ARCHITECTURAL RENDERING WITH 3DSMAX AND VRAY PDF
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INTERIOR. – A case study with 3DS Max and V-Ray popularity among photorealistic design and architecture. The final results of this. Virgin cruise ship. entitled Realistic Architectural Visualization with 3Ds Max and is automatically loaded at start-up of 3ds Max. vray and DefaultUI options. Realistically Light and Render Interior Scenes using 3ds Max and myavr.info Architectural Rendering with 3ds Max and V-Ray book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Vray is a popular add-on rendering applicat.
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Ideally, one monitor should be at least 24 inches diagonally to allow comfortable working. You are going to be working on this computer, while the other one calculates your pictures. The second computer does not require a powerful graphics card or monitors. If possible, you should use processors of the same type. In addition to your knowledge and your equipment, you will need a lot of patience and of course a great deal of inspiration for creative computer work.
Considerations Regarding Light In this section, we are going to approach the topic of light from three angles: We are going to comment on only a few aspects regarding atmosphere and phenomenology. In everyday life, we rarely think about light in the real world, although it is present everywhere.
But we are so used to the conditions of reality that we notice immediately if something is not real. Consequently, we would 3 Architectural Rendering with 3ds Max and V-Ray almost always notice a difference between a computer-generated picture and a photograph.
This is mainly due to differences or errors in computer-generated presentations of light. Almost anyone can notice that these diverge from reality, but only a trained eye can actually specify the differences.
Light has a subconscious influence on our feelings; it can stimulate emotions and create atmosphere. For example, when we are watching a sunset, we might feel romantic. Depending on its color, light can have a calming effect or make us feel uncomfortable. Think of the difference between warm candlelight and a corridor with the cold light from fluorescent tubes.
Creating moods therefore requires conscious and deliberate observation of our surroundings. In the real world, there are three lighting scenarios. The first one is natural light, which means sunlight shining directly or indirectly onto Earth, such as moonlight or through a layer of clouds. Natural and weather phenomena provide an exception—for example, lightning and fire. The second scenario is artificial light: This includes electric light, but also candlelight.
The third and most common scenario is a simultaneous occurrence of both natural and artificial light. One of the first discussions you should therefore have with your client is determining which of these scenarios is present in the picture you are going to create. Some units of measurement in dealing with light: Describes the radiated output of a light source per second Luminous intensity candela: Describes the luminous flux which is emitted in a certain direction Illuminance lux: Describes the luminous flux which arrives at a certain surface Luminance candelas per square meter: Describes the luminous flux which is emitted from a certain surface Illuminance Light is subject to a series of rules.
Three of these are of great importance in computer graphics. The first rule is that the illuminance decreases with the square of the distance from the light source. This means that a surface of one meter square that is one meter away from the light source is illuminated with the full assumed luminous intensity of the light source.
If you increase the distance by another meter so that it is now two meters, the illuminance is only a quarter of the luminous intensity. At a distance of three meters, the illuminance is only a ninth of the luminous intensity. The luminous intensity always remains constant. The two other important qualities are the reflection and refraction of light.
FIG 1. The reflected part is the determining factor that enables us to perceive objects. An object that absorbs percent of light appears completely black to us. White surfaces reflect most of the light. The darker and rougher the surface, the less light it will reflect and the more it will absorb. An object always reflects light in its object color, which can lead to what is called color bleeding, or the bleeding or overlapping of colors onto other objects.
Again, the light will take on the color of the material. Light travels at the speed of light, which is measured inside a vacuum. The refractive index or index of refraction IOR can be determined for each material. It measures how much the speed of light is reduced when passing from air into the medium. The following table contains some examples.
TABLE 1. In blue light, the red and green components of the light source are lower or nonexistent. Under these circumstances, all red and green objects would appear black. When using colored light sources, you therefore need to make sure to always mix a certain proportion of all colors to avoid black objects.
The following table contains an overview of several color temperatures. The color of the light in the morning has a different proportion of red than the light of the setting sun.
The color of daylight also depends on the place, the time of year, and the weather conditions while you observe it. Shadow The shadow being cast is not really a property of the light, but rather a property of illuminated objects. A shadow in itself is the absence of direct light and mostly refers to a diffusely illuminated area. Shadows always appear behind objects that are positioned in front of a light source.
The shadow area does not necessarily have to be darker than the directly illuminated area. Transparent objects, for example, also cast a shadow and can even produce lighter shadows, due to a concentration of rays of light or caustics. Shadows play a very important role: Without shadow, a picture cannot have any spatial depth. Parallel shadows do not occur in nature; they can be created only by artificial light. Light in Computer Graphics Unlike in the real world, the light in computer graphics is not subject to any restrictions.
You therefore have many options and great freedom, but it becomes more difficult to produce realistic illuminated scenes. A watchful eye is required to achieve a rendering that appears realistic.
Sometimes one light source is not enough and you have to resort to tricks in order to achieve a result that appears realistic or expresses the desired idea. Consider possible scenarios of illumination: Do I want to draw to attention to something in particular? Is there a reference that I need to integrate my rendering into? Get an overview of the light sources and their qualities: The main light should always be clearly noticeable.
The shadows are as important as the light. Become familiar with materials in reality and their physical properties. Hardly any material has a completely smooth surface; the irregularities affect the light distribution on the surface.
Highlights help the viewer to determine the quality and nature of a material, but not all materials have hard highlights. No two materials are the same; the differences in surface appearance create a more realistic effect. Light in Architecture Light has always played a decisive role in architecture.
Light creates atmosphere, can make rooms appear bigger or smaller, and can emphasize details or hide them. The first great buildings that specifically employed light were religious buildings. Initially, they did not let much natural light in, in order to emphasize the few existing windows.
The windows seemed to shine, creating a mystical effect. Light and architecture are closely linked; light presents good architecture favorably, but can also show mistakes. Architects have always used this medium, from the old master builders of temples and churches to famous architects of today, such as Tadao Ando, Jean Nouvell, or Louis I.
Light can also be used as an effect in architecture, such as the Empire State Building, with its varying illumination for different occasions. The use of artificial light is of particular importance in exhibition architecture, whereas daylight plays an important role when constructing domestic buildings. We will begin with some product specifications that convinced us to work with this product; then we will comment on the methods for light calculation and introduce some features specific to V-Ray.
Last, we will discuss linear workflow. Why V-Ray? Here is a list of the product features that we particularly appreciate during our daily production tasks: The parameters are the same for the different applications.
The product is relatively cheap. V-Ray is constantly being updated. There is a large worldwide community. V-Ray is used widely, also in the film and advertising industry.
It has excellent displacement. It supports IES data, an important factor for architectural visualizations. Version 3 and later also support Mental Ray materials.
V-Ray is very well integrated into the 3D programs. Indirect Illumination The calculation of indirect illumination in V-Ray is divided into two processes, which can be combined in different ways: The first complex calculation takes place here, and the light is scattered, absorbed, refracted and reflected. If you did not activate the calculation of global illumination, only the process of primary bounces is applied automatically.
In the following section, we will introduce the various render algorithms with their advantages and disadvantages.
Interpolation takes place between the calculated areas. A multitude of setting options is available and can be managed well with a selection of presets.
No noise in darker image areas. The irradiance map—the result of the calculation—can be saved and reused, which can drastically reduce the render time for animations. Animations can be affected by flickering, which can be remedied by saving the irradiance map as a multiframe incremental map i. Requires a lot of RAM. The light solution is dependent on the location—only the visible portion of the scene is calculated. Only true light sources are taken into consideration, not surrounding illumination or luminous materials.
The algorithm is useful for interior scenes with many light sources and achieves good results with short rendering times when used in combination with irradiance map. The photon map can be saved, but changes in material, light, and position of objects are not possible. High memory requirements. Restrictions in selecting light sources. Light Cache This algorithm functions in a similar way to the photon map, but the photons are emitted into the scene from the camera and the algorithm can be used for any kind of scene.
Very quick calculation. Very fast, good results in combination with the irradiance map. Very precise calculation of contact shadow and shadows in corners. Preview during calculation process; therefore, serious mistakes can be spotted quickly. Problems in calculating bump maps, but this has no effects when used for secondary bounces. Finally, we would like to offer you some guidance by comparing the most sensible combinations for an interior scene and an outdoor scene.
For the first comparison, we refer only to the quality of the result; for the second 13 Architectural Rendering with 3ds Max and V-Ray comparison, we relate the quality to the rendering time. We are analyzing only stationary images—these comparisons are not necessarily applicable to animations. Interior Scene Criteria: Hardly any artifacts occur, and even in detailed image areas, the accuracy remains high. A clear disadvantage, however, is the long rendering time.
The calculation is very quick and exact, even in detailed image areas. Possible errors can usually be fixed by selecting a better preset. This combination is the better choice for everyday work. Exterior Scene For the exterior scene, the same applies as for the interior scene. The calculation can potentially take even longer in this case, as the scene has a higher number of polygons due to trees, bushes, and lawn, and therefore more detailed areas.
As there is an exception to every rule and sometimes the rendering time is irrelevant, you should not completely disregard the other algorithms. Ambient Occlusion In areas where two or more objects are touching, there is insufficient light, and these areas appear darker in comparison to the surroundings. These darker areas are called contact shadows ambient occlusion or AO. Ambient occlusion is always calculated without direct light, and with only a diffuse surrounding light.
In V-Ray, there are several options for calculating the ambient occlusion. For example, you can output it as a separate rendering channel, resulting in a grayscale image. In an image editing program, you can multiply this image with the actual rendering. Only certain image areas are darkened, as the image consists of color values between one and zero. In this case, the ambient occlusion is already saved in the output image.
As you can adapt the parameters for each material, you have good control over the contact shadow. These light sources behave with physical correctness. Unlike standard light sources, the light is emitted by a three-dimensional source, not by one point. VRayLights require shorter rendering times, have integrated falloff as the standard, and always produce a realistic-looking area shadow.
There is a choice of four light sources: The V-Ray light sources have almost the same parameters as standard light sources. A big difference is the option to be able to work with different units of light intensity.
Here is an overview of these units: These enable you to simulate real luminaires with physical correctness. Their behavior corresponds to a three-dimensional object that emits light, 18 Introduction and Theory just as in reality.
The emission properties of the lamps and the effects of built-in reflectors are taken into account. The light distribution within the room and on the walls appears more realistic than using standard light sources. The rendering time is longer, but this is compensated for by increased realism. It simulates a daylight system, composed of sun direct light and sky diffuse light. For example, the lower the sun, the softer the shadows.
There are two possibilities of working with the sun system. For one, you can set the intensity in the multiplier to 0. This is not recommended, however, as the result is not physically correct.
Introduction and Theory FIG 1. It influences the diffuse light incidence within the scene. Good results with little effort. Physically correct. Well suited for daylight situations. Limited adjustment options. Additional light sources in the scene have to work with photometrical data. Using physically correct light sources is a requirement.
The advantages in comparison to the standard camera are physically correct calculation of depth of field blur, motion blur, and bokeh effect explained later in this section. The parameters, such as the exposure time, are equivalent to those of a real camera.
The disadvantage is a comparatively long rendering time. Here once again an overview of the most important parameters. Guess vert. Bokeh Effects The term bokeh describes the appearance or quality of blurred areas in a photo.
It depends on the lens used; for example, blurred image areas appear softer if the aperture has many sides. If the option is deactivated, a circular blur is calculated; if activated, the blur appears polygonal, depending on the number of blades.
Values above 0 make the outside appear brighter. These are installed together with the plug-ins and are naturally optimized for V-Ray. VRayMtl The advantage of this material is that it has been optimized for the renderer and therefore enables it to calculate a physically correct result.
It behaves physically correct with regard to absorption, reflection, and refraction of light. The material is based closely on the standard material and has similar parameters. For example, within the material you can set and change the diffuse color channel, the reflection, refraction, bump mapping, displacement mapping, and other qualities of the desired material.
If possible, you should work with this material, as it has been optimized for V-Ray, and—if used in combination with V-Ray—it requires less time for rendering than other materials. Amongst other things, it is suited very well for the representation of leaves, curtains, and paper screens. Unlike a light source, the material does not emit photons and does not create caustics.
The rendering time is shorter than if using a standard material with self-illumination, and it can be used to illuminate a scene. The material cannot be used if you are working with motion blur. You can create matte objects via materials already present in the scene. The light within an object is transported on to the object. Materials such as wax or skin have this property. You can use it for example to influence reflection and shine.
VRayBlendMtl This material offers the option of placing several materials on top of one another, to blend them. In each case, you can choose another material for masking. This material is used for creating complex surfaces, such as car paint. VRaySimbiontMtl This is a special material that you can use with procedural shaders by the company Darkling Simulations.
It enables you to create very complex shaders that are built completely procedurally and represented in full quality, independently from the representation distance. It influences the relation between sharpness of edges and avoiding aliasing jaggies, or stair-like lines instead of smooth lines. Antialiasing Antialiasing is used to reduce aliasing when converting a vector graphic into a raster picture. This method is usually achieved with smoothing of edges and occurs mostly with angled lines.
In V-Ray there are two methods of antialiasing. We are going to give you a brief introduction to both. Oversampling Supersampling A rendering consists of several pixels created when converting the vector-based graphic to a raster image.
The number of pixels determines 32 Introduction and Theory the resolution of an image and therefore its quality.
Each pixel can again be subdivided into subpixels. The number of subpixels is the square of the number of subdivisions. For example, with a subdivision of 1, the pixel is divided once. There is only one subpixel. With a subdivision of 2, the pixel is divided into 4 subpixels.
The finer the subdivision into several subpixels, the higher the resolution and therefore the quality of antialiasing. However, the required rendering time also increases sharply. Undersampling In undersampling, the opposite occurs. Pixels are not subdivided, but combined. Again, the relation is square. To keep the required rendering time low, this method is suitable for preview renderings.
V-Ray offers three antialias algorithms. Oversampling and undersampling are used differently in each. Again, we will give you a brief introduction. It gives the best result with relatively short rendering times. The required rendering time may be very long, however. Linear Workflow LWF Put simply, the linear workflow describes a method of governing the input, processing, and output of image material in 3ds Max. The monitor is not able to display an image in the same brightness as we see it in reality.
Each image has a gamma correction curve in order to be displayed on the monitor in such a way that our eyes see it correctly. This is usually a gamma correction value of 2.
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Because 3ds Max works internally in a linear way—that is, with a gamma of 1. To do this, choose the following settings in 3ds Max and V-Ray. This tells 3ds Max that all image data has a correction and it can reverse this.
The output images renderings are saved once more with the gamma correction to ensure that they are displayed correctly. This ensures colors and images display correctly in the material editor. In the V-RAY:: Here, no correction is applied. In the latest V-Ray version, 1. V-Ray is already working with the corrected brightness internally.
The correction is not yet saved into the picture, however, but used only for calculating the sampling. This produces a better quality, as image areas that are too dark are lightened by gamma correction.
Color Mapping, Gamma 1. Color Mapping, Gamma 2. About the CD Included with This Book Directory Structure Before you start reading the next chapter, please take the time to read the following comments. This directory contains the 3ds Max files. The first file ch 02 You can use this file to quickly refer to a material, for example, or if you want to try something without having to work your way through the entire chapter first. Each chapter directory contains subdirectories for textures, AutoCAD files dwg , and so on.
Figure 1. This scale lends itself for architectural visualization. All objects or light sources are covered well without an excessive amount of zeros before or after the decimal point. The 3ds Max system unit is set to centimeters as well. If you are using other units, 3ds Max will ask you when opening our files if you want to keep the units or convert to your settings. Please make sure that you adopt the units of measurement from our file to avoid conversion errors.
Otherwise, you can end up with wrong values, such as for the intensity of light sources. Make sure that the unit for lighting is also set correctly: Gamma Correction To be able to work correctly with 3ds Max, you should generally adopt the settings described in section 1. Again, 3ds Max will ask you if other settings should be used.
Here you can see all file links in the scene. Even if 3ds Max displays an error message when opening a file, telling you that a file was not found, you can use this dialog box to assign the correct path to that file. The files included on the CD are also in the most current format.
You may need to register to do so. The floor is covered by dark floorboards, the outer walls are exposed brickwork, and the internal walls are painted white. The large industrial windows let a lot of light into the room. First we need to create a preset for linking the AutoCAD file. FIG 2. Enter the name acad. This increases the accuracy when reading the AutoCAD geometry, which affects above all curves. You want only the geometry to be included.
This specifies that the layer structure of the AutoCAD file is adopted and the objects are arranged according to this hierarchy. The great advantage is that you can assign materials and modifiers to a whole layer.
To save the preset, click on SAVE. Link to the file ch02 From the subdirectory merge, choose the file ch02 mg. The visible image section is now marked with a yellow rectangle. This gives you the option of using exposure parameters, such as exposure time or aperture, as analogs of photography. This enlarges the displayed image selection, which is often useful for indoor renderings, where the camera is usually positioned very close to the objects to be depicted, but at the same time you want to show a lot of the room.
Shift the camera left, below the rug. Adapt the height of camera and target as well. Set the camera to a height of about 80 cm and move that target so that a little bit of floor remains visible in front of the rug in the lower part of the picture; see Figure 2. To finish, apply the camera correction to remove perspective distortion.
If you change the camera position, you need to apply the correction again. Basic Settings for Texturing Before we can texture the scene, we need to make some preparations in order to reduce rendering time, to check geometry for errors, and to enable us to check the textures in neutral light.
To save time in the following section, switch the layer 01 glass to not visible HIDE. The calculation of glass is very complicated; therefore, we will activate it only when we are ready for fine tuning. Now all objects in the scene have a uniform material. This way, it is easier to assess newly created materials. Also, it prevents unwanted color bleeding and reflections. This replaces the default 3ds Max Frame Buffer. We will get back to this later. The default light is used only if no Global Illumination is used.
Now change to the V-RAY:: Leave all other settings at the default. Frame Buffer. Global Switches. Image Sampler Antialiasing. Fixed Image Sampler. In the next step, we will determine the settings for indirect illumination, that is, the light calculation itself. First we need to activate it.
Choose both. Indirect Illumination GI. Open the V-RAY:: We want to reduce the accuracy even more. Reduce the HSPH. This enables you to stop the rendering any time if an error occurs. Irradiance Map. Light Cache. VRayLight Setup To illuminate the scene evenly, it is a good idea to choose a light source that emits only diffuse light. Now the light source is not visible in the rendering and the light color is determined only by the COLOR value. Now render an image. This takes us back to the linear workflow.
V-Ray now applies gamma correction and the image appears lighter. The Viewport is now evenly lit again. We work exclusively with the V-Ray materials to achieve the best possible results. Little tricks help us represent the result even more realistically. Choose an empty slot for each new texture and assign it a name.
The building is a former factory; therefore, the outside walls are exposed brickwork. This is the standard V-Ray material. This corresponds to a neutral white, as mentioned previously for the test material. This is a grayscale image, and bump-mapping makes lighter colors appear raised.
This is generally recommended for any newly created material, as it lets you check the mapping. If you have many materials in one scene, you may need to deactivate the display again. This function is quite useful to increase or decrease the rendering power.
Distributed rendering is disabled. For more information about V-Ray Spawner. Tree Depth It determines the maximum depth of the geometry tree. The more assigned computers there are. High values use more memory. Remove Server This feature enables users to select and remove existing servers from the list. By clicking on this toggle. To add a render element. Chapters 8. Conclusion This chapter has introduced and navigated users through some of the key V-Ray rendering parameters.
For more detailed information about V-Ray rendering parameters. It only happens when the incoming file is not accurate and requires rescaling. There are only a handful of times when it might be necessary to choose the Rescale the File Objects to the System Unit Scale option. This will prevent scenes from being rescaled and looking inaccurate. The common approach is to first use the rectangular selection tool click and drag to select a specific region. To bind xreferenced files. MicroStation file has to be saved as a DWG file first.
Note that MicroStation is set to automatically save the fi le every time a change is made to the drawing. The Incoming file units function should be left untouched. The rule of thumb is to always choose the smaller metric value displayed on the Resulting model size text field. Simply enable or disable the Rescale function. This precautionary measure is to ensure that the scale of the imported file is correct.
This function will essentially increase the number of vertices in such areas. Some professionals find it easier to continuously switch the metric display unit scale between metres.
Then open the layer dialogue box. With all objects in the scene selected. It is common practice to name the group in accordance with its original name e. To prevent this artefact. This is to ensure that the layers of relevance always stay on top of the list. Some studios find it easier to work with layers mainly due to its ease of use and its flexibility to provide control over the contents in the scene.
It cannot and should not be deleted. When a layer or folder is created and the objects are automatically moved into this newly created layer or folder. It works almost like a folder that can be selected as a group or have individual objects selected from its content list.. To rename a layer or folder from the list.
When selecting an object in the scene and creating a new layer. Because the drawings are in 2D e. Although it is possible to select and move the contents of this default layer or folder e.
As with all new layers or folders created by the user. Enable the Vertex and Endpoint functions. DWG plans are always more accurate than the elevations or sections. Welding the drawings manually often takes much longer than tracing them.
Start by selecting the relevant spline in the Viewport. To make this process easier. Use the same procedure to position the following elevations and sections. Extrude it thereafter. If it is too small. To view the rotated drawing plan in a straight angle. This way it is not necessary to rotate drawings individually.
The Grid tool is the ideal solution when working with rotated drawings. To access this dialogue click on the 5. As drawings are produced in plans. Professionals often resort to this keyboard shortcut to have better selection control of objects when working in dense and complex scenes. Once finished moving and rotating the grid helper.
Its dialogue should open. Click inside the Hotkey box. If you wish to start tracing lines in the front viewport. It is also important to set a keyboard shortcut to freeze selected objects. One good technique for tracing and creating a spline continuously without having to exit creation is to occasionally press the I and Z keys on the keyboard.
Th is function makes it possible to rotate the viewport around the axis of the selected object.
Doing this will save time by not having to constantly pick through drop-down list menus for commonly used modifiers. Scroll down the list to pick other useful modifiers. This technique will help speed up the viewport performance whilst navigating and creating geometry the 3D scene. Objects in the distance often look acceptable with a realistic texture and a good shader applied.
VRay proxies can reduce the MAX file size and rendering times by a great deal. Although not always necessary. To prevent unexpected proxy 5.
The Display group controls the preview of the proxy object in the viewport. The Scale function allows users to control the size of the proxy in the scene. Choose the V-Ray mesh export option to open its dialogue. It is common to choose the bounding box display type for very dense objects such as trees. The file name should be kept as simple as possible e. The former approach often leads to users having to resort to Photoshop to build the entire texture of an object or surface by tiling it.
In some cases it may even crash the system. This methodology subsequently causes the final texture to look artificially tiled and have a lack of important details that frequently make a texture look convincing and realistic. Complex geometry may take a considerable amount of time to retrieve. This approach captures all the important details of the entire surface i. The Easting value is the equivalent of the X position in 3ds Max.
Below is an example of a typical survey data spreadsheet. Script for Verified Views In architectural visualisation. The Northing value is the equivalent of the Y position in 3ds Max. CSV and the specified location. The great advantage of having survey points in 3ds Max as instanced point helpers is that their sizes in the camera viewport can be set to have a constant screen size.
This is not a script error: If the survey points are too big. If by chance there is a script error reading the spreadsheet file. Z depicted in the CVC file. To begin zooming in. Once satisfied. To crop. Before cropping. Ensure the guide is positioned exactly where the vanishing lines meet. This exercise will require extending the canvas.
The image to be used as background in 3ds Max needs to be reduced in size for camera matching purposes only. On the drop-down quad menu. In the Setup dialogue.
Exposure Time. To align the matched survey and cameras with the context model. Time into the VRayPhysicalCamera. ISO speed. Architectural companies often use this drawing in conjunction with the cameras and point helpers 5. The average height of a chair is about 0. Camera matching without survey data Before beginning the process of camera matching a photo. The average door height is around 2. Have an almost accurate dimension of a relevant object in the photo e.
Be aware that photos are usually taken at eye level e. The average height of most people in photos is between 1. The two green vanishing lines are often moved to line up closely with two key perspective lines of the photo e.
Click on the Hide Vanishing Lines button to make it visible in the viewport. The two red vanishing lines are often moved to line up closely with two key horizontal lines of the photo. After much pulling and moving the vanishing lines around. To move parts of the vanishing line. The rule of thumb is to keep the top vanishing lines e. In the Exposure Control roll-out parameters. The Origin info from the property details can be used in the Daylight System parameters Chapter 3 to enter the time.
Because a standard 3ds Max camera is currently being used in the scene. F-Stop and ISO speed. Instead it might be necessary to eyeball the correct camera perspective by constantly rotating. It often takes a bit of practice to camera match aerial shots accurately. Integrating shots in 3ds max Prior to starting. This function will prevent the environment background photo from being affected by the GI and the VRayPhysicalCamera settings e.
The value of —1. Select the V-Ray properties option. To have shadows cast onto its matte surface. Select the surface in the scene and right- click on it to bring up its quad menu. To override this. For more information about this procedural map. Tweak its colour temperature or sample it from the background photo in the viewport.
VRayExtraTex 5. To add it. The subdivs parameter controls the smoothness of the occluded colour. The next step is to add the VRayDirt to the texture toggle. Try different values to see what works best. The default value is 8 very grainy. The radius parameter determines the occluded colour radius. Test render its default parameters. The darker areas represent the occluded colour. The invert normal function allows corners facing outwards to also have shadows applied onto them.
For more information about it. To make 5. Note that this element only works with V-Ray lights. To use it. These areas often take little or no time to process the render. The green colours highlight areas of the scene where some render samples are being used.
The red colours depict areas of the scene where a substantial or large number of render samples are being used. These areas normally take an 5.
The blue colours depict areas of the scene where few or no render samples are being used. The render channel can later be used in post-production to create effects such as depth of field DOF and fog.
The value of 9. The default value is often 0. Choose the document destination to save it. The Save Selection dialogue should appear. This new saved selection should be added to the Channels palette of the document destination chosen. Note that selections can only be saved to a different document when both documents share the same pixel size same proportions. To begin using this filter. This precautionary measure will make it possible to revert back to the original layer.
Shape and Noise. Design Connected http: Click on the Customize main toolbar and choose the Units Setup option from the drop-down list.
Note that changing any of the values 7. From the list. Then click on the Tape tool. To measure. In the Find field. Exit Isolation Mode by clicking its button. Open the render setup dialogue by pressing F In the Common tab. The Choose Renderer dialogue box should pop up. Choose the V-Ray renderer from the list and click OK to close the dialogue box. In its dialogue. Also click OK to the dialogue warning you about the next time you restart 3ds Max. Once satisfied with the camera location. Back in the V-Ray Object Type group.
This will ensure that we only work on areas within the camera range. In the Create command panel. Corridor area. For this project.
Increase the film gate value to about The remaining values have not been changed. This will enable you to tweak the width and height values proportionally. Open the Render Setup dialogue as previously done press F Lock it by clicking on its padlock button. To capture more of the foreground. HDTV video. In the resource files. Click on the Rendering main toolbar and choose View Image File from its drop-down menu.
There are now two good references of a glass material in the viewport. The second reference depicts a slightly tinted green and reflective glass. SP5 roll-out and double click on VRayMtl to load this shader. This function will help visualize any changes of the material in the editor. Click on the Refract colour swatch and hold down the mouse button. Assign it to the empty material slot previously selected. To make the glass material more transparent. The Color Selector dialogue should pop up.
Click on OK to close the dialogue. Scroll down to the Refraction group. To adjust this to be closer to the photo reference. Click on its sample screen color tool and pick the green tone of the photo reference. Click OK to close the dialogue box. Note how its diff use colour is automatically changed. Note how its material thumbnail changes simultaneously. Open the diff use Color Selector dialogue. This will help eliminate potential glossy artefacts when rendering.
Also increase its Subdivs values to about Notice the shine appearing in the Material Editor thumbnail. Decrease its whiteness arrow to almost white e. Glossiness value to about 0. At times. Open the Reflection group and click on the Reflect colour swatch to open the Color Selector dialogue. To add a bit of sharp shine as per the photo reference. This option is quite useful when editing the alpha channels in post-production. The rule of thumb is: Note that the Material Editor thumbnail changes simultaneously.
This stage is mainly to create the basic material parameters with the help of the Material Editor and the viewport. In the Rendering Control group. In the G-Buffer group.
Also apply this glass material to other glass objects in the scene and close the glass photo references. Once the lights are created. Please refer to the final scene. Open its general parameters. The following objects in the scene that are relevant can be numbered incrementally. The G-Buffer Object ID number will later play a crucial part when setting up the render elements for 7. Note that no test renders are carried out until the lights are created. To start. Open the following photo references using some of the techniques described earlier: In the Reflection group.
Notice the changes in the Material Editor thumbnail. Use some techniques highlighted earlier. In the Select Bitmap Image File dialogue.
Click on the Refl. To view the texture in the viewport. Also choose the Box mapping type. To rectify this. Use the slider to scroll down. Some of the main characteristics of this type of metallic finish are the direction of its reflection e. Other material effects such as VRayEdgesTex will be introduced once the lights have been created.
In the Material Editor. This technique will help progress this process much faster. Note the changes taking place in the Material Editor thumbnail. Note how the concrete surface is slightly uneven and reflective. Set its Refl. Note that a greyscale version of the diff use texture has already been created. The more contrast the greyscale texture has.
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Feel free to try different values. Keep the Fresnel reflections function enabled. To emulate this physical property. To control its shine. Start by scrolling down to the Maps roll-out and expanding it. Also set its U Tiling value to 0. Begin by rotating its W Angle to about 7. To recreate this effect in 3ds Max. These values worked adequately for this exercise.
This will allow better control of the Fresnel reflectivity. Click OK to close the dialogue. In its Diffuse group. In the Color Selector dialogue.
Note that most values might require tweaking further once lights are added to the scene. The first colour swatch represents the middle part of a surface. To start with.
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The falloff is broken down into two colour swatches. Blur the reflections slightly by decreasing the Refl. The default value of 8 is often too low to smooth out reflection graininess. To closely monitor the material changes.
To spread out the ceiling panel highlights as seen in the photo reference.
Note the changes taking place in the material slot. This falloff type will yield the effect of 7. To rotate the texture as previously done, in the coordinates parameters, set the W angle to To tile the texture, apply a UVW Mapping modifier to it.
In the Mapping group, set the Tiling type to Box and tile it until the texture looks correct in the viewport. For this scene, the following values worked well to start with: U Tile, 4. To do so, click on the button Show Standard Map in Viewport. Next, isolate the relevant object 7.
In the top viewport, the texture display seems slightly whitewashed. To correct it, go back to the main VRayLightMtl parameters and double- click on its colour swatch to bring up the Color Selector dialogue.
Architectural Rendering with 3ds Max and V-Ray: Photorealistic Visualization
In the Color Selector dialogue, change its value to black by typing in the value of 0. Note how the texture is less washed out in the viewport now.
The Make Unique button directly below the modifier list indicates that the object is an instance. If necessary, rotate and fit the bitmap multiple times until the bitmap is aligned more perfectly.
Click on Exit Isolation Mode and 7. Finally, apply this material to all ceiling lights in the scene. Change the G-Buffer object ID of these objects to 6. Due to the bitmap size being relatively small, reducing the Blur values and enabling the Filtering type to Summed area will sharpen the bitmap.
However, it will also increase the rendering time slightly. Set the Mapping type to Box and tile the texture realistically. The following values worked well for this scene: U tile, Tile and move it realistically on the wall surface. After few tweaks, the following values worked well as a starting point: Change the G-Buffer object ID number of these objects to 7.
The remaining materials in the scene were created using the same techniques described earlier. While this stage of the process might be considered preliminary, it is still quite important to diligently set up key material parameters such as the following: As such, the following tutorial will take users through the intricacies of creating, setting up and rendering the final image realistically, while implementing some of the best techniques used by professional production houses.
In the Display and Bitmap Files 8. First, open the Render Setup dialogue press F In the Indirect illumination 8. Indirect illumination GI function.
In the Ambient Occlusion group, set the Radius value to about 0.
The value of 16 may take slightly longer to render, but the ambient occlusion results will be much smoother and more realistic. In the Secondary bounces group, choose the Light cache GI engine by clicking and choosing it from the drop-down list.
While brute force is more unbiased and accurate, light cache can also produce excellent results at a much quicker rendering pace. Irradiance map roll- out, choose the Low built-in preset from the drop-down list next to Current preset.
These two functions allow users to visualize the direction of the lights in the scene and the overall GI before the rendering process begins. Being able to visualize the precalculation phase provides the user 8.
The value of is neither too low nor too high to get the first draft renders. In addition, enable Store direct light and Show cal. This option will help speed up the light cache calculation, especially when there too many lights in the scene.
Open the V-Ray tab and scroll down to the V-Ray:: Image sampler Antialiasing roll-out parameters. While this image sampler works consistently well and fast with most scenes, you can try a different image sampler, if desired. In the V-Ray:: Note how the Clr thresh field goes from inactive to live.
Color mapping roll-out, change the default Linear multiply gamma value to 2. Turning on this specific function corrects rendering artefacts related to white dots in the render.
Scroll up to the V-Ray:: Global switches roll-out and enable the Override mtl function from the Materials group. The next step is to create and apply a white base material to the Override mtl toggle Open the Material Editor dialogue and create a new VRayMtl slot. Color Selector Value: The Instance Copy Material dialogue should be prompted.
Choose the Instance method and click OK to close it. The glass material needs to be excluded from the Override mtl in order to let the sunlight through the glass window. In the Scene objects name field, begin to type the relevant object s you require excluding. The dialogue should automatically list the names matching your keyword s.
Click on the button with an arrow pointing outwards to bring in selected objects from the list. Alternatively, select a material slot 8. All the relevant objects with the glass material should be automatically selected. The first light we are going to start with is the slight blue ambient light seen directly behind the window. This type of ambient light can usually be achieved with a V-Ray dome light object. To begin editing some of the light parameters, open the Modify command panel while the light is still selected.
In its Parameters roll-out, in the General 8. This is to avoid rendering the wrong selected viewport. By default 3ds Max renders the selected viewport highlighted , when the padlock is not selected. Start by enabling the V-Ray frame buffer.Set each of them to 10 cm for a sphere with a diameter of 10 cm. During the calculation, more samples are averaged. Autodesk 3ds Max Bible. As in the other chapters, we now just need to put the cherry on the top.
The floor is covered by dark floorboards, the outer walls are exposed brickwork, and the internal walls are painted white. To adjust this to be closer to the photo reference.
Just as with the bump mapping, we need to assign a map to govern the displacement. Users can do this manually through the sub-object level or via a material.
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