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COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS BY ANITA GOEL PDF

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Computer Fundamentals by Anita Goel Full Book - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Computer fundamental by analytical. View Notes - Computer Fundamentals by Anita Goel Full myavr.info from CS & IT at The University of Lahore - Defence Road Campus, Lahore. Computer Fundamentals book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Computer Fundamentals is specifically designed to be used at the beg.

Computer Fundamentals and Programming in C

Wasan and Dr. D uring m y journey o f book w riting. I th an k M r Neeraj Saxena. Babbage's analytical engine. Rascal's adding and subtraction machine. W h e re ve r w e are— sitting in our homes. Napier's bones. In this era of inform ation. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to the "com puter".

T hey are used for the reservation o f tickets for airplanes and railways. Leibniz's multiplication and dividing machine. Secondary' storage devices like floppy disk and com pact disk can store a large am ount of data permanently. This chapter discusses the history and evolution o f com puter. T h e term com puter is derived from the w ord compute.

At one m om ent you can use the com puter to prepare a letter d o cu m en t and in the next m om ent you may play m usic or print a docum ent. A lim ited am ount o f data can be stored. C o m p u ter perform s both simple and complex operations. C o m p u ter cannot do any work w ithout instructions from the user. Analog computer is another kind o f a com puter that represents data as variable across a continuous range o f values.

For example. C om puters are also used extensively in schools. T h is book deals only w ith the digital computer and uses the term computer for them. Some calculations that w ould have taken hours and days to com plete otherwise. All inform ation are represented using the digits Os and Is. It can perform long and complex calculations with the same speed and accuracy from the start till the end.

Computer Fundamentals

C o m p u ter is versatile in nature. C o m p u ter can only perform tasks that it has been program m ed to do. T he com puters that we use at our hom es and offices are digital com puters. T h e w ord compute means to calculate. Analog com puters m ay be m ore flexible bur generally less precise than digital com puters. T his chapter also discusses the classification of digital com puters based on their size and type.

Slide rule is an example o f an analog com puter. T h e earliest com puters were analog com puters. It can perform different types o f tasks w ith the same ease. An abacus is shown in Figure 1. Using the slide rule. He invented the punched card reader that could recognize the presence o f hole in the punched card as binary one and the absence o f the hole as binary zero. Figure 1. It was used extensively till late s. T he G erm an philosopher and m athem atician G ottfried Leibniz built it around It consists o f bars in horizontal positions on which sets o f beads are inserted.

T he Os and Is are the basis of the m odem digital computer. A punched card is shown in Figure 1. T he horizontal bars have 10 beads each. T he m achine consisted o f wheels. You have either reached a page that is unavailable for viewing or reached your viewing limit for this book.

T hey try to sim ulate the hum an way o f thinking and reasoning. T hese co m p u ters have large m em ory req u irem en ts. T his generation o f com puters uses parallel processing that allows several instructions to be executed in parallel.

Parallel processing results in faster processing speed. T h e Intel dualcore microprocessor uses parallel processing. T h e fifth generation com puters are based on Artificial Intelligence AI.

A lthough m icrocom puters are stand-alone machines. T h e com puters are broadly classified into four categories Figure 1. Introduction to Computer 7 are able to store m illions o f c o m p o n e n ts on a single chip. It is a stand-alone m achine that can be placed o n the desk. Tablet com puter are the new kind o f PCs. Starting w ith the earliest netbook in late It is not very expensive and is suited to the needs o f a single user at hom e.

T hey are portable and have all the features o f a desktop com puter. It is a portable com puter. M icrosoft. Laptops can be placed on the lap while w orking hence the name.

T he advantage o f the laptop is that it is small in size can be p u t inside a briefcase. Web surfing or instant messaging. Dell and Lenovo are some o f the P C m anufacturers. N etbooks deliver the perform ance needed to enjoy popular activities like stream ing videos or music. Laptops are costlier than the desktop machines. An intelligent terminal has the input and o u tp u t device. PDAs do not have a disk drive. M inicom puters can support 4— users simultaneously. IBM series are some o f the widely used m inicom puters.

It is small in size. PD P M ainframe com puter. M ainfram e com puters are used in organizations like banks or com panies. T hey are used to access the electronic-m ail. PD A uses a pen or a stylus for input.

Casio and Apple are some o f the m anufacturers o f PDA. T hey can be connected to the Internet wirelessly. O ver the last few years. S upercom puters are b u ilt by in te rc o n n e c tin g thousands o f processors th a t can w ork in parallel.

T hey operate at a very high speed. Som e o f the faster su p erco m p u ters can perform trillio n s o f calculations per second. T hey may use a stylus or a pen. PDAs can be connected to the Internet via a wireless connection. T hey have a lim ited m em ory and are less powerful. T h e users can access the m inicom puter through their PC s or term inal.

PDAs have merged into mobile phones to create sm art phones. Nokia and LG are some o f the m anufacturers o f sm art phones. Instead o f the keyboard. A dumb terminal cannot store data or do processing o f its own. Program is a set of instructions. D ata are isolated values or raw facts.

T h e hardware carries o u t these tasks. Introduction to Computer 11 Hardware consists o f the mechanical parts that make up the com puter as a m achine. The hardware o f the com puter system cannot perform any task on its own. T h e data is provided as in p u t to the com puter. T he concept o f generating output information from the input data is also referred to as input-process-output concept.

A set o f program s and docum ents are collectively called software. Users are people who w rite com puter program s or interact w ith the com puter.

January and are processed by the com puter to give the date o f birth o f a person. T h e devices are required for input.

Copy righted. T h e hardware needs to be instructed about the task to be perform ed. Different software can be loaded on the same hardware to perform different kinds o f tasks. T hey are also known as skinware.

Pascals Adding and Subtraction M achine. T h e com putation time is in picoseconds. T h ey were sm aller in size. High-level languages were used for programming. A com puter may be analog or digital computer. These com puters use SLSl chips and have large m em ory requirements. T h e list o f applications o f com puters is so long that it is not possible to discuss all o f them here.

T hey use parallel processing and are based on AI. In addition to the applications o f the com puters discussed above. These were large in size. T he com putation time was in nanoseconds. They consumed less power and required low maintenance compared to their predecessors.

Slide Rule. T h e fifth generation com puters are still being developed. Programs were w ritten in assembly language. M icrocom puters include desktop com puters.

Charles Babbage is called the father of com puter. Jacquard Punched Card System. T hey became available both to the hom e user and for com m ercial use. T h e com puters became small.

T h eir com putation tim e was in milliseconds. Introduction to Computer 15 relatives via Internet. T h ey used the stored program concept. These computers were produced commercially. C U and Registers. T h e y have very high speed. C P U and M em ory unit are the three m ain components o f computer. CPU processes the in p u t data. M inicom puters can support users simultaneously. T h e m em ory unit stores programs. What is the key feature of the Jacquards punch card? The fourth generation for circuitry.

Section 1. List three significant limitations of the computer. Give two examples of fifth generation computers. Define an intelligent terminal. List the main characteristics of the computer. Describe the fourth generation computer based on the a Hardware b Software c Computing characteristics d Physical appearance and e Their applications.

Who is called the Father of Computer? Define a dumb terminal. List three categories of microcomputers. Define mainframe computer. Describe the fifth generation computer based on the a Hardware b Software c Computing characteristics d Physical appearance and c Their applications.

Give two examples of third generation computers. Give two examples of second generation computers. Define minicomputers. The second generation for circuitry. Give two examples of first generation computers. What is a calculating machine? List the drawbacks of the third generation computers. Define microcomputer. Name the first calculating device for the counting of large numbers.

Give two examples of minicomputer. Give two examples of microcomputer. Describe the characteristics of the computer. Give two examples of mainframe computer. Give two examples of fourth generation computers.

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Computer architecture refers to the structure and behavior o f the com puter. Why this chapter? It deals with how the hardware com ponents operate and the way they are connected to form the com puter. As a user of the computer.

D ifferent kinds o f com puter. It includes the specifications o f the com ponents. This chapter describes the different hardware com ponents of the computer. Given the system specifications.

Given the com ponents. Any interm ediate results generated during the processing o f program are stored in RAM.

R O M comes program m ed by the m anufacturer. RAM provides temporary storage for d ata and in stru ctio n s. Cache built into the C P U is faster than separate cache. Prim ary m em ory is sem iconductor memory. T h e data and instructions that require processing are brought into the RAM from the storage devices like hard disk. In addition to the built-in Ll and L2 cachc. This cache on the m otherboard is called Level 3 L3 cache.

T h e storage in R O M is perm anent in nature. It is used to store data and instructions during the processing o f data. T h e processor need not spend tim e in finding o u t where each instruction begins and ends. O n the basis o f the instruction set. A program is divided into m ultiple processes that are handled in parallel in order to reduce execution time. P ip e lin in g improves instruction execution speed by putting the execution steps into parallel.

T h e PCs are based on the x86 instruction set. M IP S m illion instructions per second. T his allows for more instructions to be perform ed. All high-level language support is done in the software. Bits is a set o f electronic signal pathways that allows inform ation Copyrighted. A C P U can receive a single instruction. T his connector interfaces with the built-in graphics card. It corresponds to a netw ork card integrated into the m otherboard.

VGA connector for connecting a m onitor. Figure 2. It uses a thin wire to connect to the devices. It includes Wi-Fi card.

T hey are m uch faster than ISA cards. T his connector interfaces w ith the built-in sound card. T here is a wire for each bit o f the word or byte and additional wires to coordinate the activity o f moving inform ation. PC Card— It is used in laptop computers. There are several types o f slots: These cards give the com puter new features or increased performance.

T hey also connect the floppy drives. The cache size varies between 32 KB to 4M B Any program or data that has to be executed m ust be brought into RAM from the secondary memory T h e internal m em ory consists o f the C P U registers T h e external m em ory is also called the secondary m emory V 0 Internal Memory— T h e key features o f internal m em ory are— 1 lim ited storage capacity The machine was called as difference engine.

Later, Charles Babbage and Lady Ada Lovelace developed a general-purpose calculating machine, the analytical engine. Charles Babbage is also called the father of computer. The machine could read the information from a punched card and process it electronically. The developments discussed above and several others not discussed here, resulted in the development of the first computer in the s. The evolution of computer to the current state is defined in terms of the generations of computer.

Each generation of computer is designed based on a new technological development, resulting in better, cheaper and smaller computers that are more powerful, faster and efficient than their predecessors. Currently, there are five generations of computer. In the following subsections, we will discuss the generations of computer in terms of— 1. The input to the computer was through punched cards and paper tapes.

The output was displayed as printouts. Machine language uses 0s and 1s for coding of the instructions. The first generation computers could solve one problem at a time. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in milliseconds. Physical Appearance These computers were enormous in size and required a large room for installation. Application They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest computing device of their time.

The first generation computers used a large number of vacuum tubes and thus generated a lot of heat. They consumed a great deal of electricity and were expensive to operate. The machines were prone to frequent malfunctioning and required constant maintenance. Since first generation computers used machine language, they were difficult to program. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, energy efficient and reliable.

The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory. They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. The input was still through punched cards and the output using printouts. They used the concept of a stored program, where instructions were stored in the memory of computer. It is easier to write instructions in assembly language, as compared to writing instructions in machine language.

Computing Characteristics The computation time was in microseconds. Physical Appearance Transistors are smaller in size compared to vacuum tubes, thus, the size of the computer was also reduced. Application The cost of commercial production of these computers was very high, though less than the first generation computers.

The transistors had to be assembled manually in second generation computers. Second generation computers generated a lot of heat but much less than the first generation computers. They required less maintenance than the first generation computers. In an IC chip, multiple transistors are placed on a silicon chip. Silicon is a type of semiconductor. The use of IC chip increased the speed and the efficiency of computer, manifold. The keyboard and monitor were used to interact with the third generation computer, instead of the punched card and printouts.

Operating system allowed different applications to run at the same time. High-level languages were used extensively for programming, instead of machine language and assembly language. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in nanoseconds. Physical Appearance The size of these computers was quite small compared to the second generation computers. Application Computers became accessible to mass audience. Computers were produced commercially, and were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

The third generation computers used less power and generated less heat than the second generation computers. The cost of the computer reduced significantly, as individual components of the computer were not required to be assembled manually. The maintenance cost of the computers was also less compared to their predecessors. Thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip using LSI technology.

VLSI allows hundreds of thousands of components to be integrated in a small chip. This era is marked by the development of microprocessor. A microprocessor chip is shown in Figure 1. This generation of computers gave rise to Personal Computer PC. Semiconductor memory replaced the earlier magnetic core memory, resulting in fast random access to memory. Secondary storage device like magnetic disks became smaller in physical size and larger in capacity.

The linking of computers is another key development of this era. The computers were linked to form networks that led to the emergence of the Internet. This generation also saw the development of pointing devices like mouse, and handheld devices. GUI is a user-friendly interface that allows user to interact with the computer via menus and icons.

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Write two features each of CD-R. RISC processors can handle multiple instructions simultaneously by processing them in parallel. The maintenance cost of the computers was also less compared to their predecessors. This era is marked by the development of microprocessor. Laptops can be placed on the lap while working hence the name.

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