Biography Dsa Theory Test Pdf


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Dsa Theory Test Pdf

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When passing the cyclist if it is safe. HC r— When you are moving off from behind a Before moving off you should use parked car you should all the mirrors to check if the road is clear. You will need to use you should go all of the road to pass the cyclist. Look out for entrances to fields where tractors or other farm machinery could be waiting to pull out.

HC r You are travelling along this narrow Look well ahead and only pull out country road.

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To use the telephone you should driving at all times. HC r You cannot see clearly behind when If you want to turn your car reversing. An area covered by your right-hand mirror However. Stop at traffic lights and ask pedestrians first find a safe place to stop. Windscreen pillars can obstruct You should take particular care when your view. If you need to check a map or ask for directions.

Make sure that you leave enough room for a vehicle behind 1. You need to be concentrating on your driving all of the time.

HC r Using a hands-free phone is likely to Unlike someone in the car with you. Windscreen pillars can completely The windscreen pillar is restricting your block your view of pedestrians. Where possible make eye contact with them so you can be sure they have seen you too. What should you be particularly motorcyclists and pedal cyclists.

What should you do before carriageway make sure that the emerging? HC r You are turning right onto a dual Before emerging right onto a dual carriageway. You should particularly watch out for these road users. HC r Section one Questions Your vehicle is fitted with a navigation Vehicle navigation systems can be system.

How should you avoid letting this useful when driving on unfamiliar distract you while driving? An hour into the boring journey. James also turns on his dipped headlights. James begins to feel drowsy. He takes an off-the-shelf cold remedy to help reduce the symptoms. He has a cold and his nose is also slightly blocked.

DSA Theory Test

Case study practice — 1 Alertness James has a two-hour drive to make on a motorway. Section two Attitude In this section. If you drive in a competitive way. HC r DES s7. Try to be calm and tolerant.

However modern. Other drivers. Good manners on the road Be considerate to other road users. A badly positioned vehicle could obstruct traffic behind it. For instance. Attitude Section two Attitude Safe driving is all about developing the correct attitude and approach to road safety. HC r DES s5—8. Think how you would feel if you were one of the drivers following behind you. It will need more time to pass you than a car would.

They may not be as patient as you are. DES s10 Travelling too closely to another vehicle also means that you can see less of the road ahead. If the road is blocked by animals. HC r— DES s5. DES s7. This will give you a greater safety margin. Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front. Safety margins. If the road user behind is following too closely. If another road user cuts in front of you. See section 4. Pull over to let them through as soon as you can do so safely. Emergency vehicles Always give priority to emergency vehicles.

Watch the Blue Light Aware video to find out more about how to help emergency vehicles get through traffic. Sometimes traffic going in one direction is given priority.

Be careful: Giving priority to others Section two Attitude Who has priority on the road at any time can vary. Type of crossing What you need to be aware of Zebra crossing Watch out for pedestrians at or approaching a zebra crossing.

Slow down. In some areas. HC r DES s6. Priority for buses Give priority to buses pulling out from bus stops. HC r DES s7 Meeting the standards You must be able to help other road users to understand what you intend to do by signalling correctly support the signals that you make with the position of your vehicle. Type of crossing What you need to be aware of Section two Attitude Puffin crossing Puffin crossings are electronically controlled. Sensors ensure that the red light shows until the pedestrian has safely crossed the road.

Try not to get annoyed or frustrated give other road users enough time and space. Section two Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor. Read more about attitude to come up with your own ideas. HC r At a pelican crossing the flashing amber Pelican crossings are signal- light means you MUST controlled crossings operated by pedestrians.

HC r You should never wave people across at If people are waiting to use a pedestrian crossings because pedestrian crossing. HC r Section two Questions Following this vehicle too closely is unwise Staying back will increase your because view of the road ahead.

This will help you to see any hazards that might occur and allow you more time to react. HC r A long. HC r You are following a vehicle on a wet road. HC r On a road where trams operate.

HC r What type of emergency vehicle is fitted A green flashing beacon on with a green flashing beacon? HC r When being followed by an ambulance Pull over in a place where the showing a flashing blue beacon you should ambulance can pass safely. HC r You wish to turn right ahead. To allow other drivers to pull out in front This will allow vehicles to pass of you you on the left. Why should If you wish to turn right into a you take up the correct position in good side road take up your position in time?

HC r Section two Questions What should you use your horn for? Your horn must not be used between KYTS p At which type of crossing are cyclists A toucan crossing is designed allowed to ride across with pedestrians? Slow down and look both ways 2. HC r You are approaching unmarked crossroads. HC r You are travelling at the legal speed limit.

Be extra-cautious. HC r— You should ONLY flash your headlights to You should only flash your other road users headlights to warn others of your presence.

You could To measure this. You should progress. HC r The conditions are good and dry. They could misunderstand your signal. Its right-hand indicator is flashing. HC r Section two Questions At a puffin crossing. HC r A bus has stopped at a bus stop ahead Give way to buses whenever you of you.

Look out for people leaving the bus and crossing the road. What action car behind is following you too should you take? The driver behind It can be worrying to see that the you is following very closely. HC r You are in a line of traffic.

It signals left but steers to the right. The when you can be sure that you national speed limit applies. Be tolerant and try not to retaliate or react aggressively. There is Use the full beam headlights only a steady stream of oncoming traffic.

What should drivers make incorrect or ill- you do? HC r You are driving on a clear night. HC r You are driving behind a large goods Large. The red van There are times when other cuts in close in front of you. HC r You are driving along this road.

Always consider the safety of other road users. HC r Section two Questions You are waiting in a traffic queue at night. You should to overtake safely. If necessary. HC r You are driving in traffic at the speed limit Keep a steady course to give for the road. You should consider drivers To avoid dazzling following drivers you behind as brake lights can dazzle.

The driver behind is trying to the driver behind an opportunity overtake. Animals are unpredictable and startle easily. Allow the sheep to clear the road You should before you proceed. This can cause disruption to traffic and delays to public transport. HC r A person herding sheep asks you to stop. You especially for children and older should pedestrians. They may walk across without looking.

HC r Section two Questions You are approaching a zebra crossing. Plan ahead and learn to anticipate hazards. Where you can see pedestrians waiting to cross. HC r A vehicle pulls out in front of you at a Try to be ready for the unexpected. Pedestrians are on the crossing.

Look out on the approach Pedestrians are waiting to cross. HC r You are driving at night on an unlit road If you follow another vehicle with behind another vehicle. HC r You should leave at least a two-second gap In good. You should your headlights on full beam they could dazzle the driver. If you are driving a vehicle for the first time you should take time to check all the controls. This will if spilled on a wet road.

Take care not to overfill the tank or spill fuel. Make sure you secure the filler cap as soon as you have replaced the fuel nozzle. HC p You have a loose filler cap on your diesel Diesel fuel is especially slippery fuel tank. HC p To avoid spillage after refuelling. You should traffic. HC r Section two Questions You are driving a slow-moving vehicle on a Try not to hold up a queue of narrow winding road.

The traffic is still heavy. There are people waiting to cross. It has rained. A large vehicle in front signals left but straddles both lanes. Case study practice — 2 Attitude Sam is driving in heavy traffic. Sam needs to take the first exit. A car overtakes. Section three Safety and your vehicle In this section. Steering Wipers and washers The battery may need topping up with distilled water.

Safety and your vehicle Section three Safety and your vehicle Look after your car and it will look after you. Uneven will ensure that you get an accurate this is low. This fluid: Speedometer The windscreen should be free of Lights Seat belts Horn cracks and chips.

HC p— DES s Looking after your car Regular maintenance should ensure that your car is safe and fit to be on the road. Exhaust Brakes system Tyre condition: Remember that an efficient engine is kinder to the environment. It will also help to make sure that your car uses fuel as efficiently as possible and keep its exhaust emissions to a minimum. Push down hard over each wheel: It can cause unnecessary wear to the tyres and steering mechanism.

DES s3 To check the condition of the shock absorbers. The tread on car and trailer Tread must be at least … all the way around the tyre 1. Warning lights on the dashboard tell you about the performance of the engine and warn you of any faults. It may happen if you use them continuously. HC p DES s3. In this situation. Safety equipment Modern cars are fitted with equipment designed to keep you as safe as possible. The airbag MUST be deactivated first. MUST use a suitable child restraint. Seat belts and restraints Always wear your seat belt and make sure your passengers wear theirs unless exempt.

MUST wear a seat belt unless exempt. Never fit a rear-facing baby seat in a seat protected by an active airbag.

The driver is responsible for making sure that children under 14 wear a suitable restraint. Children aged from 3 to 12 years. Children under 3 years of age MUST use a suitable child seat. When you get into the car adjust the seat so that you can reach all the controls comfortably adjust the head restraint to help prevent neck injury in a collision wear suitable shoes so that you can keep control of the pedals adjust the mirrors so that you can see as clearly as possible all around.

HC r97 DES s3. Convex mirrors give a wider view but can make vehicles look further away than they are. Use a steering lock. Make it as difficult as you can for a thief to either break into your car or steal it. DES s12 Hazard warning lights are fitted so that you can warn road users of a hazard ahead. Remove the car keys and lock your car. Stereos and other forms of in-car entertainment are prime targets for thieves.

Always lock away valuable items. Install a security-coded stereo to deter thieves. At night. Lock any contents. Make it as difficult as you can for a thief to either break into your Section three Safety and your vehicle car or steal it. Contact the crime prevention officer at your local police station to find out more. Avoid parking where your car would block access or visibility for others.

Use this link to find out more about thefts from vehicles. HC r Always switch off the engine and lock your car before leaving it. This would block the view of pedestrians and road users. Use selective gear changing: You can help the environment by driving in an ecosafe way: DES s17 Ecosafe driving Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. Have your vehicle regularly serviced and tuned properly. Burning these fuels causes air pollution and damages the environment.

Being aware of the environment Section three Safety and your vehicle Most cars burn petrol or diesel. Reduce your speed. Plan well ahead so that you can drive smoothly. DES s22 Keeping your car in good condition Having your car serviced regularly will help you to maintain the fuel economy of your car. Using public transport or sharing a car can reduce the volume of traffic and vehicle emissions.

Follow these guidelines to make your driving ecosafe. If your vehicle is over three years old over four years old in Northern Ireland. Excessive use of this will burn more fuel. DES s17 In an automatic car. Make sure your tyres are correctly inflated. Use this website to calculate vehicle tax rates. Make sure your fuel filler cap is securely fastened.

In built-up areas. Spilt diesel fuel makes the road slippery for other road users. Take them to a local authority site or a garage. If you can avoid travelling at busy times. In some towns and cities you may see red lines on the side of the road. They help the traffic flow by restricting stopping on these routes.

DES s18 Find out more about congestion charging in London using this website. In London. Section three Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor.

Do this with your lesson route and see how you can avoid busy times and places.

Prepare an alternative route as well. Read more about safety and your vehicle to come up with your own ideas. They are also much quieter than petrol or diesel engined vehicles and can carry a large number of passengers. It is illegal to sound your horn in a built-up area between HC p It is essential that tyre pressures are When you check the tyre checked regularly. This will give you a more accurate reading. When should this pressures do so when the tyres be done?

HC r Road humps. What Some modern batteries are should you top it up with? Check your vehicle handbook and. HC r What is most likely to cause high fuel Accelerating and braking gently consumption?

HC p Excessive or uneven tyre wear can be Regular servicing will help to caused by faults in which THREE of the detect faults at an early stage and following? Where When parking at night.

Exhaust emissions are harmful This has resulted in to health. What level Top up the battery with distilled should you fill to? How can you do this? This is because you are not adding needlessly to traffic congestion. Printing or writing out the route can also help.

Always carry a map with you just in case you need to refer to it. Contact your local garage Look at a map to help you to do this. Why should you also plan to find your planned route an alternative route? You should your journey in case of unforeseen problems. Anything can happen: HC p While driving. HC p Excessive or uneven tyre wear can be Uneven wear on your tyres can caused by faults in the be caused by the condition of your vehicle.

It means fault in your braking system could have dangerous consequences. You should garage before driving the vehicle. A dashboard comes on. What does corner or bend in the road. A properly adjusted head restraint 3.

HC p You are testing your suspension. To enable you to walk for assistance if you break down 3. You notice If you find that your vehicle that your vehicle keeps bouncing when you bounces as you drive around a press down on the front wing.

HC p The legal minimum depth of tread for car Tyres must have sufficient depth tyres over three quarters of the breadth is of tread to give them a good grip on the road surface. HC p It is illegal to drive with tyres that When checking your tyres for cuts and bulges in the side walls.

Who is reduce the risk of injury. If responsible for seeing that the children you are carrying passengers wear seat belts? HC r You are carrying two year-old children Seat belts save lives and and their parents in your car. Driving at 70 mph uses more fuel than Your vehicle will use less fuel if driving at 50 mph by up to you avoid heavy acceleration. Your vehicle pulls to one side when braking. The brakes on your vehicle You should must be effective and properly adjusted.

You have to leave valuables in your car. If you have to leave valuables in It would be safer to your car, always lock them out of sight. Which of the following may help to deter a Having your car registration thief from stealing your car?

When leaving your vehicle parked and An unlocked car is an open unattended you should invitation to thieves. Which TWO of the following will improve Harsh braking, constant gear fuel consumption?

You service your own vehicle. How should It is illegal to pour engine oil down you get rid of the old engine oil? Oil is a pollutant and harmful to wildlife. To help protect the environment against If your vehicle is not serviced pollution regularly, it may fail the annual MOT test.

To reduce the damage your vehicle causes By looking well ahead and to the environment you should recognising hazards early you can avoid last-minute harsh braking. You enter a road where there are road The humps are there for a reason humps. Harsh braking and accelerating uses more fuel.

When should you especially check the During long journeys an engine engine oil level? If not, you should refer to the vehicle handbook. Also make checks on. You space in a busy town. You can see there will be causing an obstruction is space on the zigzag lines of a zebra by obscuring the view of both crossing.

Can you park there? When leaving your vehicle where should Whenever possible leave your car you park if possible? This will help stop thieves. Think other road users? The most important reason for having a The restraint should be adjusted properly adjusted head restraint is to so that it gives maximum protection to the head and neck. As a driver you can cause more damage to For short journeys it may be the environment by quicker to walk, or cycle, which is far better for your health.

How can you reduce the chances of your When leaving your car take all car being broken into when leaving it valuables with you if you can, unattended?

How can you help to prevent your car radio A security-coded radio can deter being stolen? Section three Questions How can you lessen the risk of your vehicle Having your vehicle broken into being broken into at night?

To help keep your car secure you The vehicle watch scheme helps could join a reduce the risk of having your car stolen. On a vehicle, where would you find a Although carbon dioxide is still catalytic converter?

How can driving in an ecosafe manner help Ecosafe driving is all about protect the environment? What does ecosafe driving achieve?

The emphasis is on hazard awareness and planning ahead. You are checking your trailer tyres. What Trailers and caravans may be left is the legal minimum tread depth over the in storage over the winter months central three quarters of its breadth? Section three Questions Fuel consumption is at its highest when Always try to use the accelerator you are smoothly. You are driving the children of a friend Passengers should always be home from school. They are both under secured and safe.

Children should 14 years old. Who is responsible for making be encouraged to fasten their sure they wear a seat belt or approved child seat belts or approved restraints restraint where required?

You have too much oil in your engine. What Too much oil in the engine will could this cause? They are under MUST be used. If your vehicle is stationary and is You will be waiting for some time for a likely to remain so for some time.

They are under to ensure that children are secure 1. You and safe in your vehicle. HC r99 You are carrying an year-old child in It is your responsibility as a driver the back seat of your car.

HC r You are parked at the side of the road. A correct child exceptional cases if one is not restraint is NOT available. HC r99 You are carrying a five-year-old child in Usually a correct child restraint the back seat of your car.

In a few 1. Make MUST make sure that sure you are familiar with the rules. HC r Section three Questions You are using a rear-facing baby seat. It is MUST you do before setting off? What or even death to the child.

You If the airbag activates near a baby want to put it on the front passenger seat seat. When may you leave the parked on a road. HC r You are leaving your vehicle parked on a When you leave your vehicle road unattended.

Jeff reaches a major junction. In the city. Jeff has to park on the roadside. He leaves his camera on the back seat. At work. When parking. He picks up his laptop to take to work and locks the car. Case study practice — 3 Safety and your vehicle Jeff drives through the city centre. Section four Safety margins In this section. Excessive braking on hills can cause your brakes to overheat and become less effective.

Keep control of your car by using the correct procedures. HC r Stopping distance Leave enough room between your vehicle and the one in front so that you can pull up safely if it slows down or stops suddenly. Never take risks. Your overall stopping distance is the distance your car travels from the moment that you realise you must brake to the moment your car stops.

HC r DES s5.

Use a fixed point. Typical stopping distances Look at the typical stopping. In other conditions. Keeping a safe distance from the vehicle in front will help to lower your risk of having a collision. If someone overtakes you and pulls into the gap in front.

Section four Safety margins 2 secs In good. Never underestimate the dangers. Other drivers might not be able to see your indicators flashing.

You may need to dry them out by pressing lightly on the brake pedal as you drive. If this happens. HC r— Find more information about winter driving at this website. This is where the tyres lift off the road surface and skate on a film of water. The road surface can become soft and may begin to melt. The steering becomes light. Weather conditions Weather conditions have a major effect on your safety margins.

This could affect your braking and steering. Give an arm signal if you think it will be helpful. Bright sunlight can dazzle. If visibility falls below metres feet. Take care and allow extra room if you pass these road users.

Weather Actions to take Section four Safety margins Freezing Freezing conditions can make roads very slippery. DES 7 When driving. You MUST switch them off when the fog lifts. HC r— Foggy Fog reduces your visibility.

Check your left side as you pass them. Before starting a journey. Skidding Skidding is when the tyres lose grip on the road. If you brake too hard and start to skid. Road surface and tyre conditions can increase the risk of skidding. Wheel speed sensors anticipate when a wheel is about to lock.

ABS will help prevent skidding caused by braking too hard for the conditions. To reduce the risk of skidding. Section four Safety margins scan the road ahead for clues such as road signs and markings. Contraflow systems contraflow system where one or more lanes have a direction of traffic against that of the rest of the carriageway When you enter a contraflow system.

What actions can you take to reduce risk? How can you reduce the risk of skidding and what should you do if you start to skid? Section four Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor.

Read more about safety margins to come up with your own ideas. It also reduces the risk of collision with an oncoming vehicle that may have drifted over the centre line while taking the bend. HC r When approaching a right-hand bend you Doing this will give you an earlier should keep well to the left.

HC r Braking distances on ice can be In icy and snowy weather. HC r— In windy conditions you need to take extra You should always give cyclists care when plenty of room when overtaking. HC r Freezing conditions will affect the distance Your tyre grip is greatly reduced it takes you to come to a stop. You should on icy roads and you need to expect stopping distances to increase by allow up to ten times the normal up to stopping distance.

HC r Where are you most likely to be affected by In windy conditions. This will be most affected? On a busy stretch of road motorcyclists. Try pacing out 73 metres and then look back. It will take at least this distance to think. HC r Section four Questions In very hot weather the road surface can Only a small part of your tyres become soft.

Which TWO of the following is in contact with the road. Your speed have left. This should allow you to pull up safely if you have to.

155751305 the Official DSA Theory Test for Car Drivers PDF 16th 2013 E Nodrm

Your Stopping distances are affected brakes and tyres are good. HC r You are following a vehicle at a safe Wet weather will affect the time distance on a wet road. What is your typical overall stopping usually take you further than distance? What is the by a number of variable factors.

Another driver it takes for you to stop and can overtakes you and pulls into the gap you affect your control. HC r What should you do when overtaking a In strong winds riders of two- motorcyclist in strong winds? These include the type. This will give you more space in front if you have to brake. You are on distance. The distance could be greater than this depending on your attention and response to any hazards.

This will help you see you do to reduce the chances of being in and be seen by other road users. How can you travel at high speeds despite lower the risk of a collision? HC r In heavy motorway traffic the vehicle behind On busy roads traffic may still you is following too closely. These figures are a general guide. What else can headlights. You need to add a good. HC r You are following other vehicles in fog.

HC r You are driving on an icy road. HC r You are driving in freezing conditions. HC r To avoid a collision when entering a In a contraflow system you will contraflow system. HC r Skidding is mainly caused by You should always consider the conditions and drive accordingly. What Harsh use of the accelerator. If you attempt to move off in a low You should use gear. HC r When driving in falling snow you should Braking on snow can be extremely dangerous.

Steer into the skid but be careful The back of your vehicle slides to the right.

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HC r You are trying to move off on snow. HC r Section four Questions You are turning left on a slippery road. When going down a steep hill To control the speed of your vehicle you your vehicle will speed up. HC r You are about to go down a steep hill. This should will make it more difficult for you to stop.

Which Turning the wheels towards TWO of the following should you do? You should to slow down traffic. HC r Anti-lock brakes reduce the chances of a The anti-lock braking system will skid occurring particularly when operate when the brakes have been applied harshly. Be aware of pedestrians in these areas.

Slow down when driving over them. HC r Anti-lock brakes are of most use when Anti-lock brakes will not be you are required when braking normally. If you go too fast they may affect your steering and suspension. HC r Section four Questions You are driving in a built-up area. You Many towns have speed humps approach a speed hump. HC r Driving a vehicle fitted with anti-lock brakes When stopping in an emergency allows you to anti-lock brakes will help you continue to steer when braking.

Look well ahead down the road lock brakes. This is build up between the tyre and most likely to happen when driving the road surface. You need to stop in an as you drive and give yourself emergency. HC r You are driving a vehicle fitted with anti. You should apply the footbrake time and space to react safely to any hazards. Look in your vehicle handbook for the correct method when stopping in an emergency. Before you do this.

HC r You are driving along a wet road. HC r How can you tell if you are driving on ice? Drive extremely carefully when the roads are icy. HC r Section four Questions You are driving along a country road. You Deep water can affect your see this sign. AFTER dealing safely with the brakes.

For safety. HC r Anti-lock brakes are most effective Releasing the brake before you when you have slowed right down will disable the system. HC r Your overall stopping distance will be much Extra care should be taken in longer when driving wet weather as. HC r You are on a fast.

To check for a two-second time gap. HC r Travelling for long distances in neutral Coasting is the term used when known as coasting the clutch is held down. When you coast. HC r You are on a wet motorway with surface When surface spray reduces spray. You should use visibility switch on your dipped headlights. Coasting also removes the assistance of engine braking that helps to slow the car. Case study practice — 4 Safety margins You have a short but essential journey to make.

On turning left. Your tyres are making almost no sound. Section five Hazard awareness In this section. A hazard is a situation that may require you. As your skills improve. Hazard awareness Section five Hazard awareness When you start learning to drive.

Hazards can be … moving. Watch out for signs and markings so that you can slow down in good time and are prepared for any action you may need to take. At level crossings with traffic light signals. Could I do it safely? HC r Road signs Road signs and markings are there to give you clues about possible hazards.

You can find them in The Official Highway Code book. Static hazards There are many types of static hazard. HC r— DES s7. Parked vehicles Section five Hazard awareness In busy areas. Where lanes are closed. Would you be able to stop. Be careful not to block a junction: HC r DES s8. Take extra care and pull forward slowly until you can see down the road.

You may also be able to see reflections of traffic in the windows of buildings. Breakdowns If your vehicle breaks down and is causing an obstruction. HC r Slow-moving or stationary vehicles with a large arrow displayed on the back show where you need to change lanes when approaching roadworks. There may be police officers controlling traffic in these circumstances — make sure that you know and understand their signals. They may wobble or swerve to avoid drains or potholes.

They may be walking towards you on your side of the road. When travelling in slow traffic. Reduce your speed and give them plenty of room when overtaking.

Moving hazards Section five Hazard awareness Moving hazards tend to be hazards caused by other types of road user. At junctions or traffic lights.

Road user What to do Pedestrians If you see pedestrians in the road. On country roads there may be no pavement. At some bridges. Road user What to do Drivers of large vehicles If you see a bus at a bus stop. When turning right. Learn what loads the signs mean. If you need to. HC p Drivers overtaking you Watch out for vehicles.

HC p Drivers of vehicles Some vehicles have information signs on the back. HC r DES s10 Large goods vehicles over 13 metres long have red and yellow markings at the back of the vehicle. Road user What to do Section five Hazard awareness Disabled people using Reduce your speed and be careful.

Older drivers Older drivers may not react very quickly. Change the way you drive to suit the weather conditions. HC r91 DES s1. These may be convex curved outwards slightly to give a wider field of vision. Bright sunlight Be aware that sunlight can dazzle you or other drivers. You need to be alert and concentrate on your driving at all times. Plan your journey so that you have enough rest and refreshment breaks.

Ice Increase your distance from the vehicle in front to 20 seconds. If you feel tired. In these conditions … remember to do this Rain Double your distance from the vehicle in front to four seconds. Fog Slow down and use dipped headlights.You service your own vehicle. Discuss with your instructor what you need to take into account before overtaking, eg road markings, bends, etc what could distract you while driving, eg friends, loud music, etc how to avoid getting bored while driving long distances.

When passing horses keep your speed right down give them plenty of room. Make sure your tyres are correctly inflated. Lock any contents. Be ready to slow down and stop.

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