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Computer & Laptop Repair Course ebook. Computers Manuals ebooks. Price: Buy here!. I wrote this book for people who want to upgrade, repair, maintain, and troubleshoot laptop and notebook computers as well as for those enthusiasts who want to. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. About the author: Garry Romaneo has been repairing Kindle Store; ›; Kindle eBooks; ›; Computers & Technology.
If a processor is off by 90 degrees or inserted backward, it may damage the processor or the motherboard. Pin A1 on the processor is often used to identify one corner of the processor and to help you properly insert the processor into the motherboard. These are designated by a slightly clipped corner, a small dot or triangle on one corner, or a missing pin on one or two of its corners.
The NIC may come preinstalled, or you may have to purchase one. In rare cases, you may need to update the NIC drivei. You can use the driver disc that comes with the motherboard or adapter card, or you can supply a driver that you downloaded from the manufacturer.
All computers need a power supply to convert alternating-current AC power from the wall socket into direct-current DC power. The size and shape of the computer case is usually determined by the motherboard and other internal components. In many cases, the device may need to be returned to the place of purchase, a certified service center, or even the manufacturer. Figure shows a close-up view of the CPU and the motherboard. The CPU and motherboard are sensitive to electrostatic discharge. When handling a CPU and motherboard, make sure that you place them on a grounded antistatic mat.
You should wear an antistatic wrist strap while working with these components. You should be familiar with the locking assembly before attempting to install a CPU into the socket on the motherboard.
Align the heat sink fan assembly retainers with the holes on the motherboard. Step 8. Connect the heat Mon, 05 Dec Operating Systems A video adapter card, shown in Figure , is the interface between a computer and a display monitor. An upgraded video adapter card can provide better graphics capabilities for games and graphic programs. How To Ol Step 1. Align the video adapter card to the appropriate expansion slot on the motherboard.
Mon, 19 Dec Routing Protocols Traditional, standalone routers are hardware specific You purchase a specialized physical platform, including a chassis, sheet metal, power supply, CPU, memory, I O ports, and a motherboard together with the routing engine.
These components are described in Routers and WANs. Types of Drive Interfaces Last Updated on Tue, 13 Nov Operating Systems 4 comments Hard drives and optical drives are manufactured with different interfaces that are used to connect the drive to the computer.
When you install a storage drive in a computer, the connection interface on the drive must be the same as the controller on the motherboard. Some common drive interfaces are as follows Sun, 10 Sep IT Essentials Instructor Note All the components a student chooses must be compatible with the components provided.
All the components a student chooses must have improved performance or additional capabilities. The answers provided are examples. Student answers may vary. The release notes describe the upgrade to the product, compatibility improvements, and the known bugs that have been addressed. Some newer devices only operate properly with an updated BIOS. Press the setup sequence keys while the computer is performing the POST.
Depending on the computer, the setup key might be F1, F2, or Delete. Watch the text on the screen or consult the motherboard manual to find the setup key or combination of keys.
Although it is still common to flash the BIOS through a command prompt, several motherboard manufacturers provide software on their websites that allow a user to flash the BIOS from within Windows.
The procedure varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. Thu, 30 Aug Operating Systems The computer case holds the power supply, motherboard, memory, and other components, as shown in Figure When purchasing a new computer case and power supply separately, you should ensure that all the components will fit into the new case and that the power supply is powerful enough to operate all the components.
Many times a case comes with a power supply inside. You still need to verify that the power supply provides enough power to operate all the components that will be installed in the case. Thu, 30 Aug Operating Systems An internal modem plugs into an expansion slot on the motherboard. No configuration is needed for a plug-and-play modem, which can only be installed on a motherboard that supports plug and play.
A modem using a serial port that is not yet in use must be configured. Additionally, the software drivers that come with the modem must be installed for the modem to work properly. Drivers for modems are installed the same way drivers are installed for NICs.
Like the PATA data cable , the floppy drive data cable has a stripe to denote the location of pin 1. A floppy drive data cable usually has three pin connectors. One connector at the end of the cable connects to the motherboard.
The other two connectors connect to drives. If multiple floppy drives are installed, the A drive connects to the end connector after the twist in the cable. The B drive connects to the middle connector.
Plug the floppy drive data cable into the drive with the pin 1 indicator on the cable aligned to the pin 1 indicator on the drive connector. Motherboards have one floppy drive controller, which provides support for a maximum of two floppy drives.
Physical Security Last Updated on Wed, 27 Aug Intrusion Detection One good method of preventing casual hackers from gaining access to the console port is to physically disconnect the console port from the router's motherboard.
This requires the router case to be opened. This is really the equivalent of hiding a door key under the doormat it will not stop any but the most casual hacker.
Anyone opening the case to the router will quickly see that the console port is disconnected. The first is an analog modem, which is the type of modem installed on a user's computer.
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These can be internal hardware card installed on a system, motherboard or external independent, free-standing hardware. These modems demodulate the signals coming from an analog line and pass that data off to your computer. They also modulate the data into analog signals and send it down the analog line to your provider. The ATX power supply will have either a or pin power connector that connects to the motherboard.
An ATX power supply will have two power connectors that connect to the motherboard. The AT power supply will have either a or pin power connector that connects to the motherboard.
Jumpers on the motherboard. If a device is malfunctioning, an error or beep code alerts the technician that a problem has occurred. Typically, a single beep denotes that the computer is functioning properly.
If a hardware problem exists, the computer may emit a series of beeps. Each BIOS manufacturer uses different codes to indicate hardware problems.
Table is a sample chart of beep codes. The beep codes for your computer may be different.
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Consult the motherboard documentation to view beep codes for your computer. This intraslot TDM hairpin can occur on digital or analog voice ports and is typically dependent on the module installed in the slot. Study Guide Last Updated on Mon, 03 Sep IT Essentials 1 comment The case is the box that most of the computer components rest in, and it is designed to protect these components. It contains the power supply, motherboard, processors, RAM, floppy drives, hard drives, optical drives, and expansion cards.
It is considered the brain of the computer because all the instructions it performs are mathematical calculations and logical comparisons. The processor is the central component of the computer. It is plugged into a large circuit board called the motherboard sometimes referred to as system board.
Some motherboards with dual processor sockets require having a special terminator or voltage regulator module VRM in the empty processor slot or socket when both processors are not installed. Motherboards The motherboard allows the processor to branch out and communicate with all the computer components. Sat, 10 Sep Operating Systems Different power supply form factors provide different power output connections, depending on system requirements.
AT form factors have been slowly phased out by ATX form factor power supplies because of the different case sizes and advanced features. ATXv12 was created to add power support for the motherboard by adding another four-pin power connector.
Motherboard, Baby AT and earlier CPUs, and many motherboard components Different connectors are used to connect specific components and various locations on the motherboard A pin or pin slotted connector is used to connect to the motherboard. The pin slotted connector has two rows of 12 pins each, and the pin slotted connector has two rows of 10 pins each. A four-pin-to-eight-pin auxiliary power connector has two rows of two to four pins and supplies power to all areas of the motherboard.
The four-pin-to-eight-pin auxiliary power connector is the same shape as the main power connector, but smaller. Older standard power Mon, 10 Apr IT Essentials This lab does not include removing the motherboard, CPU, and cooling device from the computer because of the replacement cost of these items. If possible, allow students to remove these components from broken computers that are kept in the classroom for part identification and demonstration.
These individual memory chips, called dual inline package DIP chips, were difficult to install and often became loose on the motherboard. To solve this problem, designers soldered the memory chips on a special circuit board called a memory module. A DIP had dual rows of pins used to attach it to the motherboard. The PATA cable can have either 40 or 80 conductors. A PATA cable usually has three pin connectors.
The end of the PATA cable is keyed and can be inserted only one way. A stripe on the data cable denotes pin 1. Plug the PATA cable into the drive with the pin 1 indicator on the cable aligned to the pin 1 indicator on the drive connector. The pin 1 indicator on the drive connector is usually closest to the power connector on the drive. When the CPU receives an interrupt request, it determines how to fulfill this request. The priority of the request is determined by the IRQ number assigned to that computer component.
Older computers had only eight IRQs to assign to devices. Newer computers have 16 IRQs, which are numbered 0 to 15, as shown in Table As a general rule, each component in the computer must be assigned a unique IRQ. IRQ conflicts can cause components to stop functioning and even cause the computer to crash. With the numerous components that can be installed in a computer, it is difficult to assign a unique IRQ to every component. It must also be the same type of RAM as installed in the computer.
It can help to take the original memory module with you when you shop for the replacement RAM. If the motherboard does not have compatible expansion slots, external devices can be an option Wed, 29 Aug Remote Access Although this series is somewhat versatile, any changing of components requires the removal of the entire motherboard tray. Care should be taken here. Many routers have been destroyed at this point because although there is a handle on the tray that facilitates its removal, most people are not ready for the sudden weight change when the end of the tray clears the chassis and the whole thing drops.
Newer chassis have a clip built in that stops the tray to get your attention when the tray stops, you have to move the clip aside to continue removing the board. Wed, 29 Aug Large Scale IP In addition, if the CPU is a general-purpose computer, the interaction between the CPU motherboard and the line cards usually conforms to an open bus operating-system standard, enabling the administrator to choose among multiple vendors for both the line cards and the CPU.
Single CPU designs also can be very cost-effective because the majority of the complex hardware is focused on the CPU itself. Then follow the instructions described in the following subsections to remove parts of the system board assembly.
Instead, when you slide the power button toward the front of the computer and then release it, the button momentarily closes the power switch on the system board.
The power switch sends a signal to the power management controller, signaling the controller to initiate a change of state of the computer's power.
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The resulting power state depends on the present power state. The following subsection gives a description of the power states. A Caution Before performing any of the procedures listed below read and follow the safety instructions in the System Sun, 07 Oct Dell Latitude X Remove the screw securing the modem to the system board, and set it aside. Pull straight up on the attached pull-tab to lift the modem out of its connector on the system board, and disconnect the modem cable.
Align the modem with the screw hole and press the modem into the connector on the system board. Install the screw to secure the modem to the system board. Also, if a parallel printer is connected to the parallel port, the Parallel Ports device group tests the communication link between the system board's I O port logic and the printer.
Gently pull the modem card off of connector JP19 on the system board. Disconnect the fan cable from connector JP17 on the system board. When reinstalling the heat exchanger fan, be sure to reconnect the fan cable to connector JP17 on the system board if you have an internal modem, there is an identical connector JP2 next to JP17 The modem connector is color-coded red. Replacing the Palm Rest Sun, 07 Oct Dell Latitude X To aid with proper flex cable connection, a blue locator line has been added near the end of the palm-rest flex cable.
When replacing the palm-rest flex cable, press the cable into the connector until the blue line aligns with the system board and hold it steady while you snap the ZIF connector down. The blue line may reappear after the connector is closed, which should not indicate a problem with the connection.
Sun, 07 Oct Dell Laptop Bios Password The first thing that needs to be done when removing the screen is to disconnect this ribbon cable from its connector on the motherboard by pulling it upwards. This is the only electronic connection that the screen has with the rest of the notebook.
The motherboard is the next part to be removed. This model has 2 screws fastening the motherboard to the case as shown in the picture. There are 2 more photos following, which show close-ups of each screw to avoid any confusion.
They are shown by red arrows in the photographs. But, unlike previous screws, they do not have a convenient circled letter next to them. Applying a steady gentle lifting force under the middle fore section of the motherboard causes it to swing up.
Sun, 07 Oct Dell Inspiron Q NOTICE To avoid damage to the connector pins, press the keyboard connector evenly into the interface connector on the system board, and do not reverse the keyboard connector.
Connect the keyboard connector of the replacement keyboard to the interface connector on the system board. Pull straight up on the pull-tab that is attached to the display-feed flex cable to disconnect the cable from the system board. When you reinstall the microprocessor module in the system board, make sure that you align the microprocessor connector on the left side of the board and press down firmly on the metal plate that is directly over the connector.
When the microprocessor module is seated, all four corners must be at the same height. If one or more corners of the module are higher than the others, the module is not seated correctly.
NOTICE To avoid damaging the system board, the power cable, battery, and second battery if installed must be removed before you service the computer. Disconnect the LCD flex cable from the connector on the system board by pulling the connector straight up. JV Caution Before performing the following procedures read the safety instructions in your System Information Guide Sun, 07 Oct Dell Latitude D Remove the M2 x 5-mm screw securing the modem to the system board, and set it aside.
Align the modem with the screw hole, and press the modem into the connector on the system board. Sun, 07 Oct Dell Inspiron Disconnect the fan power cable from the system board. Loosen in consecutive order the four captive screws, labeled 1 through 4, that secure the microprocessor thermal-cooling assembly to the system board.
Pull up the microprocessor thermal-cooling assembly by the pull-tab to lift the assembly out of the system board. If your computer has an internal modem, disconnect the modem flex cable see Figure from connector JP20 on the system board and disconnect the twisted wire pair from connector JP2 on the RJ card.
Bend the cables back over the palmrest assembly to move them out of the way of the thermal shield. Last Updated on Wed, 19 Jun Dell Inspiron Align the pin-1 corner of the microprocessor module so that it points to the triangle on the system board, and insert the microprocessor module into the ZIF socket. Tighten the ZIF socket by turning the cam screw clockwise to secure the microprocessor module to the system board. JV Caution Before you begin any of the procedures in this section follow the safety instructions in the System Sun, 07 Oct Dell Latitude X Remove the three M2 x 4-mm screws that secure the system board to the bottom case.
Disconnect the left and right speakers from their system board connectors. Disconnect the reserve battery connector from the system board connector. Disconnect the Bluetooth cable from the system board, if a Bluetooth device is present.
Lift the system board up, from the right side, and out of the bottom case.
Sun, 07 Oct Dell Latitude C C Align the pin-1 corner of the microprocessor module with the pin-1 corner of the microprocessor socket on the system board and insert the microprocessor module. Tighten the ZIF socket by turning the cam screw clockwise to secure the microprocessor module to the system board assembly.
Disconnect the reserve battery cable from the system board connector.
Pry the reserve battery free from the system board. The reserve battery is attached to the system board with a piece of adhesive tape. Remove any remnants of the adhesive tape from the system board.
Caution Before you begin any of the procedures in this section follow the safety instructions in the Sun, 07 Oct Dell Inspiron NOTICE To avoid damaging the system board, you must remove the main battery before you begin working inside the computer. Retaining screw D4 attaches the bottom of the shield to the bottom of the I O panel.
To remove the shield, remove retaining screw D4, rotate the bottom of the shield toward the back of the system board assembly, and lift the shield off the I O panel. See System Board Assembly in Chapter 4. Remove the I O bracket from the system board. Connect the status lights flex cable to the ZIF connector on the system board. System board assembly Main battery release latch 3. Peel the reserve battery away from the foam pad on the system board. The reserve battery is located between the memory module and the PC Card bay, and it is attached to the system board with an adhesive foam pad.
Disconnect the reserve battery cable from the connector on the system board. Gently pull the processor board off of connector JP15 on the system board. Do not rock the board to remove it, because this may damage the connectors. When reinstalling the processor board, align the board with the notch on the system board connector.
Press down on the left side of the board over the system board connector. This is the best spot to apply pressure to seat the processor correctly on connector JP When you replace the display, ensure that the ribbon tape around the display cable is securely tucked underneath the tabs.
Insert the antenna wires through the hinge cover opening and then through the hole in the system board. Ensure that the antenna wires are not twisted and that they are securely attached to the Mini PCI card. To remove the main battery insulator, lift it off the main battery compartment. NOTE The main battery insulator sometimes comes out as part of the system board assembly If this happens, follow the instructions in System Board Assembly in Chapter 4.
System Board Assembly The system board's basic input output system BIOS chip contains the system service tag number, which is also visible on a bar-code label on the bottom of the computer. Remove the following two screws from the system board assembly see Figure 18 NOTE Locate these screws by looking for the white circles on the system board that outline the captive washers. After replacing the system board assembly be sure to enter the To remove the audio card and audio thermal shield, follow these steps see Figure 1.
When replacing it, first align the two screw holes in the board with the holes in the bosses. Then, as you press the audio board into the connector, sight sideways between the audio board and the system board to ensure that all pins on the audio board connector are headed correctly into the system board connector.
The replacement kit for the system board may include a CD that provides a utility for transferring the service tag sequence to the replacement system board. Disconnect the reserve battery cable from the system board. Remove the M2 x 4-mm screw that secures the right front corner of the system board.
Disengage the system board from the back panel Remove the M2 x 8. The M2 x 8. The tab at the left of the clip should go under the palm rest, and the screw hole on the right side of the clip should line up with the holes in the connector ground strip and the threaded hole in the system board The following table lists the beep codes that may be generated during POST.
BIOS corrupted system board faulty BIOS corrupted system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Memory module improperly seated or system memory controller faulty system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Keyboard assembly faulty or system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Memory module improperly seated or system memory controller faulty system board faulty System board faulty Reserve battery faulty or system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty System board faulty System power Disconnect the keyboard cable from the connector on the system board.
The keyboard cable is the wide, flexible cable.
Connect the keyboard cable to the connector on the system board. NOTICE Position the track stick and keyboard cables so they are not twisted when you reconnect them to the system board. NOTE When replacing the palmrest, ensure that the vertical tab at the back of the palmrest fits on the outside of the system board assembly, near the parallel port connector Also, check that the microphone boot is properly located in its slot on the top EMI shield and is fitted within the palmrest assembly.
To disconnect the cable, grasp the pull tab and pull it straight up from the system board. The cable wraps around a bobbin. To remove the display-assembly interface cable, follow these steps Last Updated on Sat, 08 Sep Dell Latitude CP CPi If the computer's display cannot display error messages during the POST, the numbers lock Num Lock , the capitals lock Caps Lock , and the Scroll Lock indicators display codes that identify the problem or help you identify a faulty component or assembly.
The following table lists the error codes that may be generated during POST. Most error codes indicate a fatal error that requires replacement of the system board or other corrective actions before the computer can operate.
BIOS corrupted system board faulty BIOS corrupted system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Memory module improperly seated or system memory controller faulty system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Keyboard assembly faulty or system board faulty System board faulty System board faulty Memory module improperly seated or system memory controller faulty system board faulty System board faulty Reserve battery faulty or system board faulty System board For instructions, see Running the Dell Diagnostics in Chapter 3.Proceed to the next section for instructions on how to remove the modem board.
Disconnect the keyboard cable from the connector on the system board. Remove the M2 x 9. When the CPU receives an interrupt request, it determines how to fulfill this request. Sign Up. The replacement kit for the system board may include a CD that provides a utility for transferring the service tag sequence to the replacement system board. Turn the computer over and disconnect the following cables from the Mainboard.
This is really the equivalent of hiding a door key under the doormat it will not stop any but the most casual hacker. You should begin the upgrade by moving the CPU and heat sink fan assembly to the new motherboard.