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IOSH Text Book - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. This is a study material for IOSH Managing Safely Course. IOSH -PDF - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. IOSH MANAGING SAFETY. 1. 5. 8. COMPANY PROFILE . IOSH Text Book. Uploaded . myavr.info /britishsafetycouncil IOSH Managing Safely. Designed to help team leaders study modules, PDF texts, exam simulations, practice.

The courses are delivered by IOSH licensed trainers. Trainers must have suitable qualifications and experience before being approved to run IOSH courses. Managing Safely and Working Safely courses are also available in Arabic. Policy and Practice in Health and Safety - A peer-reviewed journal published twice a year IOSH Magazine - A monthly magazine on safety, health and wellbeing in the world of work Books - Publications for professionals Guidance and research - A number of documents are available free from the website.

Membership and designations[ edit ] Categories of membership depend on a combination of academic qualifications, experience and achievement. This is the highest grade. Chartered Fellows must have demonstrated an outstanding contribution to the discipline and profession of health and safety. Conduct investigations of individual accidents and incidents and record your results. Events which result in undesired occurrences are often described as accidents or incidents. Events are often referred to as "hazardous events".

The difference between outcomes is primarily as a result of luck, coupled, to a lesser or greater extent, with the presence of workplace precautions. For example, once a brick has fallen from a scaffold, it can result in any number of outcomes. However, if everyone on site is wearing a hard hat a possible workplace precaution the likelihood of the brick causing a fatality is significantly reduced.

It is the case that there are many less serious outcomes than there are serious outcomes and this in shown on the next section. Accident Triangle. The ratio shown is an average produced by the Health and Safety Executive. Different studies, including a number by the Health and Safety Executive, have shown different numeric ratios but the important point to note is that there is a ratio.

In practice, this means that for every serious injury, there will have been incidents where there was no injury. To put it another way, there have been opportunities to introduce workplace precautions and prevent an injury in the future.

Waiting for serious accidents in order to try to prevent problems in the future is simply inadequate because of the relatively small numbers involved. If action is taken on the basis of the less serious incidents such as near misses and minor injuries the larger database will make it easier to identify patterns and help to prevent or reduce future fatalities or major injuries.

The vital need is to ensure that all accidents and incidents are recorded and investigated in order for appropriate remedial action to be taken. Two of the main reactive monitoring activities are to ensure that your staff know: What has to be reported, and How these reports can be made. In order to be able to do this properly, you need to know the following: What types of outcomes should be reported.

The procedures for reporting each type of outcome. In an ideal world all incidents would be reported and recorded, but this does not happen in practice.

As the severity of the incident decreases, so does the percentage of the incidents which get reported. Whatever the reasons, it is a fact and it has practical implications. It is possible to learn as much about weaknesses in your safety management from near misses and minor injuries as you do from a major accident, but few organizations make full use of near miss and minor injury data.

Later in the course we will look at ways in which you can improve incident reporting. RIDDOR requires that various types of incident are reported and you need to know what these incidents are so that you are in a position to make the relevant reports if necessary.

RIDDOR also requires that reports are made within specified timescales and, again, you need to know about these timescales so that you can meet the legal requirements. Reports have to be made to the relevant "Enforcing Authority", which is usually the Health and Safety Executive or the Local Authority. However, it is likely that you will report internally, for example, to the personnel department or the safety department, who will then report to the Enforcing Authority on behalf of your organization.

Written reports are also required by the Enforcing Authority and these are normally provided by completing a standard form. Again, it is most likely that this form will be completed by the personnel department or the safety department on behalf of your organization. It follows from this that a critical thing you need to know is to whom you report incidents. Fatality as a result of an accident. Major injury to a person at work as a result of an accident.

Major injuries include fractures other than finger, thumb or toe , amputations, dislocations of shoulder, hip, knee or spine, loss of sight temporary or permanent and burns or penetrating injuries to the eye.

Certain injuries which lead to unconsciousness or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours are also included. An accident which results in a person not at work being taken to a hospital. A dangerous occurrence. The majority of these are specific to particular equipment, for example pipelines and fairground equipment, or to activities such as diving or train operation.

However, some involve more widespread activities, for example, the collapse of lifting equipment and the overturning of fork lift trucks. You should find out which dangerous occurrences may apply to your area by checking with your safety professional or reading the Regulations. This notification must be by the quickest practicable means and this is usually by telephone. The notification must be followed by a written report within ten days and this is usually done using Form F Absence from normal Incidents resulting in a personal injury which is not a specified work for over seven days.

These seven days exclude the day of the accident, but include days which would not have been working days, e. Incidents of this type do not have to be notified immediately but a written report is required within ten days.

Death of an employee within a year. Incidents resulting in the death of an employee as a result of a reportable accident within one year of that accident. Where this happens, the Enforcing Authority has to be informed whether or not the original accident had been reported. Incidents or working conditions resulting in an occupational disease.

Only certain types of disease have to be reported, and then only if the person's work involves one of a specified list of activities.

For example:. Cramp of hand or forearm: Handwriting, typing or other repetitive movements. Hand arm vibration syndrome: Tools or activities creating vibration.

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Work involving infected animals. Various types of cancer, dermatitis and asthma are also included. When an outcome of this type occurs, the Enforcing Authority must be notified "forthwith".

This is normally done using form FA. Records of reportable incidents must be kept by the organisation, not just sent to the Enforcing Authority. In addition, records of individual incidents must be retained for at least three years. However, it is extremely important that you know who in your organisation you should contact since, as we have seen, rapid notification is required for some RIDDOR incidents.

Since most of the outcomes dealt with under RIDDOR are obviously serious ones, there is not usually any difficulty in deciding whether or not these incidents should be reported.

However, you should pay particular attention to the following:. Identifying sources of risk which may necessitate the reporting of a dangerous occurrence.

For example, lifting machinery, fork lift trucks, and flammable materials. Identifying work activities which may necessitate the reporting of diseases. For example, work involving prolonged periods of repetitive movement or exposure to substances which might cause occupational dermatitis. If you are not sure whether your sources of risk or work activities could result in the need to report under RIDDOR you should seek further advice. We will now look at the reporting and recording of incidents involving less serious outcomes.

Examples of these include minor injuries requiring first aid or resulting in less than 7 days off work, "near misses" and property damage. However, it is good practice to report these for the following reasons.

Since there are relatively few incidents with serious outcomes, they do not provide a good measure of trends in performance. For the average manager, there will be long periods with no serious incidents at all, but this will not be the case with incidents with no outcome, or with a minor outcome. We can learn from data analysis. By looking for patterns in the way incidents occur, we may be able to identify common causes and take appropriate action.

This is the basis for epidemiological analysis. We can learn from individual incidents. As we will see later in the course, it is the case that incidents have the same range of causes, and the nature of the outcome, near miss to serious, is a matter of chance.

This means that we can often learn as much about the need for workplace precautions and risk control systems from investigating near misses as we can from investigating incidents with serious outcomes. However, none of these aspects of good practice is possible unless the incidents are reported in the first place. We will now, therefore, look at ways of improving reporting. Getting people to report incidents can be difficult, particularly when the incidents are minor in nature, or involve near misses.

However, the following will help to ensure improved reporting. User friendly system. Reporting and recording systems which are too onerous for the quantity of data to be collected will not be used.

For example, using "major" incident form for "minor" incidents. Emphasise continuous improvement. The reasons for collecting the data continuous improvement and prevention of recurrence should be clearly stated and repeated often. No "blame culture" If incident reports are followed by disciplinary action or more minor forms of "blame", people will stop reporting. Demonstrate use by taking corrective action.

If people who have to report cannot see that use is being made of their efforts, they will stop making the effort. It is not always possible to take action on a report, but there should be feedback on the reasons for the lack of action to the people concerned. Most organisations have an in house form which is used to record incidents, although it is often referred to as the "Accident Form".

Unfortunately, many organisations incident forms have weaknesses. If you have identified any weaknesses, you should report them to the person in your organisation responsible for amending the form, usually the safety professional. Unless this person is informed of the problems you have with the form, he or she will not be in a position to correct weaknesses. Your organisation may also use an "Accident Book" BI instead of or in addition to the in-house incident form. The Accident Book is a legal requirement under the Social Security Claims and Payments Regulations but the information which has to be recorded and the way the Accident Book is laid out makes it far from ideal for analysis of the incident data.

This is probably the reason why most organisations have their own separate form.

IOSH Managing Safely Training Notes

Once data have been recorded, they are available for analysis and we will look now at the analysis of incident data. For the purposes of our discussion, it is useful to divide the incident data into two categories:. Incidents which have occurred in your own area of responsibility. These are data which you should analyse yourself and in a moment we will look at the sorts of analysis you should carry out. Incidents in the organisation more generally. These are the data for the whole factory, site or building of which your area forms a part.

Normally these data are analysed by the safety professional who will provide summaries which can be a useful benchmark for your own performance. Each category of data can be analysed in two main ways and the next part of the session is a description of how you can analyse your own incident data in the following ways:.

Trend analysis. This sort of analysis enables you to identify whether your performance, so far as incidents are concerned, is improving or deteriorating. Epidemiological analysis. This sort of analysis enables you to identify patterns in the occurrence of incidents in your area which might indicate common causes.

The simplest method of trend analysis is to count the numbers of incidents each month, or each quarter, and plot these numbers as a graph. You can, however, improve on this in the following ways:. Separate plots for different types of incident. For example, you could have separate lines on the graph for incidents resulting in injury, ill health and damage. Plotting the days lost. For incidents resulting in injury or ill health, you can plot the number of days lost each month.

Plots of these types usually show quite a lot of fluctuation from month to month and it can be difficult to work out whether things are getting better or worse. However, there are ways of dealing with this problem and if you find it difficult to identify a trend, ask your safety professional.

The first step is to do the plots and get some "hard" data on incidents in your area. Note that you may have particular problems if things are changing in your area, for example, if more or fewer people are being employed.

In these cases, you will have to use an accident rate such as the ones illustrated next. Incidence rate.

This is the number of accidents divided by the number employed. The result is usually multiplied by 1, to give the number of accidents per 1, employees. It is used to take into account variations in the size of the workforce. Frequency rate. This is the number of accidents divided by the number of hours worked. The result is usually multiplied by , to give the number of accidents per , hours worked. It is used to take into account variations in the amount of work done and part time employment.

You can use these rates for your own data when numbers of people or numbers of hours worked vary from month to month. Note that although they are called accident rates they can be used equally validly for incidents resulting in near misses and ill health. These two rates are widely used by safety professionals since they enable them to make fairer comparisons between, for example, departments employing different numbers of people.

You may find that the summary incident data supplied by your safety professional are in the form of rates. In this case you will have to calculate equivalent rates for your own incident data if you want to use the summaries as benchmarks.

Safety professionals also use a third rate for comparison purposes: Mean duration rate also known as the severity rate.

This is the number of days lost through accidents divided by the number of accidents, to give the average number of days lost per accident. Epidemiological techniques are used by safety professionals to analyse all of the incident data available. This enables them to identify, usually by trial and error, patterns in the occurrence of incidents.

They then investigate these patterns to see whether causal factors can be identified and remedial action taken. Epidemiology used in this way can identify problems which would not be apparent from single incidents, e. This enables the safety professional to make general recommendations and you may get guidance on specific types of incidents as a result of the safety professional's analyses.

You can use similar techniques on your own data which will, of course, be less numerous than those available to the safety professional. Because you will have relatively few data, the techniques you need to use are basically simple. However, this does not mean that they cannot produce very useful results. We will look at these basic techniques next. The simplest method of epidemiological analysis is to tabulate your accident data using one aspect of the accident at a time.

Some examples are given below:. Part of body injured. Simply listing the parts of the body injured in your accidents can identify, for example, that there is a disproportionate number of injuries to the feet, or that there is a number of potentially serious minor injuries such as eye injuries.

Note that it is not unusual to have a high proportion of injuries to the fingers and hands since these are the parts of the body most at risk in the majority of tasks.

Time of day. Unless there is a good reason why accident numbers should fluctuate over the day, finding such a fluctuation will suggest that something is being done at the times of high accident rates where the risk is not well controlled. More than the expected number of accidents happening at a particular location suggests that it is a good place to carry out an investigation into what is causing these accidents. What you are trying to do with your tabulations is to identify "clusters" of accidents that is numbers of accidents which are greater than you would expect.

You should also look out for "holes", that is no accidents where you would expect some to occur, since this might indicate a failure in reporting or recording.

Where you find "clusters" or "holes", the next step will be to carry out an investigation and we will be looking at investigation techniques in a moment. You can also use a technique known as cross tabulation if you have a sufficient number of accidents to analyse. This involves analysing more than one aspect of the accident at a time, for example, part of body and process since it can be the case that common injuries, such as injuries. This will normally only be identified if part of body and process are cross tabulated.

To collect the information required for notifying the enforcing authority. To get information needed for insurance claims. From a company point of view the benefits of investigating accidents and incidents include: To prevent further accidents and incidents. To prevent further business losses from disruption, down-time and lost business. Improve worker morale.

It can develop skills that can be applied elsewhere in the organisation. Investigating incidents is a major use of reactive monitoring data. However, to carry out these investigations effectively you need both knowledge and skills. The main types of knowledge required are as follows: The investigation procedure. That is, what you have to do, and in what order.

Human factors. People have accidents and the more you know about how people operate, and why they go wrong, the more detail you will be able to cover in your investigations. The main types of skill required are as follows: Observation and recording.

So that you can identify all the relevant physical factors and complete an adequate description of what has happened. So that you can obtain information from the people involved. However, there are different types of investigations and we will begin by looking at these different types.

There is an unfortunate tendency to equate investigation with "serious" incidents. The argument used is that you only have to carry out an investigation if the outcome of the incident is sufficiently serious to warrant the effort of an investigation. However, incidents have the same root causes and the outcome of an incident is largely a matter of chance. Where the incident has a "serious" outcome it is likely that the incident will be investigated by specialists, for example, the company safety professional or even a Factory Inspector so that you will not be called on in the capacity of an investigator.

You can learn a lot by conducting your own investigation of near misses and "minor" incidents. We will begin our consideration of this type of investigation with the knowledge requirements and the first part of these requirements is the Hale and Hale model. The Hale and Hale model is a description of an individual's behaviour in a continuous cycle with, at each point of the cycle, the possibilities of error identified, together with possible reasons.

Figure 1. Hale and Hale Model. The model begins with the situation in which the person is working and, for the purposes of illustration, we will assume that the work is driving a car, since we are all likely to be familiar with this sort of "work". Driving a car presents the person with certain information e.

The person also has certain expectations e. Presented and expected information are combined to produce perceived information, that is, the information used by the person at the time. The person uses this information to prepare a list of possible actions e. The chosen action is then carried out, which changes the situation, and the cycle is repeated.

This cycle can go wrong at any point in a variety of ways and you can use the elements of the Hale and Hale model as a checklist during your investigations.

What the Domino Theory says is that if one of the dominoes to the left of the Loss domino falls, it will knock over those to the right and a loss will occur. For example: Lack of supervision management control results in a situation where oil can be spilt and not cleared up. An unsafe act occurs, spilling oil and not clearing it up. An unsafe condition results in a pool of oil on the floor. A loss occurs when someone slips on the oil, falls and breaks an arm.

When we investigate an incident, we can identify unsafe conditions, unsafe acts and lack of management controls and establish causes for these, as well as causes for the loss, if there has been one. Possible causes of a person slipping on a patch of oil might be not looking where they were going, or not wearing appropriate footwear.

Possible causes of not clearing up spilled oil might be lack of time, or not seeing it as part of the job. Possible causes of spilling oil might be working in a hurry, inappropriate implements or a poor method of work. Possible causes of poor management control might be excessive pressure for production resulting in hurrying , lack of funding for proper implements, or insufficient attention to designing appropriate systems of work.

The further to the left you go with the dominoes, the greater the implications of the causes identified. For example, lack of appropriate systems of work may apply to a large number of operations, not just to those which can result in oil spillages. It follows that if we can identify and remedy failures in management controls, there is the potential to eliminate large numbers of losses.

Thus the usefulness of the investigation can extend beyond simply preventing a single accident happening again. Note also that you do not have to wait for a loss to occur before conducting an investigation. You could investigate, for example, why a pool of oil has been left on the floor. Having looked at the Hale and Hale model and the Domino Theory, we are now ready to move on to the accident investigation procedure.

In this part of the session we will go through the whole of the accident investigation procedure required for minor incidents. We will start by looking at the whole procedure in outline and then go on to discuss interview techniques in detail. However, note that there will be additional steps required for investigations of serious accidents.

The main stages in the investigation procedure are as follows: Site Visits and Recording Details of the Site. The site is one of the main sources of information on the accident and it is important that you visit the site as soon as possible, before it is cleared up. Interviews provide the majority of information about an accident and the initial interviews should be conducted on site. However, the accident site is not usually the ideal place to conduct interviews, so we need to consider alternatives.

Draft Report. Preparing a draft report gives you the opportunity to check that you have all of the required information. However, report writing is not always necessary or appropriate for the sorts of incidents you will usually be investigating.

Designing Remedial Actions.

This is the overall aim of the investigation process and the implementation of effective remedial action should be seen as the primary purpose of the investigation. The people involved in the investigation should be informed of the results.

This is important as a means of emphasizing the need for accident reporting and ensuring co-operation in future investigations. We will now look at who may have to be interviewed in the course of an investigation. It may be necessary to interview people other than the injured person and the witnesses in order to identify accurately the root causes of an incident.

For example, if someone has been injured as a result of using a corrosive liquid which has been put into a bottle labelled 'Hand Cleaning Fluid', you will need to find out who filled the bottle and interview that person, and the supervisor who allowed the filling to take place. It may be the case that you are in a position where you have to "interview yourself". If there has been a failure in management control, and you are the manager, then you may have to identify weaknesses in your own performance.

If, in these circumstances, you find it difficult to be objective, get help from someone else. For example, ask a colleague to investigate on your behalf. You may also have to collect information from people at locations other than the accident site. This would be the case if, for example, the corrosive liquid had been put into the hand cleaner container at another location.

Whoever you are interviewing, you have to get the person talking and keep them talking and the best way to do this is to establish and maintain rapport.

Although you cannot guarantee to establish rapport, the following will help: Only have one interviewee at a time.

In particular, do not interview people in the presence of their boss unless, of course, you are their boss. Only have one interviewer at a time. Make sure your introductions are good. Say who you are, what your role is, and, most importantly, why you are conducting the investigation. Know your interviewee's name and role in the incident. We have already considered who might have to be interviewed, that is, the injured person, witnesses etc.

Establish common ground. In particular ensure that the interviewee knows that the purpose of the investigation is to prevent recurrences.

Get the interviewee on home ground at least initially. Do this literally by starting the interview on the incident site or the interviewee's place of work, and figuratively by discussing the interviewee's normal work before moving on to the incident.

Once rapport has been established, the following will help maintain it: No interruptions by you. This seems obvious but rapport is often broken by interviewers who "butt in" to clear up points, ask subsidiary questions, or even express their own opinions!

IOSH Ready Questions and Answers

No other interruptions. If necessary, take the interviewee away from the accident site after the initial stages of the interview, to a place where you will be free from interruptions. Use open questions. That is, questions which cannot be answered with "yes" or "no". Even when you simply want confirmation of a particular point, where a closed question would be appropriate, you may get extra information if you use an open question. Avoid multiple or complex questions. These force the interviewee to concentrate on the question rather than their answer.

In addition, multiple questions are rarely answered fully with both the interviewer and the interviewee forgetting at least one part. Avoid judgements. You are there to collect information, not express your views, either for or against.

Expressing negative judgements breaks rapport and expressing positive judgements biases the interviewee's responses. The recording of interviews is essential for the following reasons:. So that you do not forget what has been said.

IOSH Managing Safely Training Notes

This is particularly important for long and complex investigations or when there will be a delay between interviewing and writing the report. So that you do not confuse one interview with another. This is particularly important for investigations which involve a number of witnesses or interviews with other people.

Remember that variations are to be expected and you will need an accurate record of these. So that you do not have to interrupt. If you are recording the interview you can make a note of any matters you want to follow up and return to these when the interviewee reaches a natural pause. Do not start to take notes until rapport is established.

It is almost impossible to establish rapport while taking notes. Always get the interviewee's agreement and explain what the notes are for. Record everything. If you are selective in what you record you will bias the interviewee. And how do you know what may be relevant at a later date?

Review your notes with the interviewee. This enables you to check their accuracy and it may "jog" the interviewee's memory, producing additional useful information. Ask the interviewee specifically about their views on prevention. They are likely to know more about the work circumstances than you do, and may have very good ideas.

However, you are often seen as the "expert" or the "authority" which makes people hesitant in expressing their opinions. Mention that you may have to talk to the person again. This may be necessary if, for example, there is something you need to check. Mentioning this at the end of the interview will make it easier to establish rapport for subsequent interviews. And don't forget the thank you! Risk assessment and risk control are central to safety management.

Risk assessment and risk control can be very complex subjects but on the Managing Safely course they are dealt with in a straightforward manner. In addition to providing you with a good introduction to risk assessment and risk control, this module will also provide you with a "common language" to use when discussing these topics with your workforce.

During the Managing Safely course, we will look more formally at risk assessment and risk control and what you have to do to meet your managerial responsibilities in these areas. In order to get the most out of the Managing Safely course, you need to know what is meant by hazard, risk and risk control. A live tiger is always a hazard. A live tiger, except perhaps when it is anaesthetised, always has the potential to cause you harm and is, therefore, always a hazard.

Even the proverbial toothless tiger can harm you because, not only can it give you a nasty suck, it still has claws! In general, a hazard is anything which can cause harm and, because a tiger can cause harm, it is a hazard. A tiger which is free to roam about is a risk because it is likely that it will cause harm to someone. A loose tiger in the centre of a town is a higher risk than a loose tiger in the jungle because it is more likely to harm someone in a town.

A loose rabbit is a low risk because it cannot inflict severe harm. A tiger in a cage is a low risk because it is unlikely to have the opportunity to inflict harm.

A rabbit in a cage is no risk at all - unless you are a lettuce! If there is a risk, the best solution is to - remove the hazard completely - keep goldfish! If you cannot remove the hazard, then - avoid the hazard - do not go to the zoo! Remember, however, that keepers still have to encounter tigers in a zoo. They do not have the option to avoid the hazard and, therefore, need to keep tigers in cages.

A tiger is less of a risk if it is in a cage. Thus, a cage is a risk control measure. Another name for a risk control measure is a "workplace precaution". We will use both risk control measures and workplace precautions to mean methods of reducing risk. Remember, it is always better to remove or avoid hazards and the reasons why are illustrated on the next page.

As we will see most, if not all, workplace precautions have weak links. Because almost all workplace precautions have weak links it is better, if we can, to remove the hazard completely, or avoid the hazard. Let us look at some workplace examples:. Lifting weights is always a hazard. It becomes a high risk if you lift the weights on your own or use poor lifting technique.

Where possible, the need for lifting heavy weights should be eliminated by, for example, using smaller packages. If lifting heavy weights is necessary, then the hazard should be avoided by, for example, using mechanical handling equipment.

Where heavy weights have to be lifted manually then you should use workplace precautions. The basic workplace precautions for manual handling are - get help with lifting heavy weights, and use good lifting technique. We will look at lifting again in the module on manual handling. Anything can be a hazard, for example, weights, machines, electricity, fire, noise, tools, chemicals. Things can also become a greater risk if,. A good, sound ladder, will be less of a risk than a damaged ladder Living organism.

Way of working. For example, tigers, bacteria, viruses, people, insects For example, at height, in confined spaces, lifting, typing. Ways of working also vary in how serious a hazard they are, for example, short spells of typing are less hazardous than long spells of typing. We always have to be on the lookout for hazards and do something about them when we find them.

We will look at how to identify hazards and what to do when we find them later in the module. We also have to work in ways which do not create hazards for ourselves or other people.

Risks occur when a hazard and a person come together in circumstances which could result in harm to the person. Presented and expected information are combined to produce perceived information, that is, the information used by the person at the time. The person uses this information to prepare a list of possible actions e. The chosen action is then carried out, which changes the situation, and the cycle is repeated.

Resources results

This cycle can go wrong at any point in a variety of ways and you can use the elements of the Hale and Hale model as a checklist during your investigations. What the Domino Theory says is that if one of the dominoes to the left of the Loss domino falls, it will knock over those to the right and a loss will occur.

For example: Lack of supervision management control results in a situation where oil can be spilt and not cleared up. An unsafe act occurs, spilling oil and not clearing it up. An unsafe condition results in a pool of oil on the floor. A loss occurs when someone slips on the oil, falls and breaks an arm. When we investigate an incident, we can identify unsafe conditions, unsafe acts and lack of management controls and establish causes for these, as well as causes for the loss, if there has been one.

For example: Possible causes of a person slipping on a patch of oil might be not looking where they were going, or not wearing appropriate footwear.

Possible causes of not clearing up spilled oil might be lack of time, or not seeing it as part of the job. Possible causes of spilling oil might be working in a hurry, inappropriate implements or a poor method of work. Possible causes of poor management control might be excessive pressure for production resulting in hurrying , lack of funding for proper implements, or insufficient attention to designing appropriate systems of work.

The further to the left you go with the dominoes, the greater the implications of the causes identified. For example, lack of appropriate systems of work may apply to a large number of operations, not just to those which can result in oil spillages. It follows that if we can identify and remedy failures in management controls, there is the potential to eliminate large numbers of losses. Thus the usefulness of the investigation can extend beyond simply preventing a single accident happening again.

Note also that you do not have to wait for a loss to occur before conducting an investigation. You could investigate, for example, why a pool of oil has been left on the floor. Having looked at the Hale and Hale model and the Domino Theory, we are now ready to move on to the accident investigation procedure. In this part of the session we will go through the whole of the accident investigation procedure required for minor incidents.

We will start by looking at the whole procedure in outline and then go on to discuss interview techniques in detail. However, note that there will be additional steps required for investigations of serious accidents. The main stages in the investigation procedure are as follows: Site Visits and Recording Details of the Site. The site is one of the main sources of information on the accident and it is important that you visit the site as soon as possible, before it is cleared up. However, the accident site is not usually the ideal place to conduct interviews, so we need to consider alternatives.

Draft Report. Preparing a draft report gives you the opportunity to check that you have all of the required information. However, report writing is not always necessary or appropriate for the sorts of incidents you will usually be investigating.

Designing Remedial Actions. This is the overall aim of the investigation process and the implementation of effective remedial action should be seen as the primary purpose of the investigation. The people involved in the investigation should be informed of the results. This is important as a means of emphasizing the need for accident reporting and ensuring co-operation in future investigations.

We will now look at who may have to be interviewed in the course of an investigation. It may be necessary to interview people other than the injured person and the witnesses in order to identify accurately the root causes of an incident.

For example, if someone has been injured as a result of using a corrosive liquid which has been put into a bottle labelled 'Hand Cleaning Fluid', you will need to find out who filled the bottle and interview that person, and the supervisor who allowed the filling to take place. It may be the case that you are in a position where you have to "interview yourself". If there has been a failure in management control, and you are the manager, then you may have to identify weaknesses in your own performance.

If, in these circumstances, you find it difficult to be objective, get help from someone else. For example, ask a colleague to investigate on your behalf. You may also have to collect information from people at locations other than the accident site. This would be the case if, for example, the corrosive liquid had been put into the hand cleaner container at another location. Whoever you are interviewing, you have to get the person talking and keep them talking and the best way to do this is to establish and maintain rapport.

Although you cannot guarantee to establish rapport, the following will help: Only have one interviewee at a time. In particular, do not interview people in the presence of their boss unless, of course, you are their boss. Only have one interviewer at a time. Page 29 -IOSH Managing Safely "Panel" interviews and investigation committees are not the best methods of obtaining information, especially in sensitive areas.

Make sure your introductions are good. Say who you are, what your role is, and, most importantly, why you are conducting the investigation. Know your interviewee's name and role in the incident.

We have already considered who might have to be interviewed, that is, the injured person, witnesses etc. Establish common ground. In particular ensure that the interviewee knows that the purpose of the investigation is to prevent recurrences. Get the interviewee on home ground at least initially. Do this literally by starting the interview on the incident site or the interviewee's place of work, and figuratively by discussing the interviewee's normal work before moving on to the incident.

Once rapport has been established, the following will help maintain it: No interruptions by you. This seems obvious but rapport is often broken by interviewers who "butt in" to clear up points, ask subsidiary questions, or even express their own opinions! No other interruptions. If necessary, take the interviewee away from the accident site after the initial stages of the interview, to a place where you will be free from interruptions.

Use open questions. That is, questions which cannot be answered with "yes" or "no". Even when you simply want confirmation of a particular point, where a closed question would be appropriate, you may get extra information if you use an open question.

Avoid multiple or complex questions. These force the interviewee to concentrate on the question rather than their answer. In addition, multiple questions are rarely answered fully with both the interviewer and the interviewee forgetting at least one part.

Avoid judgements. Expressing negative judgements breaks rapport and expressing positive judgements biases the interviewee's responses. The recording of interviews is essential for the following reasons: So that you do not forget what has been said.

This is particularly important for long and complex investigations or when there will be a delay between interviewing and writing the report. So that you do not confuse one interview with another.

This is particularly important for investigations which involve a number of witnesses or interviews with other people. Remember that variations are to be expected and you will need an accurate record of these. So that you do not have to interrupt.

If you are recording the interview you can make a note of any matters you want to follow up and return to these when the interviewee reaches a natural pause. There are a number of ground rules on note taking: Do not start to take notes until rapport is established. It is almost impossible to establish rapport while taking notes. Always get the interviewee's agreement and explain what the notes are for.

Record everything. If you are selective in what you record you will bias the interviewee. And how do you know what may be relevant at a later date? There should be a set sequence for the end of interviews as follows: Review your notes with the interviewee.

This enables you to check their accuracy and it may "jog" the interviewee's memory, producing additional useful information. Ask the interviewee specifically about their views on prevention.

They are likely to know more about the work circumstances than you do, and may have very good ideas. However, you are often seen as the "expert" or the "authority" which makes people hesitant in expressing their opinions. This may be necessary if, for example, there is something you need to check. Mentioning this at the end of the interview will make it easier to establish rapport for subsequent interviews.

And don't forget the thank you! Risk assessment and risk control are central to safety management. Risk assessment and risk control can be very complex subjects but on the Managing Safely course they are dealt with in a straightforward manner.

In addition to providing you with a good introduction to risk assessment and risk control, this module will also provide you with a "common language" to use when discussing these topics with your workforce. During the Managing Safely course, we will look more formally at risk assessment and risk control and what you have to do to meet your managerial responsibilities in these areas. In order to get the most out of the Managing Safely course, you need to know what is meant by hazard, risk and risk control.

A live tiger is always a hazard. A live tiger, except perhaps when it is anaesthetised, always has the potential to cause you harm and is, therefore, always a hazard. Even the proverbial toothless tiger can harm you because, not only can it give you a nasty suck, it still has claws! In general, a hazard is anything which can cause harm and, because a tiger can cause harm, it is a hazard.

A tiger which is free to roam about is a risk because it is likely that it will cause harm to someone. A loose tiger in the centre of a town is a higher risk than a loose tiger in the jungle because it is more likely to harm someone in a town. A loose rabbit is a low risk because it cannot inflict severe harm. A tiger in a cage is a low risk because it is unlikely to have the opportunity to inflict harm. A rabbit in a cage is no risk at all - unless you are a lettuce!

If there is a risk, the best solution is to - remove the hazard completely - keep goldfish! If you cannot remove the hazard, then - avoid the hazard - do not go to the zoo! Remember, however, that keepers still have to encounter tigers in a zoo. They do not have the option to avoid the hazard and, therefore, need to keep tigers in cages. A tiger is less of a risk if it is in a cage. Thus, a cage is a risk control measure. Another name for a risk control measure is a "workplace precaution".

We will use both risk control measures and workplace precautions to mean methods of reducing risk. Remember, it is always better to remove or avoid hazards and the reasons why are illustrated on the next page.

The cage door is a weak link in the workplace precaution. As we will see most, if not all, workplace precautions have weak links. Because almost all workplace precautions have weak links it is better, if we can, to remove the hazard completely, or avoid the hazard.

Let us look at some workplace examples: 2. Lifting weights is always a hazard. It becomes a high risk if you lift the weights on your own or use poor lifting technique. Where possible, the need for lifting heavy weights should be eliminated by, for example, using smaller packages. If lifting heavy weights is necessary, then the hazard should be avoided by, for example, using mechanical handling equipment.

Where heavy weights have to be lifted manually then you should use workplace precautions. The basic workplace precautions for manual handling are - get help with lifting heavy weights, and use good lifting technique. We will look at lifting again in the module on manual handling. Hazards are sources of harm. They can be any of the following.

Page 35 Thing. Anything can be a hazard, for example, weights, machines, electricity, fire, noise, tools, chemicals. A good, sound ladder, will be less of a risk than a damaged ladder Living organism.

Way of working. For example, tigers, bacteria, viruses, people, insects For example, at height, in confined spaces, lifting, typing. Ways of working also vary in how serious a hazard they are, for example, short spells of typing are less hazardous than long spells of typing We always have to be on the lookout for hazards and do something about them when we find them.

We will look at how to identify hazards and what to do when we find them later in the module. We also have to work in ways which do not create hazards for ourselves or other people. Risks occur when a hazard and a person come together in circumstances which could result in harm to the person.

The level of risk depends on how severe the harm could be, and how likely it is that the harm will occur. Remember that some ways of dealing with risk are: Remove the hazard. Removing the hazard is always the best method but it is not always possible.However, incidents have the same root causes and the outcome of an incident is largely a matter of chance. Details of the location, people, equipment and activity being assessed. Analyze your accident and incident records regularly for trends.

If the risk is high, for If this requires more resources than you are able to commit, you example 16, you should should seek advice from your safety professional or manager normally do something to reduce the risk If you are not sure whether or not a particular risk should be reduced, you should seek advice from your safety professional or manager.

Mohammed Khatib.

RAYE from California
Review my other articles. I am highly influenced by road bicycle racing. I fancy sharing PDF docs utterly.