ANALYZING COMPUTER SECURITY PDF
The title Analyzing Computer Security should alert you that this book is intended Thus. a PDF file is displayed by a program such as Adobe Reader that does. Analyzing computer security: a threat/vulnerability/countermeasure The title Analyzing Computer Security should alert you that this book See PDF file. Analyzing computer security: a threat/vulnerability/countermeasure approach. by Charles P Pfleeger; Shari Lawrence Pfleeger. eBook: Document. English.
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Download the Book:Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat / Vulnerability / Countermeasure Approach PDF For Free, Preface. Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat / Vulnerability / Countermeasure Approach pdf download, Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat. Editorial Reviews. Review. “This is a must-read book for any budding Security Architect and myavr.info: Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat / Vulnerability / Countermeasure Approach eBook: Charles P. Pfleeger, Shari Lawrence.
Even machines that operate as a closed system i. Multi-vector, polymorphic attacks[ edit ] Surfacing in , a new class of multi-vector,  polymorphic  cyber threats surfaced that combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cyber security controls as they spread.
These threats have been classified as fifth generation cyber attacks. The fake website often ask for personal information, such as log-in and passwords.
This information can then be used to gain access to the individual's real account on the real website. Preying on a victim's trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering. Privilege escalation[ edit ] Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level.
For example, a standard computer user may be able to fool the system into giving them access to restricted data; or even become " root " and have full unrestricted access to a system. Main article: Social engineering security Social engineering aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc.
IP address spoofing , where an attacker alters the source IP address in a network packet to hide their identity or impersonate another computing system. Biometric spoofing, where an attacker produces a fake biometric sample to pose as another user.
So-called "Evil Maid" attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization. Strategic Planning: to come up with a better awareness program, clear targets need to be set. Clustering[ definition needed ] people is helpful to achieve it. Operative Planning: a good security culture can be established based on internal communication, management-buy-in, and security awareness and a training program.
They are: Commitment of the management Courses for all organizational members Commitment of the employees  Post-Evaluation: to assess the success of the planning and implementation, and to identify unresolved areas of concern.
Systems at risk[ edit ] The growth in the number of computer systems, and the increasing reliance upon them of individuals, businesses, industries and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at risk.
Financial systems[ edit ] The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U. Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cyber criminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains. Utilities and industrial equipment[ edit ] Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks.
The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable.
In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies.
The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life.
The main reason is that the focus is commonly placed in robot functionality, design and innovation. Further, there is inadequate understanding of what are the actual risks and the affected security goals [ 19 ]. Next, we present a thorough summary from literature about some of the studies that targeted security threat analysis and detection for several robot platforms or CPSs.
The authors analysis focused on robotic applications that are based on distributed middleware and transmitted regular robotic data packets of different sizes on various network settings.
The analysis results showed that the communication quality in terms of latency and packet loss rate is acceptable; hence, the authors recommended that security capabilities should be enabled in common cases. Sabaliauskaite et al. To evaluate their approach, the authors used the educational robots, AmigoBotsTM, and applied three cyber-attacks i.
The evaluation results indicate that M1 and M5 are most effective for detecting cyber-attacks on AmigoBots. Breiling et al. The authors described the implementation changes to ROS core and assessed the overhead introduced by embedding the new security functions.
In [ 23 ], Dieber et al.
Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat / Vulnerability / Countermeasure Approach
Moreover, the authors proposed an application-level approach that helps to secure small ROS applications by securing all communication channels without being invasive to the ROS source code. Abeykoon and Feng [ 13 ] performed a formalized and structured forensic investigation of ROS. They focused on creating a formalized and analytical framework to acquire related digital evidence after a forensic investigation of cyber-crimes such as that of ROS.
Guerrero et al. ODM stealthily monitors the plant using an independent network to collect data from various sources and corroborates the plant state.
The proposed mechanism is orthogonal to any other defense mechanism that may exist. Bezemskij et al. Their approach is based on formulating the detection method as a binary classification problem.
In [ 27 ], Vuong et al. Most recently, Vuong et al. The first technique implemented detection using decision trees and the second technique utilized deep learning to efficiently detect various attacks. Similar to the second technique, Jones and Straub [ 29 ] designed a two-stage intrusion detection system IDS to reveal the existence of intrusions and malware in autonomous robots.
A deep neural network is trained to detect behavior deviations. Javaid et al. The risk level of an attack was evaluated by multiplying the estimated likelihood and the attack impact. Batson et al.
Quarta et al. Several software vulnerabilities in the robot main computer were exposed. Bonaci et al. The analysis showed that many of the robot tasks can be maliciously altered using manipulation and disruption attacks on the wireless communication link between the robot and the user i.
The implemented attacks were based on the man-in-the-middle model and they negatively impacted the usability and the safety of the robot, which might result in privacy and legal violations. Similarly, Alemzadeh et al. Alemzadeh et al. Chen et al. Clark et al. Possible attack scenarios at each level were presented and discussed.
Additionally, possible mitigation techniques were suggested. Deng et al. Guiochet et al. Initially, the authors used Unified Modeling Language UML to model tasks and preliminary analyze application domain hazards.
[P.D.F] Analyzing Computer Security: A Threat / Vulnerability / Countermeasure Approach by Charles
Then, during the specification phase, a risk assessment of the robotic system was performed. The proposed risk assessment approach was applied on an assistive robot providing assistance for standing up, sitting down and walking, and health-state monitoring. Various safety approaches for heavy payload robots were discussed. The authors concluded with a general guideline that was formulated to serve for industrial level HRC scenarios.
More recently, Khalid et al. They identified the basic elements and functional requirements of a secure collaborative robotic CPS. The impact of their proposed framework is demonstrated on a teleoperation benchmark NeCS-Car. Portugal et al. They focused on surveying existing work and analyzing the security issues in ROS-based systems. Kriaa et al. They also provided and described implementations of security features relevant to such systems.
Vuong et al. Their approach is based on DoS attack launched against the robotic vehicle. Wardzinski [ 44 ] proposed a model for an autonomous vehicle control system, which utilizes risk assessment of the current and foreseen situations to plan its movement at an acceptable risk level.
Chowdhury et al. The authors discussed the possible economics losses due to these attacks and suggested mitigation approaches. Priyadarshini [ 2 ] explored the necessity of cyber-security in robotics.
She discussed several case studies of different kinds of robots used in different fields e. Mitigation strategies were discussed at the end to avoid cyber-security risks. Matellan et al. This paper is an extension to our previous paper [ 10 ] in which we focused on vulnerabilities of the operating system running on the robot and the client. Those vulnerabilities are not unique to the robot and may apply to any environment running the same configuration.
However, this paper extends the work of [ 10 ] in the following ways: It presents a thorough summary from literature about the studies, which targeted security threat analysis and detection for several robot platforms or CPSs. It analyzes three different security requirements of the robot: integrity, availability and confidentiality. In contrast, the prior work only analyzed the availability security requirement.Security risk assessment of the PeopleBot mobile robot research platform.
For example, let us consider some possible security and privacy issues related to a robotic mapping and localization application i.
For example, a standard computer user may be able to fool the system into giving them access to restricted data; or even become " root " and have full unrestricted access to a system.
Direct-access attacks[ edit ] An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. The authors discussed the possible economics losses due to these attacks and suggested mitigation approaches. Impersonation 39 Attack Details:
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