eaters and his encounter with the brutal Cyclops,reading strategy: reading an epic poem a son of the sea-god Poseidon. Odysseus continues his tales in Books 10— The strategies for reading an epic are very similar to those for reading any narrative poem. Use the side notes Book The Land of the Dead for help in comprehension. According to the prophecy, if Odysseus raids the cattle, he will lose his ship Place each of the following words in the appropriate column.
He successfully evades the Sirens but does not escape the monsters without losing some of his men. He saw the townlandsand learned the minds of many distant men,and weathered many bitter nights and daysin his deep heart at sea, while he fought onlyto save his life, to bring his shipmates home. They dishonor Odysseus and his family.
Meanwhile, onIthaca, the evil suitors plot to kill Telemachus when he returns. What qualities of this ship has Schmied emphasized with his use of color and shape? From Homer, the Odyssey, published Paris — Color lithograph.
A Textbook for English Course
Private collection, The Stapleton Collection. However, she is only tohelp him build a raft. He must sail for 20 days before landing on the island ofScheria, where he will be helped in his effort to return home.
Olympus, home of the gods.
A gull patrolling10 between the wave crests of the desolate sea Identify the epic simile in lines 9— Divine Calypso, Calypso in this portrait? Consider any relationship between Upon her hearthstone a great fire blazing her white dress and the white clouds.
A deep wood grew outside, with summer leaves of alder and black poplar, pungent cypress. Ornate birds here rested their stretched wings—25 horned owls, falcons, cormorants—long-tongued beachcombing birds, and followers of the sea. Around the smoothwalled cave a crooking vine held purple clusters under ply of green; and four springs, bubbling up near one another30 shallow and clear, took channels here and there through beds of violets and tender parsley. This is particularly pertinent for L2 literature, compared with artificially prepared texts, noting the above issues of syntax and lexis.
For this reason, literary texts cannot be used in a manner akin to that of a standard L1 undergraduate literature course, where multiple novels may be assigned through the semester at a rate of about one per week. Students face not just the twin challenges of vocabulary and syntax, but also the length of a text, or texts. Longer texts can still be used, but in a necessarily scaffolded and slower manner, likely using a range of reader response style activities as discussed in Carlisle, ; Hirvela, ; Oster, , and in decreased number through a course.
The authors never reached precise agreement regarding exact maximum length of a text, but keeping within two double-page spreads is how the book is presented. Interest and Relevance Any text that the teacher selects should have at least potential interest to the students. This is of course difficult to judge, as a new selection of individuals appears before teachers each semester, with different life histories, ideas and preferences.
Marshall notes such a danger in assuming shared understandings across cultures, instancing this with reference to Puerto Rican students understanding English weather and literary references to this.
We need to carefully consider where our students are, not just geographically and meteorologically as Marshall notes, but culturally, historically, and cognitively, not to mention the most immediate issue that concerns us as language teachers, i. Schemata building for language students will be addressed in a later paper by the present author. Part 2: Creating a Literature Text for Language Students Wendy Jones Nakanishi, based on her experience of both English literature and language teaching experience in Japan thirty years , had the idea to write a textbook for language learners focusing on literature.
Simon Bibby and Mari Ota came on board to help, and between the three authors there is over fifty years of teaching experience. The choice of Real Reads for the title is twofold. This emphasises both the authenticity of the texts, and their unbowdlerized, ungraded nature.
Key literary terminology is introduced, e.
The terminology provided is enough for students to start talking and writing about literature using the appropriate language for this academic field. The language is recycled, to give students practice and to increase familiarity as they progress through their studies with the textbook. The textbook is designed to be flexible for teachers and students, mainly aimed at university teachers, but flexible enough to be used elsewhere. Any text can be read in different ways, at different literary and cognitive levels.
Discussion of not just the texts, but ideas surrounding the texts, will naturally be at different levels also. In pedagogical terminology, this is differentiation by outcome whereby learners respond at different levels to a given task.
That said, Real Reads authors suggest that a natural fit for the texts would be intermediate through to advanced levels.
SW Teachers Millburn Middle
CEFR levels A tool for assessing language level is the Common European Framework CEFR , which now reaches beyond Europe and is widely used by textbook publishers globally as a level guide, and has made considerable inroads within Japan too.
The CEFR instrument uses a series of Can Do statements to inform curriculum design, and to assess performance against published standards. We placed our text as spanning the B1 and C1 boundaries, which is around the intermediate level. For lower level language learners, language support is provided, as discussed in the next section. The text is designed for quick and easy reference. Putting this together, we were thinking very much as end-user teachers ourselves and what we would wish for, and thus includes what teachers will need pertaining to understanding of the text, course planning, assessment, extra activities, and institutional administration.
Before Reading and After Reading Sections Now considering the textbook itself, prior to reading each text there is a designated Before reading section, to activate both conceptual and linguistic schemata. Each literary text is prefaced with a variety of questions for private thought, leading to discussion with peers, concerning certain key themes of the respective texts.
Where we judged it likely that students may struggle with the language of the text, we offer simple exercises for students to understand meaning. Additionally, a full glossary of terms is provided. Teachers are advised to direct students to this, prior to the designated lesson as homework, or at the rear of a previous class to provide students with clear continuity between lessons.
Flexibility is there for teachers to judge, and depending on both individual class duration and course scheduling. For post-reading activities, multiple activities are provided within a designated After reading section.
Firstly, students are invited to respond to the text with their own personal views, and the authors regard this to be the crux of using literature, not just in L2 but in L1 too. We encourage teachers to step back, for a while, and give students an initial opportunity to try to find their own way, to attempt to determine their own meanings, on both surface and deeper levels.
Similarly, we encourage teachers to be try to coax further, pushing for deeper justifiable interpretations from students, as they engage with their peers to exchange their ideas.
The fables offer students short, pointed readings, with a clear message. Similarly, Snow White is a relatively short text, and has some clearly signposted morals.
Within the second unit, Growing up, finding out, two readings are provided, a blackly amusing poem by Hilaire Beloc, and an allegorical tale by Oscar Wilde. One issue is how to approach the Judeo-Christian heritage which underpins a sizable chunk of the Western canon, and directly features in our chosen text The Selfish Giant by Wilde.
Such critical linguists as Pennycook and Phillipson have argued that the ESL industry promulgates Western cultural and political hegemony. Thus, one must balance the provision of information regarding key tenets of Christianity as they feature in relation to the text with any possible perceptions of selling a belief system - of proselytizing.
Thirdly, students are presented with some meatier readings within the Life Decisions unit. The common thread is clear.. The first two poems are well-known texts within English speaking countries, but are likely new to students studying in their L2 in Japan. The poem is short it fits easily within a single column on a single page , and the lines short too, each comprising a single idea relating to the anaphoric If….
Throughout this unit we engage students directly by asking readers to consider decisions that people take, that they themselves take in their lives, and the effects of their life choices on their past and future selves, and on others.
Readers are invited to reflect on differing interactions and relationships through these texts, and to consider different types of love.
The final section offers consideration of the inevitable end for us all: GettingHis rage held hard in leash, submitted to his mind, while he himself rocked, rolling from side to side, as a cook turns a sausage, big with blood and fat, at a scorching blaze, without a pause, to broil it quick: so he rolled left and right,.
Read these two versions of the opening of Book 2. For example, language learning uses literature because it articulates or contains culture, which is an element considered crucial in learning a language. No man turned away when cups of this came round. Consider any relationship between Upon her hearthstone a great fire blazing her white dress and the white clouds. Attention and Performance, p.
The lone ship then sails to Aeaea,home of the goddess Circe, who is considered by many to be a witch. The founding documents of many countries, including Constitutions and Law Codes , can count as literature.
What of my sailing, then, from Troy?
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