ENERGY METER PDF
The meter which is used for measuring the energy utilises by the electric load is known as the energy meter. The energy is the total power consumed and utilised . Objectives. • To understand the basic construction and different components of a single phase induction type energy meter. • Explain basic principle and. Detailed information and tools for energy meter interfaces can be More information about approvals of energy meters for billing purposes are given on the.
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The energy meter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to record developed electronic energy meter is also available in the market but in view of. PDF | It is undoubtedly that in the future, energy would cost more as the The idea of designing the Digital Household Energy Meter is due to the basis that it. PDF | The energy metering technology used presently in Nigeria is not highly reliable and requires substantial labour and time to read.
Both the meter and the server are equipped with to detect pilferage are use of central observer meter at GSM module which facilitates bidirectional communication secondary terminals of distribution transformer , harmonic between the two ends using the existing GSM infrastructure.
However, these technical approaches can be effectively This paper presents some measures to control meter bypassing and tampering. The bidirectional GSM communication using implemented only if proper communication is ensured between SMS ensures the effectiveness of these measures.
Pilferage of the central control station and the appropriate test points.
Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor
These meters incorporate the facility of Legal actions against dishonest consumers can also be taken in prepaid metering system and remote load control.
This prepaid this system. In this paper, we have proposed a GSM Keywords-electricity theft; prepaid meter; GSM networks; SMS; based prepaid energy metering system which deals with smart energy meter different aspects of electricity theft. The proposed system prevents irregularities of billing, reluctance of consumers to I.
Electricity theft has emerged as a serious problem in power sectors especially in the developing countries. A huge amount II.
In some countries this In the proposed system the power utility maintains a server is so severe that governments are incurring losses instead of and each consumer is provided an energy meter. The server and revenue. In some cases government has to provide subsidies to prepaid meters use GSM modem and GSM module the power sector to maintain a reasonable price of electricity.
The energy meter consists of a governments are failing to satisfy the ever increasing demand microcontroller ATmega 32 , energy measuring chip of electricity. In some cases this problem has become so ADE , GSM module Simens A62 mobile phone in our extreme that the affected power systems are near bankrupt. The energy metering chip produces power systems like in USA and moderately efficient system like in Malaysia . However, in developing and under developed countries the practice of power theft is so common that it is often kept out of discussion.
Electricity theft includes tampering meters to show a low meter reading, stealing electricity bypassing a meter, billing irregularities and unpaid bills . Billing irregularities comprise inaccurate meter reading taken by bribed service man and intentional fixing of the bill by office staffs in exchange of illicit payments from the consumer.
Different nontechnical and technical methods were proposed in the past to detect electricity pilfering. Nontechnical Figure 1. Overview of the proposed prepaid metering system. The microcontroller calculates the energy consumption by counting the output pulses of the energy metering chip on an interrupt basis. A battery backup is also available in the energy meter.
The backup is required to detect electricity theft. The complete circuit diagram of the proposed meter is shown in Fig. The C programming language and the MATLAB software have been used to program the microcontroller and to implement the server, respectively.
Figure 2. Prototype of the proposed meter. The recharging process in the proposed metering system is similar to that of recharging balance in a mobile phone. The user has to buy a scratch card and scratch it to uncover the secret pin number of the corresponding energy unit he has bought.
For example, if a user wants to buy units KWh , he has to pay for the units and obtain a scratch card which holds the secret pin number of the corresponding units. The user has to send the pin number to the server through SMS. The server then checks whether the pin number is valid or not.
If the pin number is valid, the server then extracts the information of energy-unit from the pin number in this case units and sends it to the meter of the user through GSM network.
The household meter then receives the corresponding unit and is activated. As the user consumes energy, the corresponding units are deducted from the total balance and the remaining units are displayed using LCD. Hydro One subsequently offered free power monitors to 30, customers based on the success of the pilot.
Plug-in electricity meters or plug load meters measure energy used by individual appliances. There are a variety of models available on the market today but they all work on the same basic principle. The meter is plugged into an outlet, and the appliance to be measured is plugged into the meter. Such meters can help in energy conservation by identifying major energy users, or devices that consume excessive standby power.
Web resources can also be used, if an estimate of the power consumption is enough for the research purposes. A power meter can often be borrowed from the local power authorities  or a local public library. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Electricity retailers may wish to charge customers different tariffs at different times of the day to better reflect the costs of generation and transmission.
Since it is typically not cost effective to store significant amounts of electricity during a period of low demand for use during a period of high demand, costs will vary significantly depending on the time of day. Low cost generation capacity baseload such as nuclear can take many hours to start, meaning a surplus in times of low demand, whereas high cost but flexible generating capacity such as gas turbines must be kept available to respond at a moment's notice spinning reserve to peak demand, perhaps being used for a few minutes per day, which is very expensive.
Some multiple tariff meters use different tariffs for different amounts of demand. These are usually industrial meters. Domestic variable-rate meters generally permit two to three tariffs "peak", "off-peak" and "shoulder" and in such installations a simple electromechanical time switch may be used. Historically, these have often been used in conjunction with electrical storage heaters or hot water storage systems.
Multiple tariffs are made easier by time of use TOU meters which incorporate or are connected to a time switch and which have multiple registers. Switching between the tariffs may happen via ripple control , or via a radio-activated switch. In principle, a sealed time switch can also be used, but is considered more vulnerable to tampering to obtain cheaper electricity. The popularity of such tariffs has declined in recent years, at least in the domestic market, because of the perceived or real deficiencies of storage heaters and the comparatively much lower cost of natural gas per kWh typically a factor of times lower.
Nevertheless, a sizeable number of properties do not have the option of gas, with many in rural areas being outside the gas supply network, and others being expensive upfront to upgrade to a radiator system. An Economy 10 meter is also available, which gives 10 hours of cheap off-peak electricity spread out over three timeslots throughout a hour period.
This allows multiple top-up boosts to storage heaters, or a good spread of times to run a wet electric heating system on a cheaper electricity rate. The downside of this is that the daytime rate per kWh is significantly higher, and that standing charges are sometimes higher. For example, as of July , normal "single rate" electricity costs They offer additional functionality including a real-time or near real-time reads, power outage notification, and power quality monitoring.
They allow price setting agencies to introduce different prices for consumption based on the time of day and the season. Another type of smart meter uses nonintrusive load monitoring to automatically determine the number and type of appliances in a residence, how much energy each uses and when. This meter is used by electric utilities to do surveys of energy use. It eliminates the need to put timers on all of the appliances in a house to determine how much energy each uses.
Prepayment meters[ edit ] Prepayment meter and magnetic stripe tokens, from a rented accommodation in the UK. The button labelled A displays information and statistics such as current tariff and remaining credit. The button labelled B activates a small amount of emergency credit should the customer run out A prepayment key The standard business model of electricity retailing involves the electricity company billing the customer for the amount of energy used in the previous month or quarter.
In some countries, if the retailer believes that the customer may not pay the bill, a prepayment meter may be installed.
This requires the customer to make advance payment before electricity can be used. In the UK, mechanical prepayment meters used to be common in rented accommodation. Disadvantages of these included the need for regular visits to remove cash , and risk of theft of the cash in the meter.
Modern solid-state electricity meters, in conjunction with smart cards , have removed these disadvantages and such meters are commonly used for customers considered to be a poor credit risk.
In the UK, customers can use organisations such as the Post Office Ltd or PayPoint network, where rechargeable tokens Quantum cards for natural gas, or plastic "keys" for electricity can be loaded with whatever money the customer has available. In South Africa , Sudan and Northern Ireland prepaid meters are recharged by entering a unique, encoded twenty digit number using a keypad. This makes the tokens, essentially a slip of paper, very cheap to produce.
Around the world, experiments are going on, especially in developing countries, to test pre-payment systems. In some cases, prepayment meters have not been accepted by customers. There are various groups, such as the Standard Transfer Specification STS association, which promote common standards for prepayment metering systems across manufacturers. Prepaid meters using the STS standard are used in many countries.
While this can be used to automatically control usage on the part of the customer resulting in automatic load control , it is often simply the customer's responsibility to control his own usage, or pay accordingly voluntary load control.
This also allows the utilities to plan their transmission infrastructure appropriately. TOD metering normally splits rates into an arrangement of multiple segments including on-peak, off-peak, mid-peak or shoulder, and critical peak.
A typical arrangement is a peak occurring during the day non-holiday days only , such as from 1 pm to 9 pm Monday through Friday during the summer and from am to 12 noon and 5 pm to 9 pm during the winter. More complex arrangements include the use of critical peaks which occur during high demand periods. Large commercial users can purchase power by the hour using either forecast pricing or real time pricing. Some utilities allow residential customers to pay hourly rates, such as in Illinois, which uses day ahead pricing.
When a customer is generating more electricity than required for his own use, the surplus may be exported back to the power grid. Customers that generate back into the "grid" usually must have special equipment and safety devices to protect the grid components as well as the customer's own in case of faults electrical short circuits or maintenance of the grid say voltage on a downed line coming from an exporting customers facility. This exported energy may be accounted for in the simplest case by the meter running backwards during periods of net export , thus reducing the customer's recorded energy usage by the amount exported.
Unless equipped with a ratchet or equivalent, a standard meter will accurately record power flow in each direction by simply running backwards when power is exported. Where allowed by law, utilities maintain a profitable margin between the price of energy delivered to the consumer and the rate credited for consumer-generated energy that flows back to the grid.
Lately, upload sources typically originate from renewable sources e. Another potential upload source that has been proposed is plug-in hybrid car batteries vehicle-to-grid power systems. This requires a " smart grid ," which includes meters that measure electricity via communication networks that require remote control and give customers timing and pricing options.
Vehicle-to-grid systems could be installed at workplace parking lots and garages and at park and rides and could help drivers charge their batteries at home at night when off-peak power prices are cheaper, and receive bill crediting for selling excess electricity back to the grid during high-demand hours. Location[ edit ] Current transformers used as part of metering equipment for three-phase A electricity supply.
The fourth neutral wire does not require a current transformer because current cannot flow in the neutral without also flowing in metered phase wires.
Blondel's theorem A commercial power meter Electricity meters placed outside the homes of residents in a common place, which is accessible only for the department staff and concerned residents A Duke Energy technician removes the tamper-proof seal from an electricity meter at a residence in Durham, North Carolina The location of an electricity meter varies with each installation.
The main function of the copper band is to align the flux produced by the shunt magnet in such a way that it is exactly perpendicular to the supplied voltage. Moving System — The moving system is the aluminium disc mounted on the shaft of the alloy.
The disc is placed in the air gap of the two electromagnets. The eddy current is induced in the disc because of the change of the magnetic field. This eddy current is cut by the magnetic flux. The interaction of the flux and the disc induces the deflecting torque.
Version 1.02.04.R (February 2014)
When the devices consume power, the aluminium disc starts rotating, and after some number of rotations, the disc displays the unit used by the load. The number of rotations of the disc is counted at particular interval of time. The disc measured the power consumption in kilowatt hours.
Braking system — The permanent magnet is used for reducing the rotation of the aluminium disc. The aluminium disc induces the eddy current because of their rotation. The eddy current cut the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet and hence produces the braking torque. This braking torque opposes the movement of the disc, thus reduces their speed. The permanent magnet is adjustable due to which the braking torque is also adjusted by shifting the magnet to the other radial position.
Registration Counting Mechanism — The main function of the registration or counting mechanism is to record the number of rotations of the aluminium disc. Their rotation is directly proportional to the energy consumed by the loads in the kilowatt hour.
The rotation of the disc is transmitted to the pointers of the different dial for recording the different readings.
The reading in kWh is obtained by multiply the number of rotations of the disc with the meter constant. The figure of the dial is shown below.These outputs usually follow the DIN standard. The pressure coil creates the magnetic field because of the supply voltage, and the current coil produces it because of the current. This interruption technical staffs to check the reported households and can detect may not be comfortable to all consumers.
Arafat, K. The coil of the shunt electromagnet is directly connected with the supply and hence carry the current proportional to the shunt voltage.
SMA ENERGY METER
The flux is alternating and hence induces an eddy current Iep in the disc. The SMA Energy Meter 20 is fully compatible with the previous version and can be used in all existing application without limitation. MR technology has developed current sensors with higher sensitivities without the use of ferromagnetic cores.