AWS SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION PDF
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With platforms designed for rapid adaptation and failure recovery such as Amazon Web Services, cloud computing is more like programming than traditional. Amazon's trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service that is not Amazon's, in any manner. of Amazon. Web Services. AWS Whitepaper Overview of Amazon Web Services: AWS Whitepaper. Copyright © Amazon AWS Systems Manager.
Create an Account Forgot Your Password? Access MyGK. GK Why train with Global Knowledge? Delivery Format: Access Period: View Entire Schedule. Viewing outline for: Classroom Live Virtual Classroom Live.
Networking in the Cloud 3. Computing in the Cloud 4.
Storage and Archiving in the Cloud 5. Monitoring in the Cloud 6. Managing Resource Consumption in the Cloud 7. Configuration Management in the Cloud 8. Creating Scalable Deployments in the Cloud 9. Course outline is subject to change as needed. Viewing labs for: Systems administrators Operations managers Individuals responsible for supporting operations on the AWS platform. Utilize Amazon Kinesis to collect the inbound sensor data, analyze the data with Kinesis clients and save the results to a Redshift cluster using EMR.
Call duration is mostly in the minutes timeframe. Each traced call can be either active or terminated. Historical data is periodically archived to files. Cost saving is a priority for this project. What database implementation would better fit this scenario, keeping costs as low as possible? Use DynamoDB with a 'Calls" table and a Global secondary index on a 'State" attribute that can equal to "active" or "terminated" in this way the Global Secondary index can be used for all Items in the table.
PDF AWS System Administration Best Practices for Sysadmins in the Amazon Cloud Free Books
Answer: A Question: 11 A web design company currently runs several FTP servers that their customers use to upload and download large graphic files They wish to move this system to AWS to make it more scalable, but they wish to maintain customer privacy and Keep costs to a minimum. What AWS architecture would you recommend? Create a single S3 bucket with Reduced Redundancy Storage turned on and ask their customers to use an S3 client instead of an FTP client Create a bucket for each customer with a Bucket Policy that permits access only to that one customer.
Create an auto-scaling group of FTP servers with a scaling policy to automatically scale-in when minimum network traffic on the auto-scaling group is below a given threshold.
Load a central list of ftp users from S3 as part of the user Data startup script on each Instance. Create a single S3 bucket with Requester Pays turned on and ask their customers to use an S3 client instead of an FTP client Create a bucket tor each customer with a Bucket Policy that permits access only to that one customer. Answer: A Question: 12 You have been asked to design the storage layer for an application.
The application requires disk performance of at least , IOPS in addition, the storage layer must be able to survive the loss of an individual disk.
EC2 instance, or Availability Zone without any data loss. The volume you provide must have a capacity of at least 3 TB. Which of the following designs will meet these objectives'?
Instantiate a c3. Ensure that EBS snapshots are performed every 15 minutes. Instantiate an i2. Configure synchronous, block-level replication from the ephemeral-backed volume to the EBS-backed volume.
Attach the volume to the instance. Configure synchronous, block- level replication to an identically configured instance in us-east-1b. Answer: C Question: 13 You would like to create a mirror image of your production environment in another region for disaster recovery purposes. Which of the following AWS resources do not need to be recreated in the second region? Choose 2 answers A. Route 53 Record Sets B. IM1 Roles C.
EC2 Key Pairs E. Launch configurations F. When deploying this application in a region with three availability zones AZs which architecture provides high availability?
If a storage volume on your primary fails in a Multi-AZ deployment, Amazon RDS automatically initiates a failover to the up-to-date standby. To improve performance you recently added a single-node Memcached ElastiCache Cluster to cache frequent DB query results.
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Do you need to change anything in the architecture to maintain the high availability or the application with the anticipated additional load? No, if the cache node fails you can always get the same data from the DB withouthaving any availability impact.
No, if the cache node fails the automated ElastiCache node recovery feature will prevent any availability impact. Answer: A Explanation: ElastiCache for Memcached The primary goal of caching is typically to offload reads from your database or other primary data source.
In most apps, you have hot spots of data that are regularly queried, but only updated periodically. Think of the front page of a blog or news site, or the top leaderboard in an online game. In this type of case, your app can receive dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of requests for the same data before it's updated again.
Having your caching layer handle these queries has several advantages. First, it's considerably cheaper to add an in-memory cache than to scale up to a larger database cluster. Second, an in-memory cache is also easier to scale out, because it's easier to distribute an in-memory cache horizontally than a relational database. Last, a caching layer provides a request buffer in the event of a sudden spike in usage. If your app or game ends up on the front page of Reddit or the App Store, it's not unheard of to see a spike that is 10 to times your normal application load.
Even if you autoscale your application instances, a 10x request spike will likely make your database very unhappy. Let's focus on ElastiCache for Memcached first, because it is the best fit for a cachingfocused solution. We'll revisit Redis later in the paper, and weigh its advantages and disadvantages. Architecture with ElastiCache for Memcached When you deploy an ElastiCache Memcached cluster, it sits in your application as a separate tier alongside your database.
As mentioned previously, Amazon ElastiCache does not directly communicate with your database tier, or indeed have any particular knowledge of your database. A simplified deployment for a web application looks something like this: Page 13 In this architecture diagram, the Amazon EC2 application instances are in an Auto Scaling group, located behind a load balancer using Elastic Load Balancing, which distributes requests among the instances.
As requests come into a given EC2 instance, that EC2 instance is responsible for communicating with ElastiCache and the database tier. For development purposes, you can begin with a single ElastiCache node to test your application, and then scale to additional cluster nodes by modifying the ElastiCache cluster.
As you add additional cache nodes, the EC2 application instances are able to distribute cache keys across multiple ElastiCache nodes. The most common practice is to use client-side sharding to distribute keys across cache nodes, which we will discuss later in this paper. Page 14 When you launch an ElastiCache cluster, you can choose the Availability Zone s that the cluster lives in.
For best performance, you should configure your cluster to use the same Availability Zones as your application servers. To launch an ElastiCache cluster in a specific Availability Zone, make sure to specify the Preferred Zone s option during cache cluster creation. The Availability Zones that you specify will be where ElastiCache will launch your cache nodes.
We recommend that you select Spread Nodes Across Zones, which tells ElastiCache to distribute cache nodes across these zones as evenly as possible. This distribution will mitigate the impact of an Availability Zone disruption on your ElastiCache nodes.
The trade-off is that some of the requests from your application to ElastiCache will go to a node in a different Availability Zone, meaning latency will be slightly higher.
As mentioned at the outset, ElastiCache can be coupled with a wide variety of databases. In addition, DynamoDB uses a key-value access pattern similar to ElastiCache, which also simplifies the programming model. Instead of using relational SQL for the primary database but then key-value patterns for the cache, both the primary database and cache can be programmed similarly. In this architecture pattern, DynamoDB remains the source of truth for data, but application reads are offloaded to ElastiCache for a speed boost.
Question: 16 You are responsible for a legacy web application whose server environment is approaching end of life You would like to migrate this application to AWS as quickly as possible, since the application environment currently has the following limitations: The VM's single 10GB VMDK is almost full Me virtual network interface still uses the 10Mbps driver, which leaves your Mbps WAN connection completely underutilized It is currently running on a highly customized.
How could you best migrate this application to AWS while meeting your business continuity requirements? Page 16 A. Use me ec2-bundle-instance API to Import an Image of the VM into EC2 Answer: A Question: 17 An International company has deployed a multi-tier web application that relies on DynamoDB in a single region For regulatory reasons they need disaster recovery capability In a separate region with a Recovery Time Objective of 2 hours and a Recovery Point Objective of 24 hours They should synchronize their data on a regular basis and be able to provision me web application rapidly using CloudFormation.
The objective is to minimize changes to the existing web application, control the throughput of DynamoDB used for the synchronization of data and synchronize only the modified elements. Which design would you choose to meet these requirements? Send also each Ante into an SQS queue in me second region; use an auto-scaling group behind the SQS queue to replay the write in the second region. Answer: A Question: 18 Refer to the architecture diagram above of a batch processing solution using Simple Queue Service Page 17 SQS to set up a message queue between EC2 instances which are used as batch processors Cloud Watch monitors the number of Job requests queued messages and an Auto Scaling group adds or deletes batch servers automatically based on parameters set in Cloud Watch alarms.
You can use this architecture to implement which of the following features in a cost effective and efficient manner? Reduce the overall lime for executing jobs through parallel processing by allowing a busy EC2 instance that receives a message to pass it to the next instance in a daisy-chain setup.
Implement fault tolerance against EC2 instance failure since messages would remain in SQS and worn can continue with recovery of EC2 instances implement fault tolerance against SQS failure by backing up messages to S3.
Systems Operations on AWS
Coordinate number of EC2 instances with number of job requests automatically thus Improving cost effectiveness. Handle high priority jobs before lower priority jobs by assigning a priority metadata field to SQS messages. Answer: D Explanation: Reference: There are cases where a large number of batch jobs may need processing, and where the the jobs may need to be re-prioritized. For example, one such case is one where there are differences between different levels of services for unpaid users versus subscriber users such as the time until publication in services enabling, for example, presentation files to be uploaded for publication from a web browser.
When the user uploads a presentation file, the conversion processes, for example, for publication are performed as batch processes on the system side, and the file is published after the conversion. Is it then necessary to be able to assign the level of priority to the batch processes for each type of subscriber. The queue need only be provided with priority numbers.
System Operations on AWS
Job requests are controlled by the queue, and the job requests in the queue are processed by a batch server. In Cloud computing, a highly reliable queue is provided as a service, which you can use to structure a highly reliable batch system with ease.
You may prepare multiple queues depending on priority levels, with job requests put into the queues depending on their priority levels, to apply prioritization to batch processes. The performance number of batch servers corresponding to a queue must be in accordance with the priority level thereof. Multiple SQS queues may be prepared to prepare queues for individual priority levels with a priority queue and a secondary queue.
Moreover, you may also use the message Delayed Send function to delay process execution. Use SQS to prepare multiple queues for the individual priority levels. Place those processes to be executed immediately job requests in the high priority queue. Prepare numbers of batch servers, for processing the job requests of the queues, depending on the priority levels.
Queues have a message "Delayed Send" function. You can use this to delay the time for starting a process. Configuration Page 18 Benefits You can increase or decrease the number of servers for processing jobs to change automatically the processing speeds of the priority queues and secondary queues. You can handle performance and service requirements through merely increasing or decreasing the number of EC2 instances used in job processing.
Even if an EC2 were to fail, the messages jobs would remain in the queue service, enabling processing to be continued immediately upon recovery of the EC2 instance, producing a system that is robust to failure.
Cautions Depending on the balance between the number of EC2 instances for performing the processes and the number of messages that are queued, there may be cases where processing in the secondary queue may be completed first, so you need to monitor the processing speeds in the primary queue and the secondary queue. Question: 19 Your company currently has a 2-tier web application running in an on-premises data center. You have experienced several infrastructure failures in the past two months resulting in significant financial losses.
While working on achieving buy-in from the other company executives, he asks you to develop a disaster recovery plan to help improve Business continuity in the short term.
He also asks you to implement the solution within 2 weeks. Your database is GB in size and you have a 20Mbps Internet connection. How would you do this while minimizing costs? Asynchronously replicate transactions from your on-premises database to a database instance in AWS across a secure VPN connection. Deploy your application on EC2 instances within an Auto Scaling group across multiple availability Page 19 zones.
Setup a script in your data center to backup the local database every 1 hour and to encrypt and copy the resulting file to an S3 bucket using multi-part upload. Install your application on a compute-optimized EC2 instance capable of supporting the application's average load.
Synchronously replicate transactions from your on-premises database to a database instance in AWS across a secure Direct Connect connection. You can connect to your instance and customize it. When the instance is configured correctly, ensure data integrity by stopping the instance before you create an AMI, then create the image.
Amazon EC2 powers down the instance before creating the AMI to ensure that everything on the instance is stopped and in a consistent state during the creation process.
If you're confident that your instance is in a consistent state appropriate for AMI creation, you can tell Amazon EC2 not to power down and reboot the instance.
Some file systems, such as XFS, can freeze and unfreeze activity, making it safe to create the image without rebooting the instance. If any volumes attached to the instance are encrypted, the new AMI only launches successfully on instances that support Amazon EBS encryption. Depending on the size of the volumes, it can take several minutes for the AMI-creation process to complete sometimes up to 24 hours.
You may find it more efficient to create snapshots of your volumes prior to creating your AMI. This way, only small, incremental snapshots need to be created when the AMI is created, and the process completes more quickly the total time for snapshot creation remains the same. After the process completes, you have a new AMI and snapshot created from the root volume of the instance.
Both the AMI and the snapshot incur charges to your account until you delete them. If you add instance-store volumes or EBS volumes to your instance in addition to the root device volume, the block device mapping for the new AMI contains information for these volumes, and the block device mappings for instances that you launch from the new AMI automatically contain information for these volumes.
The instance-store volumes specified in the block device mapping for the new instance are new and don't contain any data from the instance store volumes of the instance you used to create the AMI. The data on EBS volumes persists. For more information, see Block Device Mapping. Take hourly DB backups to S3, with transaction logs stored in S3 every 5 minutes. Use synchronous database master-slave replication between two availability zones. Answer: A Question: 21 Your startup wants to implement an order fulfillment process for selling a personalized gadget that needs an average of days to produce with some orders taking up to 6 months you expect 10 orders per day on your first day.
Orders coming in are checked for consistency men dispatched to your manufacturing plant for production quality control packaging shipment and payment processing If the product does not meet the quality standards at any stage of the process employees may force the process to repeat a step Customers are notified via email about order status and any critical issues with their orders such as payment failure.
How can you implement the order fulfillment process while making sure that the emails are delivered reliably?
Add a business process management application to your Elastic Beanstalk app servers and re-use the ROS database for tracking order status use one of the Elastic Beanstalk instances to send emails to customers. Use SES to send emails to customers.
Answer: C Question: 22 You have deployed a web application targeting a global audience across multiple AWS Regions under the domain name. You decide to use Route53 Latency-Based Routing to serve web requests to users from the region closest to the user. To provide business continuity in the event of server downtime you configure weighted record sets associated with two web servers in separate Availability Zones per region.
Dunning a DR test you notice that when you disable all web servers in one of the regions Route53 does not automatically direct all users to the other region. What could be happening? Latency resource record sets cannot be used in combination with weighted resource record sets. You did not setup an HTTP health check tor one or more of the weighted resource record sets associated with me disabled web servers.
The value of the weight associated with the latency alias resource record set in the region with the disabled servers is higher than the weight for the other region. One of the two working web servers in the other region did not pass its HTTP health check. You did not set "Evaluate Target Health" to "Yes" on the latency alias resource record set associated with example com in the region where you disabled the servers. For example, you might use latency alias resource record sets to select a region close to a user and use weighted resource record sets for two or more resources within each region to protect against the failure of a single endpoint or an Availability Zone.
The following diagram shows this configuration. You create the latency alias resource record sets after you create resource record sets for the individual Amazon EC2 instances. Within each region, you have two Amazon EC2 instances. You create a weighted resource record set for each instance. The name and the type are the same for both of the weighted resource record sets in each region. When you have multiple resources in a region, you can create weighted or failover resource record sets for your resources.
You can also create even more complex configurations by creating weighted alias or failover alias resource record sets that, in turn, refer to multiple resources. Each weighted resource record set has an associated health check. The IP address for each health check matches the IP address for the corresponding resource record set.
This isn't required, but it's the most common configuration. For both latency alias resource record sets, you set the value of Evaluate Target Health to Yes.
That resource record set also is unhealthy. You can associate a health check with an alias resource record set instead of or in addition to setting the value of Evaluate Target Health to Yes.There are various mock test packages available in the market. In the app's code, Adele calls the sign-in interface for the IdP that she configured previously. Historical data is periodically archived to files. You can use this to delay the time for starting a process.
In addition, DynamoDB uses a key-value access pattern similar to ElastiCache, which also simplifies the programming model.
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