HIKAYAT HANG TUAH PDF
Hikayat Hang Tuah (the epic of Hang Tuah), one of the pinnacles of Malay which allows of opposed interpretations.1 The study of Hikayat Hang Tuah. Hikayat Hang Tuah (Jawi: حکاية هڠ تواه) is a Malay work of literature that tells the tale of the External links. Hikayat Hang Tuah pdf file from MyManuskrip ( Jawi script); Another Hikayat Hang Tuah pdf file from MyManuskrip (Jawi script). PDF | Hang Tuah is a character in the epic Hikayat Hang Tuah which has become the pride of Malay Literature. The epic, and especially the.
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PDF | On Oct 1, , V.I. Braginsky and others published Hikayat Hang Tuah; Malay epic and muslim mirror; Some considerations on its date, meaning and. Hikayat Hang Tuah, 'The epic of Hang Tuah,' set in the 15th-century sultanate of Melaka. manuscript tradition: 'Another copy of the Hang Tuah, of larger size, William and Judith Bollinger; Digital Description: application/pdf, KB. myavr.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.
Muhamad Murtadlo. Ahmad, Kasim ed. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. UC Riverside - eScholarship. He lamented the dearth of documentation and blamed the Malay hikayat stories, epics for making it Kassim Ahmad ed Ketua Editor Mentari. Malay manual about the Patani kingdom founded in ca. To Kassim Ahmad, Abdullah introduced new, democratic values to Malay society Unduh - Salihara ; Dorothea Rosa Herliany.
Ahmad Nurullah It is power- ful terrain for resistance, since it is outside hegemonic control.
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The post period also coincided with the Reformasi era that saw the rise of the civil rights movement in Malaysia, the proliferation of online news portals and bloggers providing alternative news and view- points Tan and Zawawi The last decade witnessed some ground-breaking ethnographies of the digital world e. Boell- storff ; Miller and Slater ; Nardi ; Postill Bernal ; Fluri ; Ginsburg Agre Tom Boellstorff Looking back at the last decade and a half, there have been worrying trends in the rise of ultra- Malay nationalism and the politicisation of ethnicity and religion.
These issues were a dominant part of the public discourse at the time. This occurred just before a crucial national election when the opposition parties were gaining traction. UMNO Youth,14 the most powerful Malay nationalist organisation, protested, calling the appeal seditious and pressured the Suqui committee to withdraw some of the requests Lee Another issue hotly debated since the early s is the new history textbooks for sec- ondary schools in Malaysia published between and The history of Malaysia taught in schools is very Malay-centric and begins with the glory days of the Malaccan empire of which Hang Tuah was a part.
The Orang Asli indigenous groups are virtually non-existent.
Hikayat Hang Tuah (Rumi)
A review conducted by various experts showed that the textbooks were heavily biased and focused mostly on Malay culture and Islam. In the Form Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at The creep of Malay supremacist ideology into textbooks has alarmed the public and politicians alike.
These history texts marginalise the important contributions of non-Malays in nation building. There are repeated references to Indians and Chinese as pendatang migrants , orang dagang traders or orang asing foreigners whom the Malays allowed to stay. They are depicted as eager to partake in the wealth of the nation and that the local inhabitants should be wary of this development.
In short, the development and prosperity of Tanah Melayu succeeded in drawing the interest of the immigrants to come here and this situation is extended up to the present day. Looking at it from another point of view, the local inhabitants should strive to be more industrious, display more initiative and be prepared to administer the wealth of this country, especially those who do not have huge capital. If not, the orang asing who are always on the lookout for opportunities will capitalize on opening and taking over our role, as has happened today.
Nik Hassan et al. An often-heard description by non-Malays in Malaysia is that their experience is one of being in love with someone in this case, the country who does not love them back. In response to this, there is movement to reassert Hindu religion, culture and history as part of the national narrative, even at times with exaggerated efforts.
He writes: What is most relevant, however is how many Indians per- Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at Willford These reimagined cultural past are strategies to demand inclusion and belonging by marginalised communities. In the Malaysian cybersphere, the appropriation of Hang Tuah, the Malay hero turned Chinese, can be read as a way to assert an alternative history that opposes the mainstream Malay-centric history of Malaysia.
The cybermyth provides an entry point to discuss issues of rights and the marginalisation of non-Malays in the country. In the cybersphere, different stories of origins may co-exist, may be challenged and may be debated. Thus, the tables are turned: The online discussions The cybermyth of the Chinese Hang Tuah is being circulated via emails and online forums including chat rooms and blogs. This gets the ball rolling on the plausibility of the claim. In one forum, comments have been made since , and the thread remained active up to December Some of the other forums include student networks, neighbourhood forums and area studies forums.
Clearly, the Chinese Hang Tuah cybermyth is much in circulation and has become part of the popular and controversial narrative of the legend of Hang Tuah. The comments on the online forums range from explosively racist remarks to ones that try to inject reason into the conversation. Others try to make light of the situation, perhaps to diffuse the tension, and some just express amusement with the story and do not take it seriously. The claims also elicit ethnocentric sentiments.
For example, there are those who view it as a conspiracy by the Chinese, designed to challenge Malay rights just as there are Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at I will provide an example of this with the following thread extracted from one community forum. Whoa, this is pretty sensitive issue if you ask me, man. However I do not see any reason why this should be sensitive, what does it matter whether they were Chinese or not?
He was Malaysian and that should be that. But E, not everyone is so open minded as you and I believe most of xxxxx.
Can we start to put all these aside and call ourselves Malaysian? As for us, you can say what you are, we are all born in Malaysia. Based on the con- versation, the contributors are likely to be Malays and non-Malays. They voice concern about the politicisation of ethnicity, which they see championed by the ruling state.
One contributor offered that it should not matter whether Hang Tuah was Malay or Chinese, but the important fact is that he was a Malaysian hero. Here the contributors 17 Wikipedia Talk: It is part of history and should remain there. What we should do is really take a good look at it and look at the lesson it is trying to teach us.
If Hang Tuah and co are ethnic Chinese well and good. If they are Malay, well and good too.
I think that is not important and irrelevant. What is relevant is the lesson it has taught us i. Similar sentiments have been observed on other community forums. The con- Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at In fact, the corre- spondents question the very essence of Malaysian-ness.
They also voice concern and protest at the increasing politicisation of ethnicity and the marginalisation and discrimination experienced by non-Malays. The following are two comments20 that illustrate this: What readers must take from this blog is that the present living conditions and discrimi- nation in Malaysia has gotten very bad, so much so I am ashamed of being called a Malaysian.
Find out more about what the issues raised and then make your mind up about the truth. It is important what has happened in the past, what we all must do is, learn from past mistakes and make the future better not worse. I will never forget my roots. In the examples above and others surveyed online, the forums are spaces not otherwise available for discussing ethnic politics and bumiputera privileges.
The story of Hang Tuah provides an entry point for citizens to discuss issues of rights, belonging and entitle- ment on these online forums. Such discussions may not occur in public or face-to-face as they are deemed too sensitive. Here netizens express their frustration and concerns, as well as their aspirations for Malaysia. In her work analysing the use of cyberspace by Eritrian community observers, Victoria Bernal This is clearly illustrated in the Malaysian case.
The contributors in the multiple forums questioned and created new knowledge, voicing their concerns and putting forth their vision of a more inclusive Malaysia. Rights activists argue that this severely restricts Internet Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at However, it remains to be seen how much this restriction will change the use of the Internet for the public.
The use of social media networking sites which were not widely popular at the start of the circulation of the Hang Tuah cybermyth, has further expanded the public sphere in cyberspace.
Conclusion In Malaysia as elsewhere, the Internet has completely changed both the political terrain and civil society. It has provided a place for alternative information and resistance. Since the mainstream media in Malaysia is very much controlled by the government, the Internet is an important source of counter-hegemonic information.
However, the Internet serves as more than just a place to disseminate information Bernal ; Wilson and Peterson The Hang Tuah cybermyth has provided an important space to discuss issues such as belonging and entitlement that is not otherwise available. In circulating and commenting on this myth, the public is participating in history making.
The appropriation of Hang Tuah as a Chinese warrior can be read as an attempt to provide a counter narrative to Malay-dominant history in Malaysia. The new myth that Hang Tuah was Chinese plucks this Malay folk hero out from within the Malay community and thrusts him into the larger multicultural community that is Malaysia. The multicultural Hang Tuah that roams in the cybersphere challenges the boundaries of ethnic categories that are made static in state-sponsored discourse. Hang Tuah, the traditional Malay icon and loyal subject, ironically becomes a vehicle to challenge the hegemonic narrative of the state.
In this story, Hang Tuah, the unquestioning hero, talks back. Rusaslina um. Sejarah Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Andaya, L. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Leaves of the same tree: Barnard, T. Contesting Malayness: Malay identity across boundaries. NUS Press. Texts, Raja Ismail and violence: Siak and the tranformation of Malay identity in the eighteenth century.
Barnard ed. Malay identity across bound- aries. NUS Press: Berita Harian Online. Sedih iklan persenda kehebatan pahlawan Hang Tuah [Saddened over ad that pokes fun at the great warrior Hang Tuah] 14 July. Bernal, V. Eritrea on-line: American Ethnologist 32 4: Boellstorff, T. Coming of age in Second Life: Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ethnography and virtual worlds: Braginsky, V. The heritage of traditional Malay literature: Reclaiming our truly Malaysian History. History curricu- lum creating katak di bawah tempurung.
Chambert-Loir, H. The Sulalat al-Salatin as a political myth. Indonesia 79 April: Department of Statistics. Population and housing census of Malaysia. Population distribution and basic demographic characteristics Department of Statistics, Malaysia.
Dundes, A. Sacred narrative: Berkeley CA: University of California Press. Fluri, J. Our website was revolutionary: Friedman, J. Report this file. Sponsored Ads. Account About Us We believe everything in the internet must be free. So this tool was designed for free download documents from the internet.
Legal NoticeThere are also other competing origin stories for Hang Tuah. The cybermyth provides an entry point to discuss issues of rights and the marginalisation of non-Malays in the country. Hill, H.
Hikayat Hang Tuah
Downloaded by [Rusaslina Idrus] at Bernal, V. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Hence, there is the question of who is right. Khoo, G. Such discussions may not occur in public or face-to-face as they are deemed too sensitive.