BIG BOOK OF MISCHIEF PDF
THE BIG BOOK OF MISCHIEF About the Book Please send me any submissions/ comments/insane ideas/suggestions. This book is still undergoing work (and. Big Book of Mischief - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The Big Book Of Mischief and The Anarchist Cookbook. S Department of Defense . It is in PDF format. If you read the New York Times.
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The Big Book of Mischief (TBBOM) is a book by David Richards. This manual describes the Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. THE BIG BOOK OF MISCHIEF Preface A couple of years ago, I began compiling a file filled with information from the world-famous BBS. the big book of mischief pdf; myavr.info; The love and respect workbook - download pdf other troubled fatal tide iris myavr.info
The charcoal and sulfur in black powder are insoluble in water. The crystals formed in the above process would have to be heated VERY gently to drive off the remaining water. This can result in the production of highly flammable and toxic gasses that may explode. If the acid is headed too strongly.
It could be made very easily by pouring nitric acid into a large flask in an ice bath. There would be a fine powder formed. There would probably be pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which would have to be removed. The concentration of the sulfuric acid can also be increased by boiling it.
Heat until the precipitate in the bottom of the retort is almost dry. Filter the dissolved solution through filter paper in a funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours through is clear. To obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate.
A person wishing to make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top of a car battery and pour the acid into a glass container. Continue heating until liquid begins to come out of the end of the retort.
If it all does not dissolve. It is a good idea to set the above apparatus up. The liquid that forms is nitric acid. After the materials have stopped reacting.
Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-bought black powder. A detonation occurs only in a high order explosive.
Low order explosives do not detonate. Explosives occur in several forms: The shockwave breaks apart the molecular bonds between the atoms of the substance. This expansion occurs at a speed greater than the speed of sound.
High order explosives detonate. Black powder. Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field. In a high explosive. Some of them. Most primers perform like a high order explosive. Impact explosives are always treated with the greatest care. Still others merely burn. Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon impact. This process releases energy that is stored in the material in the form of heat and light.
This explains the mechanics behind an explosion. Some low order materials burn at about the same speed under pressure as they do in the open.
Primers are usually used in a small amount to initiate. They are usually more sensitive to friction. Because this expansion is very rapid.
The methods here are usually scaled-down industrial procedures. These recipes are theoretically correct. Of the ones discussed here. Detonations are usually incurred by a shockwave that passes through a block of the high explosive material.
Upon detonation. Household ammonia. Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple colored crystals that decompose under the slightest amount of heat. Iodine gas is also bad news. The technique for putting filter paper in a funnel is taught in every basic chemistry lab class: Make sure or other sources of heat.
It leaves nasty. Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone. Such crystals are said to detonate when a fly lands on them. The pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought. While such a compound would have little use to a serious terrorist. While they are still eight pieces of about the same size. Touching iodine leaves brown stains on the skin that last for about a week.
The jars 2 Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine. Ammonium triiodide crystals could be produced in the following manner: Whatever the unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon will usually be ruined. After ten more minutes. Even the action of dropping a crystal of the fulminate causes it to explode. A person making this material would probably use the following procedure: Mercury is a hazardous substance.
These fumes are toxic and flammable. They have a shelf life of about a week. Cover it with a similar piece. To use them. It gives off mercury vapors which will cause brain damage if inhaled. Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury fulminate from forming. They may be hard to find in most stores as they have been superseded by alcohol and other less toxic fillings. Mercury is also used in mercury switches. For this reason. Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity.
It can be detonated by either heat or shock. One possible way to increase their shelf life is to store them in airtight containers. Test the crystals with the litmus paper until they are neutral. Simply use 10 volumes of nitric acid and 10 volumes of ethanol to every one volume of mercury.
Do not put so much sodium bicarbonate in the water so that some remains undissolved. Many a young anarchist has been killed or seriously injured while trying to make the stuff. Although it is possible to make it safely. Dispose of the solution in a safe place. This will be when the litmus paper stays blue when it touches the wet crystals 7 Allow the crystals to dry. This procedure can also be done by volume.
When Nobel's factories make it. An idiot who attempts to make nitroglycerine would use the following procedure: This will cause the ice to melt. Bring the temperature of the acid down to about 20 degrees centigrade or less.
Simply obtain picric acid. Drain as much of the acid. By mixing picric acid with metal hydroxides. The nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker. Repeat this step if necessary. Add glycerine until there is a thin layer of glycerine on top of the mixed acids. Hold the thermometer along the top of the mixture where the mixed acids and glycerine meet.
Nitroglycerine can explode for no apparent reason. Test the nitroglycerine with the litmus paper until the litmus stays blue. It is a good idea to start another ice bath to do this. It is always safest to make any explosive in small quantities. The best place to store nitroglycerine is far away from anything living. The glycerine will start to nitrate immediately. Mix the two acids together. Be sure that the beaker will not spill into the ice bath. The sodium bicarbonate solution will eliminate much of the acid.
Be sure to have a large enough ice bath container to add more ice. Sunlight is really the best way to dry black powder. This is very bad.
Black powder has one major problem: Do this until there is no more visible sulfur or charcoal. Do this to all of the potassium or sodium nitrate. Such an individual would then be forced to resort to making his own low-order explosives. It is very simple to make. Later on. It is more stable than black powder.
Never store black powder in a plastic bag. Not only was the acid concentrated. For cotton. It was not guncotton grade. I'd use cotton wool or cotton cloth. It spattered concentrated H2SO4 either way.
Add to this 10 2 Immediately add 0. It also burns much faster than black powder when it is in a confined space. I'd add the acid to the water. Plastic is really the safest container. Immersion in a large quantity of fresh water. The mononitrate and dinitrate are not explosive. You may kill yourself and others if you try it. Nitrocellulose decomposes very slowly on storage if it isn't stablized. A small amount of either substance will capture the small amounts of nitrogen oxides that result from decomposition.
Nitric also destroys skin. H2SO4 likes to spatter. Both agents will happily blind you if you get them in your eyes. The purer the acid used lower water content the more complete the nitration will be. They therefore inhibit the autocatalysis. Spinning it in a large centrifuge to remove the remaining acid. It dissolved or turned into mush in acetone. Other warnings also apply. The product was washed thoroughly and allowed to dry.
If the NC is to be used as smokeless powder it is boiled in a soda solution. I never got a runaway reaction. Nitrocellulose powders contain stabilizers such as diphenyl amine or ethyl centralite. NC eventually will decompose in any case. I got away with it. Runaway nitration was commonplace. There are actually three forms of cellulose nitrate. Boiling it in acidulated water and washing it thoroughly with fresh water.
If nitration is allowed to proceed to complete the explosive trinatrate is formed. For some reason. I tried washing the cotton cloth in a solution of lye.
Did I read this somewhere? When that product was nitrated. The decomposition is auto. The process is much faster if the material is not washed well enough. I let the cloth dry and then nitrated it.
When it falls on the skin. It dissolves all manner of clothing. Nitric is an oxidant. Not for the novice. A rough estimate will be given of the percentages of each fuel and oxodizer: A list of working fuel. Some are very effective and dangerous.
Some materials that can be perchlorated are cotton. Solutions of sodium or potassium. To produce potassium or sodium perchlorate. It is a good idea to test the material to be treated with a very small amount of acid.
By altering the amounts of fuel and oxodizer s. Mixtures that uses substitutions of sodium perchlorate for potassium perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less stable.
As one can easily see. The higher the speed number. Larger quantities 50g or more ignited in the open can detonate. Many hands. Only major products are considered. Excess metal powders are generally used. KClO3 with Mg or Al metal powders works very well.
For a quick flash small quantities can be burnt in the open. Flash powder in any container will detonate. Very pure and dry KNO3 is needed. This of course will also increase the sensetivity of the flash powder. Tiel Here are a few basic precautions to take if you're crazy enough to produce your own flash powder: This excess burns with atmospheric oxygen. KClO4 with Al is generally found in comercial fireworks. The finer the oxidizer and the finer the metal powder the more powerful the explosive.
KClO4 etc separately in a clean vessel. K2Cr2O7 can also be used as an oxidizer for flash powder. This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-based explosives.
Van Tiel- Ph. It is much easier to make in the home than all other high explosives. When a shock wave passes through an molecule of T. It should not be used alone.. Most high explosives detonate because their molecular structure is made up of some fuel and usually three or more NO2 nitrogen dioxide molecules. Make Black Powder first if you have never worked with pyrotechnic materials.
It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate. The main problem is acquiring the nitric acid to produce the high explosive. Filter the crystals. Continue stirring the mixture. A terrorist could also buy several Instant Cold-Paks from a drug store or medical supply store. Allow them to dry completely using them. Stir the mixture. This will make the crystals more stable and safe. The temperature will rise. Soduim or potassium nitrate could also be added.
Once it has melted. Kneed these material together in a plastic bag. Shake and stir the mixture. This is one way to desensitize the explosive. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the litmus paper remains blue. The major disadvantage with ammonium. A rather powerful priming charge must be used, and usually with a booster charge. The diagram below will explain.
An ANFO solves the only other major problem with ammonium nitrate: This results in the explosive failing to detonate when such an attempt is made. The kerosene keeps the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture from the air. An ANFO also requires a large shockwave to set it off.
Lately there was been a lot said about various ANFO mixtures. These are mixtures of Ammonium Nitrate with Fuel Oil. This forms a reasonably powerful commercial explosive, with its primary benifit being the fact that it is cheap. Bulk ANFO should run somewhere around cents the pound. To keep the cost down, it is frequently mixed at the borehole by a bulk truck, which has a pneumatic delivery hopper of AN prills thats pellets to most of the world and a tank of fuel oil.
It is strongly recommended that a dye of some sort, preferably red be added to the fuel oil to make it easier to distinguish treated AN explosive from untreated oxidizer. ANFO is not without its problems. To begin with, it is not that sensitive to detonation. Number eight caps are not reliable when used with ANFO. Booster charges must be used to avoid dud blast holes. Common boosters include sticks of various dynamites, small pours of water gel explosives, dupont's detaprime cast boosters, and Atlas's power primer cast explosive.
The need to use boosters raises the cost. Secondly, ANFO is very water susceptable. It dissolves in it, or absorbes it from the atmosphere, and becomes quite worthless real quick. It must be protected from water with borehole liners, and still must be shot real quick. Third, ANFO has a low density, somewhere around.
This means ANFO sacks float, which is no good, and additionally, the low density means the power is somewhat low. Generally, the more weight of explosive one can place in a hole, the more effective. ANFO blown into the hole with a pneumatic system fractures as it is places, raising the density to about. The delivery system adds to the cost, and must be anti static in nature. Aluminum is added to some commercial, cartridge packaged ANFOs to raise the densitythis also raises power. Now than, for formulations.
An earlier article mentioned 2. This mixture is extremely over fueled, and I'd be surprised if it worked. Hardly any oil at all. More oil makes the mixture less explosive by absorbing detonation energy, and excess fuel makes detonation byproducts health hazzards as the mixture is oxygen poor. Note that commercial fertilizer products do not work as well as the porous AN prills dupont sells, because fertilizers are coated with various materials meant to seal them from moisture, which keep the oil from being absorbed.
Another problem with ANFO: Thus, a pile of the stuff with a booster in it is likely to scatter and burn rather than explode when the booster is shot. In boreholes, or reasonable strong casings cardboard, or heavy plastic film sacks the stuff detonated quite well.
So will big piles. Thats how the explosive potential was discovered: Over several hours the cargoes intermixed to some degree, and reached critical mass. Real big bang. A useful way to obtain the containment needed is to replace the fuel oil with a wax fuel.
Mix the AN with just enough melted wax to form a cohesive mixture, mold into shape. The wax fuels, and retains the mixture. This is what the US military uses as a man placed cratering charge.
The military literature states this can be set off by a blasting cap, but it is important to remember the military blasting caps are considerable more powerful than commercial ones.
The military rightly insists on reliability, and thus a strong cap maybe percent stronger than commercial. They also tend to go overboard when calculating demolition charges Two manuals of interest: Incidently, combining fuel oil and ammonium nitrate constitutes the manufacture of a high explosive, and requires a federal permit to manufacture and store.
Even the mines that mix it on site require the permit to manufacture. Those who don't manufacture only need permits to store. Those who don't store need no permits, which includes most of us: Note they ought to be used immediately, because you do need a liscence to store.
Note also that commercial explosives contain quantities of tracing agents, which make it real easy for the FBI to trace the explosion to the purchaser, so please, nobody blow up any banks, orphanages, or old folks homes, okay. Dynamite, of course, was the first. It is certainly the best known high explosive, since it has been popularized by early morning cartoons.
It is. In industry, a T. A terrorist, however, would probably opt for the less economical one step method. The one step process is performed by treating toluene with very strong fuming sulfuric acid.
Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very strong fuming nitric acid in an ice bath. Cold water is added the solution, and it is filtered. Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but it can be obtained from labs. If potassium chlorate is mixed with a small amount of vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and a shockwave is passed through it, the material will detonate with slightly more power than black powder.
It must, however, be confined to detonate it in this manner. The procedure for making such an explosive is outlined below: The finer that it is powdered, the faster better it will detonate.
Put the petroleum jelly into the plastic bag, getting as little on the sides of the bag as possible, i. If necessary, add a bit more petroleum jelly to the bag. This reaction, however, is harmless, and releases no heat or dangerous products. The name dynamite comes from the Greek word "dynamis", meaning power. Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he made nitroglycerine. It was made because nitroglycerine was so dangerously sensitive to shock. A misguided individual with some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine an insane act would immediately convert it to dynamite.
This can be done by adding various materials to the nitroglycerine, such as sawdust. The sawdust holds a large weight of nitroglycerine per volume. Other materials, such as ammonium nitrate could be added, and they would tend to desensitize the explosive, and increase the power. But even these nitroglycerine compounds are not really safe.
After thirty minutes. Place the ml flask with the mixed acid an phenol in the ice bath. All that need be done is treat various starches with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids.
To this mixture is added 0. The main problem with picric acid is its tendency to form dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts.
A vigorous but "harmless" reaction should occur. Its procedure for manufacture is given in many college chemistry lab manuals. Nitrostarch explosives are of slightly lower power than T. When the mixture stops reacting vigorously. Cold water is added. It another explosive that is fairly simple to make..
A social deviant would probably use a formula similar to the one presented here to make picric acid. Add 38 ml of concentrated nitric acid in small amounts. Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make. Collect the liquid and dispose of it in a safe place.
The powder remaining should be ammonium picrate. Do not put so much ammonium nitrate into the solution that some of it remains undissolved in the bottom of the beaker. Add clear household ammonia in excess. It requires a substantial shock to cause it to detonate.
It is fairly simple to produce. Add ml of water. It is much safer than picric acid. All that need be done is put the picric acid crystals into a glass container and dissolve them in a great quantity of hot water. Gently heat the bottom beaker. It is simple to make from picric acid and clear household ammonia. At this time. It explodes violently when it is heated above 60 degrees celsius. Place the flask containing the mixture in the boiling water. Simply mix the two powders together. It does not detonate too easily by percussion or impact.
The precipitate is lead azide. By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in separate beakers. Although none of the materials presented here are explosives. Black powder bullets work well for this purpose. It was not presented in section 3. It is difficult to ignite. If lead acetate cannot be found. Filter off the solution. Place the glass tubes from the chlorine-generating flask and the tube from the ammonia-generating flask in another flask that contains water. When it is ignited.
It is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum. It is simple to produce. Add an excess of the lead acetate solution. The chlorine gas can also be mixed with anhydrous ammonia gas. This is half the heat energy produced by an atomic weapon. Mix the two beakers together.
This is really two very exothermic reactions that produce a combined temperature of about degrees C. A mixture such as this must be shaken well before it is lit and thrown 3. After putting the flammable liquid in the bottle. The other method of igniting thermite is with a magnesium strip. Chemical suppliers are not stupid, and they will notice if a single person orders a combination of materials which can be used to produce a common explosive.
Most chemicals are available in several grades, which vary by the purity of the chemical, and the types of impurities present. In most cases lab grade chemicals are more than sufficient. There are a few primitive mixtures which will work even with very impure chemicals, and a few which require technical grade materials.
Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is used as a commercial "safety explosive". It is very stable, and is difficult to ignite with a match, and even then will not explode under normal circumstances. It is also difficult to detonate; the phenomenon of detonation will be explained later as it requires a powerful shockwave to cause it act as a high explosive. Commercially, ammonium nitrate is sometimes mixed with a small amount of nitroglycerine to increase its sensitivity.
A versatile chemical, ammonium nitrate is used in the "Cold-Paks" or "Instant Cold", available in most drug stores. The "Cold Paks" consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a second plastic bag containing the ammonium nitrate.
To get the ammonium nitrate, simply cut off the top of the outside bag, remove the plastic bag of water, and save the ammonium nitrate in a well sealed, airtight container. It is hygroscopic, it tends to absorb water from the air and will eventually be neutralized if it is allowed to react with water, or used in compounds containing water.
Ammonium nitrate may also be found in many fertilizers. Flash Powder Flash powder is a mixture of powdered aluminum or magnesium metal and one of any number of oxidizers.
It is extremely sensitive to heat or sparks, and should be treated with more care than black powder, and under no circumstances should it be mixed with black powder or any other explosives.
Small quantities of flash powder can be purchased from magic shops and theatrical suppliers in the form of two small containers, which must be mixed before use. Commercial flash powder is not cheap but it is usually very reliable. There are three speeds of flash powder commonly used in magic, however only the fast flash powder can be used to create reliable explosives. Flash powder should always be mixed according to the method given at the beginning of the book, and under no circumstances should it be shaken or stored in any packaging which might carry static electricity.
Most liquids are diluted with water, which can be removed by distillation. It is more difficult to purify solids, but there are a few methods available. If the impurity is insoluble in water but the pure chemical is, then the solid is mixed into a large quantity of warm water, and the water with the chemical dissolved in it is saved.
The undissolved impurities dregs are discarded. When the water is boiled off it leaves a precipitate of the desired material. If the desired chemical is not water soluble and the impurity is, then the same basic procedure is followed, but in this case the dregs are saved and the liquid discarded. Nitric acid HN03 There are several ways to make this most essential of all acids for explosives.
It is often produced by the oxidation of ammonia per the following formula: While this method can be used to produce nitric acid, the process is extremely hazardous, and it should not be carried out unless there is no other way to obtain nitric acid. Do not attempt this on a larger scale without the use of remote manipulation equipment. Materials 1. Carefully pour milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the retort.
Weigh out exactly grams of sodium nitrate, or grams of potassium nitrate. Crush to a fine powder in a clean, dry mortar and pestle, then slowly add this powder to the retort of sulfuric acid. If all of the powder does not dissolve, carefully stir the solution with a glass rod until the powder is completely dissolved. Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask, and place the collecting flask in the ice bath.
Begin heating the retort, using low heat. Continue heating until liquid begins to come out of the end of the retort. The liquid that forms is nitric acid.
Heat until the precipitate in the bottom of the retort is almost dry, or until no more nitric acid forms. This can result in the production of highly flammable and toxic gasses that may explode. It is a good idea to set the above file: Sulfuric Acid H2S04 There are two common processes used to make sulfuric acid, unfortunately neither of them is suitable for small scale production outside of a laboratory or industrial plant.
On contact with air, nitric oxide forms nitrogen dioxide, a deadly reddish brown gas. The reaction used for production is as follows: However, it is readily available as it is a major component of lead-acid batteries.
023 - THE BIG BOOK OF MISCHIEF 1.3[REPLACES TBBOM12.ZIP...
The sulfuric acid could be poured off from a new battery, or purchased from a battery shop or motorcycle store. If the acid is removed from a battery there will be pieces of lead from the battery which must be removed, either by boiling and filtration. The concentration of the sulfuric acid can also be increased by boiling it or otherwise removing some of the water from the solution.
Very pure sulfuric acid pours slightly faster than clean motor oil. Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring nitric acid into a large flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply pour household ammonia into the flask and keep a safe distance away until the reaction has completed. After the materials have stopped reacting, one simply has to leave the solution in a warm dry place until all of the water and any neutralized ammonia or acid have evaporated.
Finely powdered crystals of ammonium nitrate would remain. These must be kept in an airtight container, because of their tendency to pick up water from the air. The crystals formed in the above process would have to be heated very gently to drive off the remaining water before they can be used.
Potassium Nitrate Potassium nitrate can be obtained from black powder. Simply stir a quantity of black powder into boiling water. The sulfur and charcoal will be suspended in the water, but the potassium nitrate will dissolve. To obtain 68g of potassium nitrate, it would be necessary to dissolve about 90g of black powder in about one liter of boiling water.
Filter the dissolved solution through filter paper until the liquid that pours through is clear. The charcoal and sulfur in black powder are insoluble in water, and so when the solution is allowed to evaporate, small crystals of potassium nitrate will be left in the container. It is illegal and extremely dangerous to do so. Loss of life and limbs could easily result from a failed or successful attempt to produce any explosives or hazardous chemicals.
This process releases energy that is stored in the material. The energy, in the form of heat and light, is released when the material breaks down into gaseous compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the explosive did originally. Because this expansion is very rapid, the expanding gasses displace large volumes of air. This expansion often occurs at a speed greater than the speed of sound, creating a shockwave similar to the sonic boom produced by high-speed jet planes.
Explosives occur in several forms: All high order explosives are capable of detonation. Some high order explosives may start out burning deflagration and progress to detonation.
A detonation can only occur in a high order explosive. Detonation is caused by a shockwave that passes through a block of the high explosive material. High explosives consist of molecules with many high-energy bonds. The shockwave breaks apart the molecular bonds between the atoms of the material, at a rate approximately equal to the speed of sound traveling through that substance.
Because high explosives are generally solids or liquids, this speed can be much greater than the speed of sound in air. Unlike low-explosives, the fuel and oxidizer in a high-explosive are chemically bonded, and this bond is usually too strong to be easily broken.
Usually a primer made from a sensitive high explosive is used to initiate the detonation. When the primer detonates it sends a shockwave through the high-explosive.
This shockwave breaks apart the bonds, and the chemicals released recombine to produce mostly gasses. Some examples of high explosives are dynamite, ammonium nitrate, and RDX. Low order explosives do not detonate. Instead they burn undergo oxidation at a very high rate. When heated, the fuel and oxidizer combine to produce heat, light, and gaseous products.
Some low order materials burn at about the same speed under pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others, such as smokeless gunpowder which is primarily nitrocellulose burn much faster and hotter when they are in a confined space, such as the barrel of a firearm; they usually burn much slower than blackpowder when they are ignited in the open.
Blackpowder, nitrocellulose, and flash powder are common examples of low order explosives. Primers are the most dangerous explosive compounds in common use. Some of them, such as mercury fulminate, will function as a low or high order explosive. They are chosen because they are more sensitive to friction, heat, and shock, than commonly used high or low explosives. Most primers perform like a dangerously sensitive high explosive.
Others merely burn, but when they are confined, they burn at a very high rate and with a large expansion of gasses that produces a shockwave. A small amount of a priming material is used to initiate, or cause to decompose, a large quantity of relatively insensitive high explosives.
They are also frequently used as a reliable means of igniting low order explosives. The gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by the detonation of the primer.
Blasting caps are similar to primers, but they usually include both a primer and some intermediate file: Compounds used as primers can include lead azide, lead styphnate, diazodinitrophenol or mixtures of two or more of them. The small charge of moderately- sensitive high explosive initiates a much larger charge of insensitive high explosive.
Of the ones discussed here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are real explosives; Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon impact, but they release little heat and no light. Impact explosives are always treated with the greatest care, and nobody without an extreme death wish would store them near any high or low explosives. Ammonium triiodide crystals nitrogen triiodide Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul smelling purple colored crystals that decompose under the slightest amount of heat, friction, or shock, if they are made with the purest ammonia ammonium hydroxide and iodine.
Such crystals are so sensitive that they will decompose when a fly lands on them, or when an ant walks across them. Household ammonia, however, has enough impurities, such as soaps and abrasive agents, so that the crystals will detonate only when thrown, crushed, or heated.
The ammonia available in stores comes in a variety of forms. The pine and cloudy ammonia should not be used; only the strong clear ammonia can be used to make ammonium triiodide crystals. Upon detonation, a loud report is heard, and a cloud of purple iodine gas will appear.
Whatever the unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon, it will probably be ruined, as some of the iodine in the crystal is thrown about in a solid form, and iodine is corrosive. It leaves nasty, ugly, brownish-purple stains on whatever it contacts. These stains can be removed with photographer's hypo solution, or with the dechlorinating compound sold for use in fish tanks. Iodine fumes are also bad news, since they can damage your lungs, and they will settle to the ground, leaving stains there as well.
Contact with iodine leaves brown stains on the skin that last for about a week, unless they are immediately and vigorously washed off. Ammonium triiodide crystals could be produced in the following manner: Materials iodine crystals funnel filter paper glass stirring rod paper towels clear ammonia two glass jars potassium iodide 1. Place 5 grams of iodine into one of the glass jars. Because the iodine is very difficult to remove, use jars that you don't want to save.
Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine. Stir several times, then add 5 grams of potassium iodide. Stir for 30 seconds. Place the funnel into the other jar, and put the filter paper in the funnel.
The technique for putting filter paper in a funnel is taught in every basic chemistry lab class: Then, fold it in half again to form a triangle with one curved side. Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone, and place the cone into the funnel. After allowing the iodine to soak in the ammonia for a while, pour the solution into the paper in the funnel through the filter paper.
While the solution is being filtered, put more ammonia into the first jar to wash any remaining crystals into the funnel as soon as it drains. Collect all the crystals without touching the brown filter paper, and place them on the paper towels to dry. Make sure that they are not too close to any lights or other sources of heat, as they could well detonate.
While they are still wet, divide the wet material into small pieces as large as your thumbnail. To use them, simply throw them against any surface or place them where they will be stepped on or crushed. When the crystals are disturbed they decompose into iodine vapor, nitrogen, and ammonia.
The remainder of the iodine remains in the solution of ammonium iodide, and can be extracted by extracting the water vacuum distillation is an efficient method and treating the remaining product with chlorine.
Mercury Fulminate Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known initiating compounds. It can be detonated by either heat or shock. Even the action of dropping a crystal of the fulminate can cause it to explode. This material can be produced through the following procedure: Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury fulminate from forming. Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately. They may be hard to find in most stores as they have been superseded by alcohol and other less toxic fillings.
Mercury is also used in mercury switches, which are available at electronics stores. Mercury is a hazardous substance, and should be kept in the thermometer, mercury switch, or other container until used. At room temperature mercury vapor is evolved, and it can be absorbed through the skin. Once in your body mercury will cause damage to the brain and other organs. For this reason, it is a good idea not to spill mercury, and to always use it outdoors.
Also, do not get it in an open cut; rubber gloves will help prevent this. In one beaker, mix 5 g of mercury with 35 ml of concentrated nitric acid, using the glass rod. Slowly heat the mixture until the mercury is dissolved, which is when the solution turns green and boils.
Place 30 ml of ethyl alcohol into the second beaker, and slowly and carefully add all of the contents of the first beaker to it. These fumes are toxic and flammable. After ten more minutes, add 30 ml distilled water to the solution. Carefully filter out the crystals of mercury fulminate from the liquid solution.
Dispose of the solution in a safe place, as it is corrosive and toxic. Wash the crystals several times in distilled water to remove as much excess acid as possible. Test the crystals with the litmus paper until they are neutral. This will be when the litmus paper stays blue when it touches the wet crystals.
Allow the crystals to dry, and store them in a safe place, far away from any explosive or flammable material. This procedure can also be done by volume, if the available mercury cannot be weighed. Simply use 10 volumes of nitric acid and 10 volumes of ethanol to every one volume of mercury.
Nitroglycerin C3H5N Nitroglycerin is one of the most sensitive explosives ever to be commercially produced. It is a very dense liquid, and is sensitive to heat, impact, and many organic materials. Although it is not water soluble, it will dissolve in 4 parts of pure ethyl alcohol.
Highly toxic vasodilator, avoid skin contact! Although it is possible to make it safely, it is difficult to do so in small quantities. Many a young pyrotechnician has been killed or seriously injured while trying to make the stuff.
When Nobel's factories make it, many people were killed by the all-to-frequent factory explosions. Usually, as soon as nitroglycerin is made, it is converted into a safer substance, such as dynamite.
A person foolish enough to make nitroglycerine could use the following procedure: Prepare the two ice baths. While the ice baths are cooling, pour ml of distilled water into each of the beakers. Slowly add sodium bicarbonate to the second beaker, stirring constantly. Do not add too much eyedropper thermometer 20 g sodium bicarbonate glycerine 13 ml concentrated nitric acid 39 ml concentrated sulfuric acid file: If some remains undissolved, pour the solution into a fresh beaker.
Place the ml beaker into the ice bath, and pour the 13 ml of concentrated nitric acid into the ml beaker. Be sure that the beaker will not spill into the ice bath, and that the ice bath will not overflow into the beaker when more materials are added to it. Be sure to have a large enough container to add more ice if it gets too warm.
Bring the temperature of the acid down to 20 centigrade or less. Slowly and carefully add 39 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to the nitric acid. Mix well, then cool the mixture to 10 centigrade. Do not be alarmed if the temperature rises slightly when the acids are mixed.
With the eyedropper, slowly drip the glycerine onto the acid mixture, one drop at a time. Hold the thermometer along the top of the mixture where the mixed acids and glycerine meet.
The glycerine will start to nitrate immediately, and the temperature will immediately begin to rise. Do not allow the temperature to rise above 30 Celsius. If the temperature is allowed to get to high, the nitroglycerin may decompose spontaneously as it is formed. Add glycerine until there is a thin layer of glycerine on top of the mixed acids. Stir the mixture for the first ten minutes of nitration, if neccessary adding ice and salt to the ice bath to keep the temperature of the solution in the ml beaker well below The nitroglycerine will form on the top of the mixed acid solution, and the concentrated sulfuric acid will absorb the water produced by the reaction.
When the reaction is over, the nitroglycerine should be chilled to below You can now slowly and carefully pour the solution of nitroglycerine and mixed acid into the beaker of distilled water in the beaker. The nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker, and the water-acid solution on top can be poured off and disposed of. Drain as much of the acid-water solution as possible without disturbing the nitroglycerine.
Carefully remove a small quantity of nitroglycerine with a clean eye-dropper, and place it into the beaker filled in step 2. The sodium bicarbonate solution will eliminate much of the acid, which will make the nitroglycerine less likely to spontaneously explode.
Test the nitroglycerine with the litmus paper until the litmus stays blue. Repeat this step if necessary, using new sodium bicarbonate solutions each time. When the nitroglycerine is as acid-free as possible, store it in a clean container in a safe place. The best place to store nitroglycerine is far away as possible from anything of value. Nitroglycerine can explode for no apparent reason, even if it is stored in a secure cool place. Picrates Although the procedure for the production of picric acid, or trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are described first, since they are extremely sensitive, and detonate on impact.
By mixing picric acid with a warm solution of a metal hydroxide, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, metal picrates are formed. These picrates are easily soluble in warm water, potassium picrate will dissolve in 4 parts water at C , but relatively insoluble in cold water potassium picrate will dissolve in parts water at 10 C.
While many of these picrates are dangerously impact sensitive, others are almost safe enough for a suicidal person to consider their manufacture. To convert picric acid into potassium picrate, you first need to obtain picric acid, or produce it by following the instructions given on page Lower the temperature 10 degrees, and slowly add the picric acid solution. At first the mixture should bubble strongly, releasing carbon dioxide, when the bubbles cease stop adding picric acid.
Cool the solution to 10C. Potassium picrate will crystallize out. The solution should be properly disposed of. These crystals are impact-sensitive, and can be used as an initiator for any type of high explosive. The crystals should be stored in a plastic or glass container under distilled water. Most have the following components.
This can be any chemical which contains a large amount of oxygen. When heated the oxidizer gives up this oxygen. The fuel is often carbon, or a finely powdered metal. It is the material that does the actual burning.
The catalyst makes it easier for the oxidizer to react with the fuel, and is mandatory for many of the less powerful explosives. Not all low explosives need a catalyst, and in many cases such as flash powder adding a catalyst can make the explosive dangerously sensitive. There are many low-order explosives that can be purchased in gun stores and used in explosive devices.
However, it is possible that a wise store owner would not sell these substances to a suspicious-looking individual. Such an individual would then be forced to resort to making his own low-order explosives.
There are many common materials which can be used to produce low explosives. With a strong enough container, almost any mixture of an oxidizer and a fuel can be used to make an explosive device.
Black Powder First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black powder was first used in weapons and explosives in the 12th century. It is very simple to make, but it is not very powerful or safe. Only about half the mass of black powder is converted to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is released as very fine burned particles. Black powder has one major danger: This is very hazardous, and it means that the material must be made with wooden or clay tools to avoid generating a static charge.
Place a small amount of the potassium or sodium nitrate in the grinding bowl and grind it to a very fine powder. Grind all of the potassium or sodium nitrate, and pass it through the screen to remove any large particles.
Store the sifted powder in one of the plastic bags. Repeat step one with the sulfur and charcoal, being careful to grind each chemical with a clean 75 g potassium nitrate heat source. Place all of the finely ground potassium or sodium nitrate in the beaker, and add just enough boiling water to the chemical to moisten it uniformly.
Add the contents of the other plastic bags to the wet potassium or sodium nitrate, and mix them well for several minutes. Do this until there is no more visible sulfur or charcoal, or until the mixture is universally black. On a warm sunny day, put the beaker outside in the direct sunlight. Sunlight is really the best way to dry black powder, since it is seldom too hot, but it is usually hot enough to evaporate the water.
Using a wooden tool, scrape the black powder out of the beaker, and store it in a safe container. Static proof plastic is really the safest container, followed by paper.
Never store black powder in a plastic bag, since plastic bags are prone to generate static electricity. If a small packet of desiccant is added the powder will remain effective indefinitely. Nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose is commonly called "gunpowder" or "guncotton".
It is more stable than black powder, and it produces a much greater volume of hot gas. It also burns much faster than black powder when in a confined space.
Although the acids used can be very dangerous if safety precautions are not followed, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by the following procedure: Pour 10 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid into the beaker.
Add to this 10 cc of concentrated nitric acid.
Immediately add 0. Remove the nitrated cotton, and transfer it to a beaker of distilled water to wash it in. Allow the material to dry, and then re-wash it. After the cotton is neutral when tested with litmus paper, it is ready to be dried and stored.
One common formula specifies 3 parts sulfuric acid to one part nitric acid. This has not been demonstrated to be more effective than equal volumes of each. Runaway nitration is commonplace, but it is usually not disastrous. It has been suggested that pre-washing the cotton cloth in a solution of lye, and rinsing it well in distilled water before nitrating can help prevent runaway nitration.
If the reaction appears to be more vigorous than expected, water will quench the runaway reaction of cellulose. H2S04 has a tendency to spatter. When it falls on the skin, it destroys tissue very painfully.
It dissolves all manner of clothing. Nitric also damages skin, turning it bright yellow in the process of eating away at your flesh. Nitric acid is a potent oxidizer and it can start fires.
Most strong acids will happily blind you if you get them in your eyes, and these are no exception. Nitrocellulose decomposes very slowly on storage if isn't correctly stabilized. The decomposition is file: The process is much faster if the material is not washed well enough. Nitrocellulose powders contain stabilizers such as diphenyl amine or ethyl centralite.
Do not allow these to come into contact with nitric acid! A small amount of either substance added to the washed product will capture the small amounts of nitrogen oxides that result from decomposition. They therefore inhibit the autocatalysis. NC eventually will decompose in any case. Commercially produced Nitrocellulose is stabilized by spinning it in a large centrifuge to remove the remaining acid, which is recycled.
It is then boiled in acidulated water and washing thoroughly with fresh water. If the NC is to be used as smokeless powder it is boiled in a soda solution, then rinsed in fresh water.
The purer the acid used lower water content the more complete the nitration will be, and the more powerful the nitrocellulose produced. There are actually three forms of cellulose nitrate, only one of which is useful for pyrotechnic purposes.
The mononitrate and dinitrate are not explosive, and are produced by incomplete nitration. The explosive trinatrate is only formed when the nitration is allowed to proceed to completion. Perchlorates As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with perchloric acid will become a low order explosive. Metals, however, such as potassium or sodium, become excellent bases for flash type powders.
Some materials that can be perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust. To produce potassium or sodium perchlorate, simply acquire the hydroxide of that metal, e. It is a good idea to test the material to be treated with a very small amount of acid, since some of the materials tend to react explosively when contacted by picric acid.
Solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxide are ideal. Perchlorates are much safer than similar chlorates, and equally as powerful. Mixtures made with perchlorates are somewhat more difficult to ignite than mixtures containing chlorates, but the increased safety outweighs this minor inconvenience. Flash Powder Flash powder is a fast, powerful explosive, and comes very close to many high explosives.
It is a very hazardous mixture to work with, due to the sensitivity of the powder. It is extremely sensitive to heat or sparks, and should never be mixed with other chemicals or black powder. It burns very rapidly with a intense white flash, and will explode if confined.
Large quantities may explode even when not confined. This is because a large pile of flash powder is self-confining, causing the explosion. Other metals can be used, but most others are either two expensive zirconium or not reactive enough to be effective zinc Here are a few basic precautions to take if you're crazy enough to produce your own flash powder: If a mortar and pestle is used, it should be washed out with alcohol before being used to grind any other materials.
NEVER grind or sift the mixed composition. Grinding and sifting can cause friction or static electricity. Mix the powders on a large sheet of paper, by rolling the composition back and forth. This technique is described in detail on page 3 file: Do not store flash compositions for any amount of time.
Many compounds, especially ones containing magnesium, will decompose over time and may ignite spontaneously. Make very small quantities at first, so you can appreciate the power of such mixtures. Quantities greater than 10 grams should be avoided. Most flash powders are capable of exploding if a quantity of more than 50 grams is ignited unconfined, and all flash powders will explode even with minimal confinement I have seen 10 g of flash wrapped in a single layer of waxed paper explode 6.
Make sure that all the components of the mixture are as dry as possible. Check the melting point of the substances, and dry them separately in a warm oven. If KN03 is used it must be very pure and dry, or it will evolve ammonia fumes.
Almost any potent oxidizer can be used for flash powder. Some materials may react with the fuel, especially if magnesium is used. KC with A1 is generally found in commercial fireworks, this does not mean that it is safe, but it is safer than KC if handled correctly. The finer the oxidizer and the finer the metal powder the more powerful the explosive, except in the case of aluminum.
This of course will also increase the sensitivity of the flash powder. Beyond a certain point, the finer the aluminum powder the less powerful the explosive, due to the coating of aluminum oxide which forms on the surface of the aluminum granules.
Flash powder in any container will detonate. This includes even a couple of layers of newspaper, or other forms of loosely confined flash.
The main problem is acquiring the nitric acid to produce the high explosive. Most high explosives detonate because their molecular structure is made up of some fuel and usually three or more nitrogen dioxide molecules. Trinitrotoluene is an excellent example of such a material.
When a shock wave passes through an molecule of T. This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-based explosives. Remembering that these procedures are never to be carried out, several methods of manufacturing high-order explosives in the home are listed. It should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a moderate shock. It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate or nitroglycerine, but it is still too sensitive to be used alone.
It is much easier to make in the home than all other high explosives, with the possible exception of ammonium nitrate. MATERIALS hexamine or methenamine ml beaker ice bath glass stirring rod thermometer funnel filter paper distilled water ammonium nitrate nitric acid ml blue litmus paper small ice bath 1. Place the beaker in the ice bath, see page 15 and carefully pour ml of concentrated nitric acid into the beaker. When the acid has cooled to below 20, add small amounts of the crushed fuel tablets to the beaker.
The temperature will rise, and it must be kept below 30, or dire consequences could result. Stir the mixture. Drop the temperature below zero degrees Celsius, either by adding more ice and salt to the old ice bath, or by creating a new ice bath. Continue stirring the mixture, keeping the temperature below zero for twenty minutes.
Pour the mixture into 1 liter of crushed ice. Shake and stir the mixture, and allow it to melt. Once it has melted, filter out the crystals, and dispose of the corrosive liquid. Place the crystals into one half a liter of boiling distilled water. A revision is a change in the information The original text is immediately followed by the new information and an addendum refers to new information.
A few neccessary deletions are made, as well as minor cosmetic changes and additions. First and foremost, let it be stated that Chaos Industries assumes no responsibilities for any use of the information presented in this publication.
The purpose of this is to show the many techniques and methods used by those people in this and other countries who employ terror as a means to acheive political and social goals. The techniques described here may be found in public libraries, and can often be carried out by a terrorist with minimal resources. You've reached the end of this preview. Share this link with a friend: Other Related Materials 60 pages. Ask a homework question - tutors are online.It explodes violently when it is heated above 60 degrees celsius.
It spattered concentrated H2SO4 either way. Bow and Crossbow Ammunition 5. This type of explosive could be wrapped around a column. Remember, these are LOUD! Add to this 10 2 Immediately add 0. They did tie together seemingly unrelated events since they were based on circumstantial evidence.
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