CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA ESSAY PDF
PARDEE RAND GRADUATE SCHOOL. R. Three Essays on Child. Labor and Education in. Developing Countries. Seo Yeon Hong. Thre e E ssa y. s o n C h. Essays on Child Labour, its Relation with Competitiveness of Labour. Intensive Exports, its Determinants and Education in India. Dissertation zur Erlangung des . increasing incidence of child labour in India is a critical problem lurking on the 3 Arrighi, Giovamiand SAUL, S.(),''Essay On the Political Economy of.
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For many years, child labour has been one of the biggest obstacles to social not easy task for developing countries like India to achieve banning child labour. Contains a collection of essays on street children and child labour. .. Burra, Neera: Born to work: Child labour in India, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, xxvi, .. myavr.info myavr.info Chapter 9: Assessment of Condition of Child labour working in different Estimate of Trends in India's Child Labour by Rural-Urban, /10 (in millions).
By systematic random sampling, children between ages of 5—15 years were selected from among the working children in the district. A structured questionnaire was designed, including questions about the child, his family, nature of work and workplace and socio economic conditions.
Informed consent was obtained from parents of working children. Results The mean age of children in the sample was Besides these, some children worked in homes as house servants, did shoe polishing or worked in small businesses in the neighborhood. A majority of girls worked either as house servants or picked paper and other stuff from garbage dumps. A more recent report by international labour organization ILO , claims  that child labour is significant in Tamil Nadu's fireworks, matches or incense sticks industries.
However, these children do not work in the formal economy and corporate establishments that produce for export. The child labourers in manufacturing typically toil in supply chains producing for the domestic market of fireworks, matches or incense sticks.
The ILO report claims that as the demand for these products has grown, the formal economy and corporate establishments have not expanded to meet the demand, rather home-based production operations have mushroomed. This has increased the potential of child labour.
Child labour in India
Such hidden operations make research and effective action difficult, suggests ILO. A Human Rights Watch report, claims children as young as five years old are employed and work for up to 12 hours a day and six to seven days a week in silk industry. In , a German news investigative report claimed that in states like Karnataka , non-governmental organisations had found up to 15, children working in the 1, silk factories in In other places, thousands of bonded child labourers were present in The released children were back in school, claims the report.
He notes, "determining the extent to which the hand-made carpet supply chain from India to the U. Kara and colleagues report highest level of child labour in Muslim community carpet operations,  and the presence of debt bonded child labourers in Muslim villages.
Official estimates for child labour working as domestic labour and in restaurants is more than 2,, while NGOs estimate the figure to be around 20 million. Despite laws enacted in , prohibiting employment of people under the age of 18 in the mines primitive coal mines in Meghalaya using child labour were discovered and exposed by the international media in A related area identified as problematic are the granite quarries. In , the Indian government formed the Gurupadswamy Committee to find about child labour and means to tackle it.
The Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act was enacted based on the recommendations of the committee in The Indian government has enacted a plethora of acts, laws, organizations, and institutions to combat the overwhelming prominence of child labour.
Essay Child Labour In India
Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts. In India, millions of children are forced into child labour due to poverty, high illiteracy rates due to lack of education, unemployment, overpopulation, etc. As reported by Save the Children, children between the ages of 14—17 years engage in hazardous work and account for Larger cities provide more opportunity for work compared to smaller, rural areas.
Uttar Pradesh, a state in northern India, has 19,27, child labourers. Dehli, the capital of India, has over 1 million child labourers. Child labour was found to be present in other minority religions of India but at significantly lower rates. Across caste classification, the children had child labour incidence rates of 2.
Tribal populations, however, had higher child labour rates at 3. Media related to Child labour in India at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: Debt bondage in India. ILO, United Nations. Census Government of India. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 20 September ILO, Geneva. FAO, United Nations. Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 29 January Retrieved 9 February CS1 maint: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights.
Reports Allege Child Labor". ABC News. Retrieved 22 October The Times.
The Independent. Daily Mail.
Archived from the original on 11 September International Labour Organization. Child Protection". Govt of India and ILO.
National Advisory Council. Archived from the original PDF on 19 January The Times of India. India Today. Ministry of Law and Justice, Govt. Department of Law and Justice, Government of India. Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Archived from the original on 9 September BBC News. The Wall Street Journal. September World Bank.
Asian Informal Workers: Global Risks, Local Protection. The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study. Palgrave Macmillan. Journal of Population Economics. Child Labor: History, Theory, and Policy Options. Multiple names: Pacific Economic Review.
The World Bank. Rosati Peru and India". Journal of Peasant Studies. An Indicative Report". The constitution also envisioned that India shall, by , provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. Article A and Article The major national legislative developments include the following:  The Factories Act of The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory.
Long and Short Essay on Child Labour in English
The law also placed rules on who, when and how long can pre-adults aged 15—18 years be employed in any factory. The Mines Act of The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine. The Child and Adolescent Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act of A "Child" is defined as any person below the age of 14 and the CLPR Act prohibits employment of a Child in any employment including as a domestic help except helping own family in non-hazardous occupations.
It is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a Child for any work.
Children between age of 14 and 18 are defined as "Adolescent" and the law allows Adolescent to be employed except in the listed hazardous occupation and processes which include mining, inflammable substance and explosives related work and any other hazardous process as per the Factories Act, The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of : The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 percent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.
It envisioned strict enforcement of Indian laws on child labour combined with development programs to address the root causes of child labour such as poverty.
This legal and development initiative continues, with a current central government funding of Rs. No, child below age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any hazardous employment Causes[ edit ] Children around an oil press, For much of human history and across different cultures, children less than 17 years old have contributed to family welfare in a variety of ways.
The report also notes that in rural and impoverished parts of developing and undeveloped parts of the world, children have no real and meaningful alternative. Schools and also teachers are unavailable. Child labour is the unnatural result. Between boys and girls, UNICEF finds girls are two times more likely to be out of school and working in a domestic role. Parents with limited resources, claims UNICEF, have to choose whose school costs and fees they can afford when a school is available.
Educating girls tends to be a lower priority across the world, including India. Solely by virtue of their gender, therefore, many girls are kept from school or drop out, then provide child labour. According to a study by ILO,  among the most important factors driving children to harmful labour is the lack of availability and quality of schooling.
Many communities, particularly rural areas do not possess adequate school facilities.
Child labour in India
Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worthwhile. They suggest  that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history.
They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. India has rigid labour laws and numerous regulations that prevent growth of organised sector where work protections are easier to monitor, and work more productive and higher paying. If macroeconomic factors and laws prevent growth of formal sector, the family owned informal sector grows, deploying low cost, easy to hire, easy to dismiss labour in form of child labour.Between boys and girls, UNICEF finds girls are two times more likely to be out of school and working in a domestic role.
In that manner, a working child is often seen as a slave , working in a sweat shop in a third world country, producing textiles , or as one of the street children in South America. An overview of occupational health research in India.
He notes, "determining the extent to which the hand-made carpet supply chain from India to the U. This has increased the potential of child labour. The constitution also envisioned that India shall, by , provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years.