ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY FOR NURSES PDF
We hope that you enjoy the lecture note of Human Anatomy and Physiology for nurses. Please let us know if you have any comments regarding this lecture note. Anatomy and physiology for nurses at a glance / Ian Peate, Muralitharan Nair. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN PDF | Contributed by experienced lecturers, this indispensable text on anatomy and physiology covers the syllabus presented by the Malaysian.
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STUDIES AND RESEARCHES Anatomy and physiology for nursing students : is problem-based learning effective? E' efficace il metodo del problem-based. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology For Nursing and Healthcare Students This title is also available as an e‐book. For more details, please see. Human Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. A brief overview of the Human Anatomy and .
The last puzzle piece in the blood is the platelets, platelets are very small disks with no nucleus and they come from the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in red bone marrow, the platelets only have a life cycle of 8 to 10 days and those not used in haemostasis is destroyed by macrophages, mainly in the spleen. White blood cells are the largest of all cell and they branch out into two groups granulocytes and agranulocytes.
Name these groups. Explain why? Everyone has different types of antigens on the surfaces of our red blood cells, these antigens are inherited and they determine an individuals blood group. Individuals make antibodies to all other antigens but not to their own type of antigens. The immune system attacks foreign substances of anything that should be in the body, if a transfused blood does not match that of the receiver the immune system mounts an attack on that blood type as the antigens of the transfused blood did not match that of the receiver and the receivers blood had antigens against the trans fused blood antigens.
However, many nursing students perform badly mental public perception of the nursing profession. While students claim to However, it is apparent that nursing students consi- like and be interested in these subjects they find them stently have difficulty understanding and retaining very difficult. Since these problem based learning PBL as applied to medicine areas underpin clinical practice and decision making and health sciences education.
Barrows et al. Her friend helped her inside the house but Susan looked very flushed and since she continued to have great difficulty in breathing her friend phoned an ambulance. Susan was taken to the emergency department in a nearby public hospital. Stage two Susan' S observations were BP: Stage three The registrar gave Ventolin to Susan who soon recovered but remained at the hospital overnight.
Susan was discharged the next morning. Table 1. Respiratory system case-based scenario assessment evidence and then clustering the cues in a for a trial PBL session. Twenty six students volun- meaningful way to formulate hypotheses. Barrows teered, only their first name was recorded for purposes , reported on the evolutionary development of of timetabling their session. Each vehicle for the development of clinical problem-solving skills.
Neville, , reported the findings of recent syste- Materials and Procedure matic reviews addressing PBL in medical education Several days prior to the trial PBL week each highlighting inconsistencies in the findings, attributing student received a learning package consisting of these to the wide range of descriptions of PBL and the instructions to students, details of what theory would inconsistent use of outcome measures. Neville be covered by the session and details on how the PBL while acknowledging the founding work of Barrows sessions would run if adopted as a method of teaching.
In preparation for the In nursing specifically, Alavi played an impor- PBL session students were asked to read the case study tant role in development of PBL highlighting that as a then answer a few general and specific questions.
The practice-based profession that incorporates a team package also included pre-reading from their textbook approach, teaching should therefore reflect the comple- covering the anatomy and some physiology of the xities of functioning within a group environment and respiratory system.
Alavi agreed that tory where there were models on several tables and problem-based learning is ideally suited to professional charts in clear view related to the respiratory system. The interviewer, a senior promotes a sound understanding of the area of study.
The inter- ring PBL work Goopy et al. The questions asked in the interview are listed rent mode of teaching on a voluntary trial basis for just in Table 2. We anticipated this approach would appeal to the lear- The pre-set questions are listed in Table 2 ning styles of the diverse nursing student group as simu- and themes derived from the interviews are shown in lated patient welfare was central to the learning process.
Table 3. This study anatomy and physiology lecture first year students the and publication has complied with the directions of cohort consisted of both nursing and health sciences the committee requiring that the anonymity of students were asked if they would like to volunteer students be preserved at all times.
Mayner et al. Can you identify the major structures of the respiratory system? In your opinion, what is the major function of the respiratory system? Table 3 below, shows a summary the 3. Were you able to identify the illness prior to the tutorial? What did you recognise as the emergency treatment for asthma senior lecturer and the interviewer. The first three from the tutorial?
Twenty five of the twenty six students participa- 7. What do you think is the significance of Susan' s observations? Do you think that you learnt more about the respiratory system format. They commented that a case study was a with a case study or with a lecture presentation? What other learning objectives did you identify from this session?
Students also indi- Which teaching and learning style do you prefer? Questions used during the interview allowed them to ask questions and to participate in discussion by providing a more comfortable and Themes Summary of students' responses relaxed environment as compared to a lecture.
All students showed interest and asked que- Student comments regarding this aspect of PBL stions about what they did not understand prior Understanding of to that PBL session. At the completion all stu- style of learning were: The interview responses supported that the Willingness to When invited by the interviewer, all students volunteers found the PBL approach stimulating pursue own learning were willing to share the learning objectives because it challenged them to pursue new learning objectives with the group.
Bioscience has always been Willingness to fur- Several indicated an interest to further research presented traditionally with lectures in this School, ther research topic the physiology of asthma.
The relate theory to en theory and practice making the subject con- students' comments from the interviews were as practice tent meaningful and relevant. They felt that: All students had completed the group tutorials because they are more interactive and question in the learning packages.
Small group work encouraged group In the students' own words specifically about discussion as students found it to be a more relaxed environment for learning. Simulated expe- Students welcomed the opportunity to connect Students commented that they felt empowered to riential learning the theory with the real ward situation.
The students enjoyed connecting the theory with a' real' event as indicated by the following comments: RESULTS ' this relates to reality'; ' made more sense as it relates to a real case'; ' connects the theory with a real-life In this project there are two foci of findings, one situation'. There are three types of muscle tissue, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle tissue. All three types of muscle tissues use movement to act against the myosin to create contraction, the skeletal muscle tissue uses contraction that is stimulated by electrical impulses which is trans mitted by the nerves the motor nerves and motor neurons especially.
Cardiac and smooth muscle utilise contractions that are stimulated by internal pacemaker cell which regularly contract, and propagate contraction to other muscle cells they are in contact with, much of the skeletal and many of the smooth muscle contractions are facilitated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nervous Nervous tissue is made up of living cells with the ability to react to stimuli. The Marieb pg Tissue nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells called neurons, neurons transmit messages rapidly and are easily stimulated, these are present in the brain, spinal cord and the pe3ripheral nerves the branch throughout the body.
Describe this process. When the cells are injured this leads to inflammation which could result in either resolution and healing of the injured site or in progression into chronic inflammation.
Textbook of Anatomy & Physiology for Nurses
Chronic inflammation may result in healing or in progression into the development of a granuloma. The last steps of the process is healing and reconstruction of the damaged tissue. Dermal papillae. Reticular layer of dermis Sebuceous gland Arrector pili muscle Sweat gland Hair follicle.
Hair root. The epithelial tissue can be found covering the body, lining cavities and glands. The epithelial tissue cells are intimately packed together and the matrix is very small. The connective tissue consist of cells the lie on the foundation membrane that is neutral, connective tissue is plentiful in the body and the cells in the connective tissue are widely separated from each other compared to the cells of the epithelial tissue and the matrix of the connective tissue are plentiful.
The skin colour is determined by the amount and type id melanin which is a pigment in the skin, there two types of melanin; pheomelanin and eumelanin. How much pheomelanin and eumelanin someone may have in their skin is determined by their genes, a copy of each gene is inherited from the parents and each gene comes as alleles. A Increased production of melanin the helps to block the ultraviolet light.
Partial-thickness is a burn that has affected the epidermis layer of skin and can be described as superficial. When the burn had affected not just the epidermis layer of skin but also a deeper layer of skin called the dermis, the damage to the skin is called full thickness burn as it has affected the full thickness of the skin. D Using the "rule of nines. Describe this rule:. The six areas of questioning in a health history are: This section may also include intimate details such as sexual habits and sexual orientation.
It may have dates of the operations, operative reports and details of what the surgeon did. It may also contain diseases that are common within the family or only in one sex of a side of the family. Support The skeletal system provides internal framework which supports and protects all soft organs. Protection The bones protect soft organs.
Movement Muscles are attached to the bones and the bones are used as leverage to move the body. Storage Fat is stored inside the bones as well as minerals, calcium and phosphorous. Blood cell Formation of blood cells occurs inside the marrow cavities of particular formation bones. There are two classifications of bones, Compact and Spongy. Marieb pg, At the site of the breakage the blood vessels are ruptured and swelling occurs, bone cells begin to die. The break is supported by various types of repair tissue and the gap of the break soon closes, the fibro cartilage is slowly replaced by callus which is made from spongy bone.
This joint can be located in the intermetacarpal joints and the acromioclavicular joint. Can be found between the atlas and the occipital bone such as the elbow. This joint can be found in the wrist. In the hand there is a saddle joint on the thumb. Can be found in the shoulder and hip. The Muscular System 6. The voluntary muscle is a muscle that operates consciously like the muscles in the leg, the operate only when required. Involuntary muscles is a muscle that operates unconsciously for example the cardiac muscle is an involuntary muscle as it is a vital component in keeping the body alive.
The functions of the muscle alternate between contracting and relaxing, as the muscle contracts the fibres are thicker and shorter and some are stimulated by nerve impulses. The six most common types of body movement are: Marieb pg - Marieb pg, - The abdominal muscles are classed into four separate types of muscles located between the ribs and the pelvis.
These muscles have also the transverse abdominal, the internal obliques, the external obliques and the rectus abdominis. These muscle groups have a very important role to play in the body's health. The abdominal muscles are attached to the skeletal structures, within the abdominal muscles there are many fibres.
These fibres are filled with very small proteins called actin and myosin. When the electrical impulses are sent through a passive of nerves to the fibres, this action causes the actins and myosin to rub across each other making the muscle to shorten.
The shortening of the muscle causes the muscle to contract. Axon Nucleus. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerve, PNS structures are commonly found in groups called ganglia.
The peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system to all of the body's sense organs, internal organs and muscles. Without the peripheral nervous system the central nervous system would be starved of sensory information and the ability to act.
A reflex action is a fast motor reaction to a sensory stimulus, the simple reflex arcs involves the afferent neurons to connect directly to the efferent neurons and only requires one synapse in the circuit to complete the reflex.
An example of a simple reflex is a knee jerk: Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe. The brain stem is located underneath the brain which is comprised of the midbrain, Pons and the medulla oblongata.
The brain stem provides a pathway for incoming and outgoing electrical impulses or messages as well as neurological functions that are necessary for survival such as breathing, digestion, heart rate and blood pressure.
The cerebellum has the responsibility of reflexive, involuntary calibrating the motor control and the maintenance of balance and posture through panoptic neural connection with the medullar.
The cerebrospinal fluid is a clear fluid with no colour similar to blood plasma and interstitial fluid. The floating properties of the cerebrospinal fluid helps prevent the brain from tugging on the meninges, nerve roots and blood vessels. Approximately there is about to ml of CSF circulating within the ventricles and the subarachnoid space at any given time, about ml of CSF is produced on a daily basis. The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the interventricular foramen into the third ventricle and then continues through the cerebral aqueduct into the paired lateral aperture or the median aperture before communicating with the subarachnoid spaces of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebrospinal fluid does not accumulate but instead it is reabsorbed into the venous circulation by the arachnoid villi.
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The arachnoid villi sticks out from the arachnoid space though the dura mater and lies within the blood flow of the venous sinuses.
The CSF is reabsorbed from the pressure gradient between the arachnoid villi and the cerebral venous sinuses, the villi acts as a one-way valve directing the CSF outflow into the blood and preventing the blood from flowing in the subarachnoid space. Draw and label a diagram that shows this. The spinal cord ends at the first and second lumbar vertebrae.
The nerve that functions outside the cranial cavity is the vagus nerve which extends through the neck into the thorax and the upper part of the abdomen. Marieb pg, - 7. The fight or flight response is the bodies response to the threat or danger. The body releases hormones that speeds up the heart rate, slows down the digestion and diverts blood to the major muscles.
The hormones are responsible for the release of adrenalin and cortisone, which gives the burst of energy and strength to enable the person to fight or run from immediate danger. When the threat is gone the system winds down slowly returning to normal levels.
Fight or flight. Retrieved 27th march , from http: Special senses 8. Though it is perceived that the senses are separate and different from each other, they rarely work alone for example; when the smell of smoke is perceived all other senses start to work like sight and sound, these other senses try to help you locate the source of the fire. Anterior chamber Posterior chamber Sclera Choroid.
Cornea Retina Iris. Lens Pupil Fovea.
Light refraction occurs when the light rays pass from a particular density to a density of a different medium which then are refracted or bent; for example in one eye the biconvex lens bends and focuses the rays of light. B Red, Blue, and Yellow. Incus Semicircular canals. Cochlea External Canal. Tympanic Membrane Eustachian Tube.
Conduct Conduct deafness occurs when there is a change in the outer or middle ear deafness impairs the conduction of the sound entering from the outer ear to the inner ear. Sensorineural Sensorineural deafness is a impairment of the corti organ or it's central.
When we taste foodstuff and or fluids we use the taste buds on our tongue. Taste buds contain sensory receptors which is located in the papillae of the tongue. The receptors are stimulated by chemicals that enter the pores. The nerve impulses are created and conducted along the pertaining tongue, throat, facial, and vagus nerves before meeting up in the medulla and thalamus. Finally, they finish up at the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex where the taste is perceived. The endocrine glands react to particular signals by synthesizing and releasing hormones in to circulation which triggers a intracellular response.
The endocrine and nervous systems works with each other to regulate feedback from the internal and external environments, the feedback is regulated by the secretion of regulatory substances in the bloodstream and the production of electrical potential.
When the hormones are released it is then controlled either indirectly by the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland.
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A regulatory mechanism is used to regulate the secretion of the hormone. For example, insulin is secreted in response to an increase of glucose levels a chemical stimulus ; to direct stimulation of the insulin secreting cells. Feedback and regulatory mechanisms provide precise monitoring and control of the cellular environment.
Blood Every blood cell originate from pluripotent stem cells, the cells go through several developmental levels before moving on into the blood. The process of blood cell formation is called haemopoiesis, this process takes place in red bone marrow. The red blood cells are made in the red bone marrow and only last for about days in circulation, white blood cells are the largest of all cell and they branch out into two groups granulocytes and agranulocytes.
The last puzzle piece in the blood is the platelets, platelets are very small disks with no nucleus and they come from the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in red bone marrow, the platelets only have a life cycle of 8 to 10 days and those not used in haemostasis is destroyed by macrophages, mainly in the spleen.
White blood cells are the largest of all cell and they branch out into two groups granulocytes and agranulocytes. Name these groups. Haemostasis is when the blood flood is halted by mechanical, chemical or a complex process of the body which consists of vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation and blood clotting. Everyone has different types of antigens on the surfaces of our red blood cells, these antigens are inherited and they determine an individuals blood group.
Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology: For Nursing and Healthcare Students, 2nd Edition
Individuals make antibodies to all other antigens but not to their own type of antigens. The immune system attacks foreign substances of anything that should be in the body, if a transfused blood does not match that of the receiver the immune system mounts an attack on that blood type as the antigens of the transfused blood did not match that of the receiver and the receivers blood had antigens against the trans fused blood antigens.
The Cardiovascular System The heart is located sub-sternal, center thoracic, superior to the stomach with the apex on the left. Septum Inferior Vena Cava. Atrioventricular Node Bundle of His. Electrocardi The electrocardiograph is a machine that prints out a graphic record ogram electrocardiogram of the electrical impulses of the heart.Anterior chamber Posterior chamber Sclera Choroid.
What other learning objectives did you identify from this session? Neuroanatomy, 5, Mouth This is a reservoir for the chewing and mixing of foodstuff and saliva. The body releases hormones that speeds up the heart rate, slows down the digestion and diverts blood to the major muscles. Data accessed Barrow, E. Storage Fat is stored inside the bones as well as minerals, calcium and phosphorous.
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