BASIC COMPUTER NETWORKING PDF
An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks. 13 of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. working, the computer network will more likely be successful in the company. Lauren has decided to review basic network concepts with her coworkers as. Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. -Each of the .
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Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the A network refers to two or more connected computers that . It can also perform basic. Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Practice was written by Dr. Olivier Bonaventure of the. Université to this basic service have been proposed. as server and other act as clients. A server is simply a computer, that available the network resources and provides service to other computers when they request.
Applications over your network A network must provide connectivity among a set of computers. While some networks limit the number of connected machines, others grow as large as a global wide area network WAN. Network requirements to accommodate application needs Efficiency is the key requirement of computer networks, which is why networks use packet switching as their main strategy.
It's too simplistic to view a computer network as simply delivering packets among a collection of computers, however. A network should be thought of as the way to deliver a set of applications distributed over those computers. Success includes both understanding the applications' requirements and recognizing the limitations of the underlying technology. The challenge is to fill the gap between what the application needs and what the technology can provide.
Networks do not remain fixed and must be able to evolve to accommodate technological changes, and networking and IT professionals must be able to manage them. Designing a network to meet those requirements isn't easy.
The most basic requirements for a network are that they must provide general, cost-effective, fair and robust connectivity among a large number of computers.
Network architecture as the blueprint Network architectures are general blueprints that guide the design and implementation of your network. The idea of abstraction, which hides your networking details behind a well-defined interface. The idea of abstraction is to make a model that can capture an important aspect of the system, but the challenge is to identify abstractions that simultaneously provide a service that proves useful in a large number of situations. Abstractions naturally lead to layering.
Computer Network Tutorial
The idea is that you start with the services the underlying hardware offers, then add a sequence of layers, each of which provides a higher level of service.
Layering helps IT professionals build a network into more manageable components. Implementing network software One of the things that has made the Internet such a success is the fact that software running in general-purpose computers provides so much of its functionality, which means new functionality can be added easily. As a result, new applications and services can deployed in a heartbeat.
Knowing how to deploy network software is an essential part of understanding computer networks. Specific instructions and visual representations for both the client and the server can be found in the networking PDF. Network performance Naturally, computer networks are expected to perform well, and it's vital to understand the factors that can impact network performance.
A network's bandwidth is the number of bits that can be transmitted over the network in a certain period of time. An Ethernet link the street has computers houses which in turn have numbers Ethernet, Mac Address or Physical Address. However you can have many streets and the streets are connected. The Networking protocol also has addresses IP address , and these addresses are not fixed but assigned by a network administrator or automatically using a service called DHCP Dynamic host Configuration protocol.
To send a message to all computers on an Ethernet network a broadcast address Mac Address of all ones is used. See Understanding binary numbers. The broadcast domain is the effective range of the broadcast, which can be limited by inserting level 3 IP level network devices e. A broadcast will be re-transmitted by hubs, switches, bridges level 2 and repeaters level 1.
Levels are the levels in the 7 layer OSI data model. A collision domain is the section of a network where packets can collide, and interfere with each other. Network devices Bridges and switches working at level 2 data link layer can create separate collision domains.
Even though bridges and switches divide a network into separate collision domains , the computers are still part of the same broadcast domain. Hubs operate at the physical level, and were once the primary mechanism for connecting computers together. This Cisco video explains the difference in more detail. The term frame is used for data units at the data link level and the the term packet for data units and the networking level. The letter is the data which is placed inside an envelope that contains the addressing information.
This concept of data being inserted into an envelope is used repeatedly in data communications, and it is an important one to grasp. Although the Ethernet protocol alone is sufficient to get data between two nodes on an Ethernet network, it is not used on its own. Ethernet represents what is known as a data link protocol, and for networking we need a networking protocol which in our case is IP internet protocol.
It is however the IP protocol which contains the important IP addresses, which are used for connecting computers together across the Internet, and in local networks.
Every device attached to your home network has an IP address, but what is a IP address? The IP address is the most important address as far as we are concerned, as it is a logical address, meaning it is assigned by us, and can be changed. Current networks use IPv4 Addresses. The IP IPv4 address is a 32 bit address and is written in dotted decimal notation and appears like this:.
When troubleshooting network problems you will need to be able to identify network addresses, and if a device has one, and whether that address is valid. If a client cannot get an IP address then some clients will auto assign an IP address.
In either case it is unlikely to work correctly because clients with a To find the IP address on a windows computer using ipconfig, open a command line dos prompt and type the command ipconfig at the prompt. You may have more than one network address if you have multiple network cards installed. The IP address here is You will also see the default gateway address This is the IP address of the Router, the term gateway is an old Unix expression that is still used.
To send an IP packet to a network device the sender needs to know the IP address of the destination device. In order to deliver the packet to the final destination the MAC address of the destination computer must be known. A protocol know as ARP address resolution protocol is used, which uses an Ethernet broadcast to query the nodes on the network.
The query is basically:. Send me your MAC address. So when you look at an IP address what you see is a number with two components.
A network component and a node component. It is the job of the Subnet mask to split the IP address into the network component and the Node component device address.
This gives a network number of For those new to networking IPv4 is where you should start, and once you become familiar with it then you might consider taking a look at IPv6. Let me know using the comments section below and help me improve this course. Thanks Steve. Nicely presented. Regards Ian.
Ian Tks for taking the time for writing the comment I will incorporate you points in the artilce update. Everything else i have ever read on the osi model classifies hubs as physical layer.
Hi Steve, I just discovered your website today. I think it is great!
It is to point and you cover all the most used and needed components. You have very clear and consise explanations.
Keep up the good work, and thanks again.The most basic requirements for a network are that they must provide general, cost-effective, fair and robust connectivity among a large number of computers. Please Let me Know if you found it Useful.
What is a Network?
Contents What is a computer Network? You will find your happiness without trouble! Principles, Protocols and Practice Tutorial Networking: ATM uses a connection-oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins.
Our Computer Networking Tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals.
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