GRAPHICS DESIGN BOOKS PDF
the late Philip B. Meggs's A History of Graphic Design and Richard Hollis's. Graphic This book supports the Creative Cloud ver- sions of these applications. Whether you're new to design or a seasoned pro, the web has some interesting take a minute to browse our guide to the best graphic design books – you can . As with Hugh MacLeod's book, this free PDF offers a personal. video series. Interactive. PDF Worksheet If you're interested in Graphic Design and considering becoming a Graphic Books to read as a Graphic Designer?.
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Download this book for free at myavr.info .. The historic role of graphic design for broadsheets and books .. myavr.info Graphic design for the Web encompasses a very wide range of decisions read books, take courses, and work closely on a project with a trained graphic de-. Here are 20 awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics.
The design uses specially commissioned photography and a lenticular cover to provide colourful and juxtaposed, contrasting images that are relevant to the company and its staff members. For example, design responds to the changing themes that govern the way we view the world and this is evident in movements such as Modernism, Postmodernism and Deconstructivism.
These trends help shape the development and evolution of graphic design as a creative discipline, opening new doors of creative possibility and providing new tools with which to meet design challenges. Bird These spreads from the book Bird were created by 3 Deep Design. They are an example of a craft-based approach to typography and image-making that is not constrained by technology. The design exhibits a high level of artistic freedom and personal expression through the use of sewn images, type and detailing in different coloured thread and hand-painted images.
The images in these spreads were drawn by Kat Macleod. Areas looked at in this chapter p26 p28 p32 p38 Graphic design: art or craft?
Graphic design is a multidisciplinary process that draws on many creative sources. Some view it as a craft — one of the trades of the traditional printing and publishing process — while others see it more as an art. This subtle distinction can be of fundamental importance to a design, as will be seen in the following sections. Design as craft As a craft, graphic design is an integral part of the print production process that involves preparing text, image and other content for publication.
As such, a graphic designer occupies a key role in the process by liaising with the client and other professionals such as printers, typographers, photographers and finishing houses. This view of graphic design as part of the print process sees graphic design as a craft. Some elements of design work, such as the addition or subtraction of space between letters to create well-typeset and attractive text, can be considered as a designer crafting the type in a similar way that a carpenter works a piece of wood or a letterpress printer adjusts the bed pressure to create the correct type impression on the stock.
This view sees the designer as having a relationship with a client as part of a commissioned process, with the designer facilitating what needs to be done to produce the job. Design as art As an art, graphic design creates striking images and layouts to communicate ideas and information to different audiences.
The discipline is at the forefront of creative thought, advancing theory on how to communicate effectively through visual media by using a wide range of intellectual tools to establish meaningful connections between different design elements.
This view of design sees the designer as a separate entity who is preoccupied with personal expression rather than being led by a brief or a commission. Many designers undertake personal experimentation projects and produce self-published work whereby their intentions can be closely linked to those of an artist.
However, the two views on design are not mutually exclusive. Many designers are commissioned for their unique styles, while other designers adapt their style to suit a specific commission. Reappropriation Taking elements from mainstream culture and re-inserting them into peripheral culture or vice versa.
The installation is a combination of art and craft as the a contemporary look. The black-and-white image is styled like an designers turned their hands to a variety of disciplines to engraved plate, such as those that were traditionally used to produce the final result, a return to the multidisciplinary illustrate books; it is shown here to illustrate the fact that practices of the Renaissance period.
The detail shows the graphic design draws from many disciplines. An engraved carpet design that was 30m x The carpet was designed by Studio Myerscough. The design process, by commissioning pieces, often blurs the line between whether something is considered as art or craft.
Graphic design: art or craft? More importantly, it brought dramatic changes to the print and production processes as type and typesetting methods changed to support faster production rates. Printing developments New and faster printing presses presented new demands on other elements in the printing process, such as the type used to print, the stock printed on and the way whole pages were prepared for print.
Printing press The printing press underwent dramatic changes following the Industrial Revolution. Wood was replaced by cast iron, which resulted in increased printing pressure and a greater print area. Friedrich Koenig created a steam press that by could produce over 1, impressions an hour, as well as doubled-sided printing. In , the rotary press was invented by Richard Hoe, which meant millions of copies of a page could be printed in a single day. The subsequent development of rolls or webs of paper resulted in mass production.
Line casting Machines such as the Linotype enabled type to be set at much higher speeds. This invention revolutionised newspaper publishing. Photoengraving Photoengraving replaced the use of handmade printing plates with a photochemical process that engraved a metal plate using photographic techniques. An acid-resistant, photosensitive material is applied to a metal plate bearing the design to be printed.
Exposure of the metal to acid dissolves the exposed metal, engraving the image on to it. A similar process is used to make intaglio — printing plates that have depressions for the ink to sit in. Intaglio A printing technique using an image from a recessed design, which is incised or etched into the surface of a plate. Ink lies recessed below the surface of the plate, transfers to the stock under pressure and stands in relief on the stock.
The items pictured here show how printing evolved over time: left to right a page printed in early Latin, incunabula, dated ; a letterpress alphabet that became common during the Industrial Revolution; and a newspaper printed by letterpress Columbian Centinel of Boston, published 06 May, Corbis above and right This Volume magazine was designed by Jog Design for the image library, Corbis. It features typography reflecting the pixelated structure of digital type.
The digital age has supplanted the industrial age and most publications are now designed and set electronically using pixels rather than picas. Contagious right and below These spreads from Contagious magazine by Why Not Associates show how design boundaries are constantly challenged. The publication abides by conventions, but is also surprising and engaging.
The layered graphic devices and convergence of type and image create a single, unified piece. In this example, the relationship between the designer and architect, Allford Hall Monaghan Morris, results in bold, engaging and optimistic graphics that clearly inform people of their location. Built environment The physical world constructed around us that includes both the interior and exterior of buildings.
Technology Graphic design, like many other disciplines, is linked to technology at many different levels. Technology affects how designs are produced and it also influences developments in style, art and society as a whole, which in turn are reflected in the form a design takes. Technology also offers designers a variety of media outlets for their projects. Graphic design and technology It would be easy to think of graphic design as a discipline that is solely influenced by artistic or academic concerns.
However, it is also shaped by advances in technology, which bring new considerations and processes for a designer to utilise and manipulate. Design principles are highly transportable and transferrable through different technological epochs, which are modified and refined along the way. Technology has democratised design by simplifying production processes and extending access to the tools used to generate designs.
Digitisation has revolutionised design so that it can be mass reproduced utilising ever more diverse delivery systems, such as wireless hand-held devices and diverse online mechanisms, as information delivery migrates away from print media. Technology not only affects the delivery mechanism, but also the design.
Images and text can be subject to far greater manipulation and intervention at quicker speeds than in the past. This poses the threat that design may become a form of urban noise where the message is lost and diluted among the plethora of other messages that bombard society.
Advancements in technology open up new avenues of creativity by putting new tools into the hands of the designer or allowing designers to produce work more rapidly. This in turn provides more time for experimentation and can provoke profound changes in the design process. This is evident in how the Apple Macintosh allowed designers to escape the limitations of the paste-up board.
Newspapers have been pioneers in the application of new design technology, such as fourcolour printing and the use of the Internet. Consumption culture readily adapts to the benefits of technology, this means that traditional media also face a threat from technological developments such as digital media. For example, newspaper print subscriptions may be falling, but online subscribers are increasing, allowing newspapers to provide other services to readers.
Technological development continues to provide designers with new tools and techniques for creation, but the need to harness the tools available to good effect remains constant. The design evokes a sense of fun and retains a simplicity that is reminiscent of illustrated advertising art from the early twentieth century.
Although its creation was made possible by technology, the imagery is not technology-led.
Vault 49 could have produced a similar job by using a different method, such as hand illustration. This period also saw the introduction of dot matrix and digital typography. The introduction of personal computers in the s broadened font development opportunities, allowing for characters to be drawn and amended quickly, while type shapes could be easily copied to form the basis of different letters. The acceptance and use of digital type was assisted by the development of PostScript — the standard used for digital typesetting in the late s.
Open Type Open Type — a scalable format for computer fonts developed by Microsoft and joined by Adobe in the s — is now the dominant standard for digital font production.
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It can support up to 65, glyphs in a font and has advanced typographic features. Digitisation has reduced the cost of type to the extent that it has changed from being an expensive specialist tool to a commodity product, which now poses a stern challenge to type foundries. It is estimated that there are now over , digital fonts available — there may be a lot of choice but as a result, decision-making is made more difficult.
Subsequent improvements in technology have increased the speed and power of personal computers, reducing the time needed to create new fonts, many of which have been showcased in the typography magazine Fuse — launched in by Jon Wozencroft and Neville Brody. There is usually no harm in this as the substitution is quite universal.
The distinction between typefaces and fonts is arguably more important now that the two seem to occupy the same space. A typeface is a combination of characters, letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation and other marks that share a similar design.
A font was traditionally something physical, such as lithographic film or metal type characters pictured above.
Digital type foundries Digital technology has led to the development of digital type foundries, organisations and companies that use computer software to produce type in electronic format rather than the cast metal symbols that characterised printing from the Industrial Revolution until the s.
Digital type foundries, such as Emigre, FontFont and Jeremy Tankard, harness the benefits of digital technology to produce a wide range of fonts, exploring and developing the form of text characters. Digital production has seen an explosion of the number of typefaces available due to the relative ease, speed and low cost of producing and storing them compared to traditional type creation techniques.
The examples above show the effects of negative tracking and negative leading, both made possible by digital typography. The impact of digital typefaces In the digital age, fonts are no longer just physical objects. This means that a designer has more options available regarding font usage, which offer more opportunities for control and manipulation, for example, in terms of leading and spacing.
The image above shows a block of numerals in metal type, which were used for printing text before the advent of digitised type.
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As these are physical items, it was not possible to overlap type or have negative leading, something that is now taken for granted in the use of computer-generated type. Tracking and leading Type spacing can be altered on both the horizontal and vertical planes by manipulating tracking and leading — two processes that have become more flexible with digital typefaces.
Tracking works on the horizontal plane; it is the amount of space that exists between the letters of words, which can be adjusted to bring characters closer together or take them farther apart. Tracking can be reduced to condense space between letters or removed completely with negative tracking. On the other hand, increased tracking adds space, which can prevent characters from touching each other. More specific adjustments can be made in the space between two letters by kerning removal of space or letterspacing addition of space.
Leading works on the vertical plane and refers to the space between the lines in a text block. The term originates from the strips of lead placed between the rows of metal type letters to keep constant space alignment — a function digital leading still serves. However, digital type also allows for negative leading, resulting in overlapping or the absence of space between text lines. It is easy to read and is compatible with different operating systems.
Glyph switching flipping Glyph switching or flipping is where a digital typeface contains multiple versions of characters, enabling a design to create an eclectic look within the limitations of a single character set.
Flipping is an example of technology presented in a certain way so as to appear non-technological by including random differences that add a touch of the accidental, such as the random printed marks produced by the wear patterns of letterpress characters. Commands in the PostScript code refer to a random generator that makes the character outlines irregular. The use of glyph switching makes a design look as though it was not produced using current technology when technology is actually facilitating it.
There is a certain irony in the fact that the designers of digital fonts are trying to achieve a non-uniform effect, while printers using traditional technology strive to overcome quirks and irregularities in their finish. Fonts for screen Fonts are now designed specifically for use with digital applications such as the Internet. Fonts designed for screen use are created so that they can be used on a wide range of different systems while giving the same performance.
The existence of web-safe fonts means website producers can increase the likelihood that the content will be displayed as required.
Microsoft produced a standard family of fonts for Web use. With only a limited range of web-safe fonts available, it is probable that a company may not be able to use its font choices in all arenas. This means the fonts for its offline communications may be different to those used for its online communications.
Other limitations of web-safe fonts when used in print applications is that the serifs can be too fine — the fonts can be overly broad and they can fill in with ink when printed.
Typography Typography is the means by which a written idea is given a visual form.
It is one of the most influential elements that establishes the character and emotional attributes of a design; the visual form it takes dramatically affects the accessibility of an idea and how a reader reacts towards it. Variety and creativity Typefaces vary from clearly distinguishable letterforms that flow easily before the eye, to more elaborate and eye-catching forms and vernacular characters appropriated from the urban environment.
The different styles and forms of fonts enable them to communicate in ways that go beyond the words they spell out; different typefaces can be said to have different personalities, and it is these personalities that a designer often focuses on when selecting fonts for a particular job.
Typography is a discipline that continues to evolve as computer technology makes the process of font creation quicker and easier, as well as more experimental. In addition to appropriating elements from the vernacular, typography is also selfreferential — the origins of many of the fonts in current use can be traced to designs created during earlier historical epochs, from the earliest days of printing to Roman tomb inscriptions.
Designers can harness this heritage to instil their designs with historical references.
This section will look at many different examples of typographic design and how type is used to communicate. It will also look at how fonts are classified into different families and systems that help to organise and better understand the many thousands that exist.
The ability to classify typefaces is essential to design and effective communication — different fonts have different characteristics, histories and personalities. Typeface classification is based on the anatomical characteristics of the letters and are generally categorised as: block, roman, gothic, script or graphic, with several further sub-classifications.
Typeface classification loosely charts the development of fonts over time and gives an indication of the historical development of type.
Pangrams are used to showcase typefaces as they are holo-alphabetic — they contain every letter of the alphabet at least once. The poster says as much about the typeface as it does about the car. It features both nostalgic and contemporary type that jumps out at the reader. This dramatic impression is typography and borrows from previous times and reappropriates created by the use of large-format, orange type set against a the styles to create a modern approach that is engaging and black background and fine, white-line art illustrations.
Note how the letterforms of the title overprint. Brand information takes the Community Fund. The key messages of teamwork circle , a secondary role.
The models are real people photographed by service excellence star , accountability plus sign and valuing famous snowboard photographers and the type reflects solid people tick were screen printed in a single colour to give a authenticity with its filled-in counters. Moving card right A thermographic ink was used to print this card.
Thermography is a printfinishing process used to produce raised lettering on paper substrates by depositing a powder on the printed piece while still wet; it is then passed through an oven. In this example, the numeral has been expanded as much as possible, while still remaining legible and recognisable.
This project was created by Parent Design. Type classification The wide range of typefaces available means that a way of classifying them is essential, particularly to simplify the communication of specifications for a piece of work. Every designer has his or her own way of doing things, so the designers who created these resources know that there are things they do differently that could probably benefit your greatly.
It makes you more credible. When discussing things with other designers, and possibly, with clients who know a bit about design, how can you make yourself come across as a credible designer who can deliver what is asked from him? These resources are made by some of the most innovative and influential designers from around the world.
This means that these are the perfect sources of quotes and anecdotes you can use in daily conversation with both peers and potential clients. Take a peek at the e-books below and start taking advantage of every single benefit you can get from them.
After all, not a lot of good things come for free. There is often a belief that you get what you pay for. Below are awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics. Practical Responsive Typography Typography still proves to be one of the most crucial elements in design, especially if you want to make your message crystal clear.
This e-book teaches you a lot of the basics, and a few of the advanced stuff as well. You get Volumes 1 and 2 of Interaction Design Best Practices, which discusses establishing emotional connections through your work, proper use of empty space, figuring out habitual human behavior when creating your design, and a lot more.
The third e-book is called Consistency in UI Design, something that can help you take your work a few notches higher. Branding is something that dictates how your design should be formed.
And without a clear understanding of its concepts, you may end up creating design that are inconsistent with the brand. Thankfully, this e-book addresses a lot of your questions.
You have to at least know the basics, and this e-book is the perfect way to go through most of these basics in one go. This is also applicable for designers who are currently working for an agency or the traditional employer, but are itching to break free. It tells you how to market your business, how to license your work, how to effectively communicate with clients, and other things that could help establish you as a real professional.
The Building Blocks of Visual Hierarchy Visual hierarchy is important if you want your entire design to be as organized as possible. This also affects the way your audience sees your design.
This e-book tells you how to create this hierarchy properly. The Shape of Design Most of the e-books on this list tell you what to do and how to do it. But this e-book takes a different route.
This makes it even more important than any other tutorial, as it allows you to understand the spirit of every design aspect and element.
The Future of Product Design The Future of Product Design is a report that looks deep into why products are designed the way they are, and how this impacts the way things are going to be designed from hereon out.
You see, every product ever made starts with a purpose or ideal. Flat design is something that has become more popular with this newfound love for simplicity. This e-book discusses the best ways to use flat design and colors to make your work simple yet exceptionally appealing.
From teaching you ow to think like a designer to helping you deal with fear and doubt, from pushing you to get out of your creative rut to giving you tips on how to market your business online, it has compiled a lot of the basic knowledge that would help any designer get up on their feet and start establishing a name for themselves.
Note that logo making is not just about choosing a random image that looks nice, and pairing it up with the business name. This e-book lets you do that.
The 1st version was just a simple handbook that gave details about pixels and the use of Photoshop. These basics, however, proved to be very useful to every designer that has come across it and downloaded it. Since then, it has evolved into the design bible that it is now.
Digital Colour in Graphic Design
The Vignelli Canon gives you a wide spectrum of knowledge that will help you not only in terms of graphic design, but in product design, corporate design, and other aspects of the field as well. How would this look like in print? Your designs may look great on your screen, but things may end up looking different the moment it goes through the printing process.
This e-book gives you all the info you need on how to make all your designs print-worthy, especially if you made them using Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, Acrobat or InDesign. After all, proper knowledge of how all the tools work and how the elements go together will get you nowhere if your creative health is not as good as it should be. But the real question here is this — are you using your creativity the right way? As an advertising exec, Hugh MacLeod has seen a lot of creative people bring to the table whatever they can give at the moment, but he sees that they could have given so much more.Commands in the PostScript code refer to a random generator that makes the character outlines irregular.
Lester Beall, an American-born Chicago artist, embraced modern design and European influences from cubism, constructivism, and Dada. The British Museum. Through the tips presented in any of these e-books below, you can slowly turn things around and work in a more organized manner. Collection, Solomon R.
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